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PROJECT REPORT ON Real Time Mobile Strength Measurement and Paper

Words: 2093, Paragraphs: 170, Pages: 7

Paper type: Report , Subject: Mobile Phones

PROJECT REPORT

ON

Real Time Mobile Strength Measurement and Analysis

Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Faculty of Electrical and Electronics & Communication Engineering

DIT University

April 2019

DECLARATION

I sincerely declare that:

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1. I am the sole writer of this report.

2. The details of project and experience contain in this report describe my involvement as a student in the field of Electronics & Communication Engineering.

3. All the information contain in this report is certain and correct to the knowledge of the author.

SIGNATURE

Mr. Dhruva Chaudhary

(PROJECT GUIDE)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, praises and thanks to the God, the Almighty, for His showers of blessings throughout my work to complete the training successfully.

We would like to express our deep and sincere gratitude to our guide, Mr. Dhruva Chaudhary, for giving me the opportunity to do research and providing invaluable guidance throughout the project. His dynamism, vision, sincerity and motivation have deeply inspired me. He has taught me the methodology to carry out the research and to present the research works as clearly as possible. It was a great privilege and honour to work and study under his guidance. I am extremely grateful for what he has offered me. I would also like to thank him for his empathy, and great sense of humour.

Finally, my thanks go to all the people who have supported me to complete the project and research work directly or indirectly.

ABSTRACT

Cellular network/telephony is a radio-based technology; radio waves are electromagnetic waves that antennas propagate. Most signals are in the 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 1900 MHz frequency bands.

In order to use the rf wireless technology proper planning, implementation and optimization is required.

So, we used TEMS software as a media to optimize and evaluate the rf wireless networks with its different parameters.

In cellular system propagation models designed for the specific areas or terrain. When these models used in different environment, efficiency of the models is suffered. This change in efficiency affects coverage, capacity and Quality of Service (QoS) of cellular mobile network.

Drive testing is method of measuring and assessing the QoS of mobile network.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents

INTRODUCTION 6

DRIVE TESTING 7

EQUIPMENT USED IN DRIVE TEST 8

MOBILE RADIO NETWORK DESIGNING 9

METHOD FOR DRIVE TEST 10

PROPAGATION MECHANISMS 12

RESULTS 13

1. DRIVE TEST FOR SOUTH DELHI EXTENSION, CHHATARPUR 13

2. DRIVE TEST FOR JAMALPUR, LUDHIANA 16

CONCLUSION 19

REFERENCES 20

INTRODUCTION

Ascom TEMS has been involved in the first successful commercial deployments of new mobile technologies for over 20 years, from 2G to LTE, and now LTE Advanced, performing network tests as subscribers will perceive it.

The TEMS portfolio enables consistency across testing, monitoring, analysis and competitive benchmarking requirements, over the complete lifecycle of rollout and optimization.

Company’s solutions include 2G,3G & 4G telecom network solutions, Network deployment, integration, Performance, RF optimization and Drive testing, Value added services, Next generation networks, new technologies and Telecom education. Our experienced engineers make sure that you get the best possible solutions.

The main challenge is to secure a smooth VoLTE network build out, transitioning voice service without subscriber or revenue impact and maintain target KPIs for voice quality, accessibility, and retainability

This report will consider typical classification of signals using log files of different networks.

These data will further be used to improvise the mobile radio network.

DRIVE TESTING

RF Drive Testing is the process of doing X-Ray of the network so as to find the functioning of the antennas whether antenna is working properly or not i.e. to check the signal level, signal quality of particular antenna so that if there is any problem in the network than it can be optimized and software use for doing Drive Testing is TEMS software commonly used by different Telecom companies

TEMS Investigation – the industry-leading tool for troubleshooting, verification, optimization, and maintenance of wireless networks. Offering data collection, real-time analysis, and post-processing all in one, TEMS Investigation is a complete solution for all of a network operator’s daily network optimization tasks. This complete solution eliminates the need for multiple tools, reducing costs and saving time and effort for operations staff.

? It is a method that is adopted to optimize the network

? Once the network is rolled out, base down network planning prediction tool. The nature of the network hardly resembles with the predictions.

? So, the task of the operator is to bring back the network as close as possible towards the prediction through the systematic process of collecting the air interface data from the built network by recording the status of the existing network.

? The collected data is then processed offline to study the deviation from prediction. As per 1the interpretation of this configuration changes are made in the network.

? Then further drive test is performed to record the modified status.

? After few changes when our network is brought very near to the predicted values, we call this condition as the optimized network

? A study of signal coverage has been performed and data collected from TEMS is used to optimize the network and improvise the key performance index. Also, it was observed that best key performance index is received signal level.

EQUIPMENT USED IN DRIVE TEST

A conventional drive-test system is comprised of a Test mobile phone, software to control and log data from the phone and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for position information.

i TEMS Handset (complete with Charger, Headset, Data cable) and USB Hub

ii Laptop (installed TEMS Investigation) and Adapter

iii GPS (Ext Antenna and Data Cable)

iv Inverter and Terminal

v Scanner for GSM (Ext Antenna GPS and RF, Data Cable)

vi Battery and Charger

MOBILE RADIO NETWORK DESIGNING

1. CELLS:

Cells are the pillars of mobile radio network and accordingly divide a network covered area into hexagonal regions. Base stations are deployed in these cells to serve these regions in an efficient way. Two base stations located nearby are not operated at the same frequencies in order to avoid interference. Minimum frequency reuse distance is computed and maintained to avoid the channel interference.

Signal conditions of the neighbouring cells are also monitored in order to perform handoffs. Cells can be of micro, macro, Pico cell type according to their need in order to maximize the quality of service.

2. PATH LOSS:

A signal traversing from base station to receiver spreads on its way and loses strength which results in decrease of signal power and is distance dependent.

This is path loss and can be expressed as

PL=A+B*log(d)

o A and B are constants depending on network parameters

o D is distance in km

o PL is path loss

METHOD FOR DRIVE TEST

Source of data available is TEMS log file which is the record of site surveys.log file holds measurement of network performances i.e. manually collected data from the site.

The log file used were collected in the central part of south Delhi where the signal conditions were reasonably good. The second test was done at Jamalpur, Ludhiana where the signal conditions were fair. These data were used to test constructed models.

Testing log files obviously not provide validation, but it should give a measure of how likely these models are efficient and valid. Also, unrealistic data would indicate that model is unreliable.

VARIABLES:

• Receiving level – Receiving level consider strength of the signal at receiver. Receiving level measure in db. Range of the receiving level is -30dB to -110dB.

• Quality of voice- Quality of voice at receiving level measure be bit error rate (BER). Range of Rx Qual is 0 to 7.

• Frame erasure rate- Frame Erasure Rate represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of noncorrected bit errors in the frame. FER indicate the quality in network.

• Bit error rate- It is the ratio of number of bits errors to the total number of bit transmitted in a given time interval. It measures the voice quality in network. BER depend on Rx Qual. BER useful and countable up to 12.8% which corresponds to Rx Qual of maximum 7.

• SQI- SQI is best criterion to use for optimizing the speech quality in network. SQI dedicated to reflecting the quality of speech (as opposed to radio environment conditions). SQI is updated at 0.5 second intervals. It is computed on the basis of FER and BER.

• C/I- It is the ratio of signal strength of the current serving cell and the signal strength of undesired signal components. It should be at least greater than 9.

• ARFCN-Absolute radio frequency channel number. It is used to calculate exact frequency of radio channel. Within the GSM 900 band ARFCN should be between 1 to 124. A multiband mobile phone will interrupt ARFCN numbers 512 to 810 as either GSM 1800 or GSM 1900 frequencies. Mobile phones need an additional parameter band indicator to make the correct interpretation.

• Cell ID- It is a unique number used to identify each base trans receiver station or a sector of BTS within a location area code.

PROPAGATION MECHANISMS

1. REFLECTION: reflection occurs when the signal is incidence on the buildings or ground floor and gets reflected. Reflection is related to the multipath propagation.

2. SCATTERING: scattering occurs when the signal is incidence on the objects or clutters. In scattering the size of the object is less than the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

3. DIFFRACTION: diffraction when the signal is incidence on the sharp edges of the building. In diffraction the size of the object is grater then the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

RESULTS

1. DRIVE TEST FOR SOUTH DELHI EXTENSION, CHHATARPUR

1.1 PARAMETERS FOR SIGNAL RECEIVED FOR INDOOR PROPAGATION:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-Neighbour RxLev All-RxLev Full SQI

85760575 Internal

20013

MPH Measurement Report

70 29 38 30

85750375

Internal 20011 MPH Measurement Report

70 30 36 29

85750136

Internal

20011

PH Block Report DL

70 34 38 29

85748206

Internal

20011

PH Block Report UL

70 37 39 30

1.2 PARAMETERS OF SIGNALS RECEIVED FOR OUTDOOR PROPAGATION:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-Neighbour RxLev All-RxLev Full SQI

85810668

UL 20293

Measurement Report

70 12 28 27

85810778

DL 20293

Measurement Information

70 12 28 27

85812588

UL 20293

Measurement Report

70 13 28 29

1.3 PARAMETERS OF SIGNALS WHILE TRAVERSING TOWARDS BTS:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-Neighbour RxLev All-RxLev Full SQI

85738376

Internal

20011

PH Block Report DL

70 61 54 30

85741735

UL 20011

Measurement Report

70 46 51 30

85817303

UL 20212

Measurement Report

70 15 35 24

85818983

UL 20212

Measurement Report

70 13 34 29

PARAMETERS OF SIGNAL RECEIVED DURING NORMAL HOURS:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-Neighbour RxLev All-RxLev Full SQI

85720629

UL 20012

Measurement Report

70 21 45 27

85720749

UL 20012 Measurement Report

70 23 47 29

85720869

UL 20012

Measurement Report

70 21 43 27

1.4 PARAMETERS OF SIGNAL RECEIVED DURING PEAK HOURS:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-Neighbour RxLev All-RxLev Full SQI

85814543 UL 20121 Measurement Report

71 19 30 14

85813744

UL 20212 Measurement Report

70 17 32 10

85813635 DL 20632 Physical Information 70 15 32 10

2. DRIVE TEST FOR JAMALPUR, LUDHIANA

2.1 PARAMETERS OF SIGNALLS RECEIVED FOR INDOOR PROPAGATION:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-RxLev Full SQI

81593381

DL 20701 Synch Channel Information

70 54 27

81593104

UL 20701 Measurement Report

70 49 27

81582095

DL 20071

Measurement Information

70 47 30

81522564

UL 20542

Measurement Report

70 47 28

2.2 PARAMETERS OF SIGNALS RECEIVED FOR OUTDOOR PROPAGATION:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-RxLev Full SQI

81694314

UL 20113

Measurement Report

70 33 30

81694194

UL 20113

Measurement Report

70 31 29

81693594

UL 20113 Measurement Report

70 34 30

81641890

DL 20481 Measurement Information

70 29 30

2.3 PARAMETERS OF SIGNALS RECEIVED WHILE TRAVERSING TOWARDS BTS:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-RxLev Full SQI

81582586

UL 20071

Measurement Report

70 60 30

81589295

DL 20071 Measurement Information

70 41 29

81616820

UL 20481

Measurement Report

70 38 27

81641890

DL 20481 Measurement Information

70 29 30

2.4 PARAMETERS OF SIGNAL RECEIVED DURING NORMAL HOURS:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-RxLev Full SQI

81541831

UL 20073

Measurement Report

70 51 30

81542071

UL 20073 Measurement Report

70 49 29

81594664

UL 20701 Measurement Report

70 53 27

81615128

DL 20702 Measurement Information

70 41 26

2.5 PARAMETERS OF SIGNALS RECEIVED DURING PEAK HOURS:

Frame Number Direction All-Cell ID Message Type All-Neighbour ARFCN All-RxLev Full SQI

81764727

DL 20111

System Information Type 5

70 37 18

81784478

Internal

20112 MPH Measurement Report

70 32 15

81850777

UL

20461 Measurement Report

70 33 13

81858968

Internal

20462

MPH Measurement Report

70 27 10

CONCLUSION

After performing the drive test, I concluded that for smooth functioning of RF mobile wireless communication regular drive testing is required. I performed the drive test at Delhi and Chand?garh using TEMS and Rx level was the basic parameter for comparative analysis. It was observed that while communicating indoor Rx level was low as compared to outdoor propagation. Also, the Rx level increased as the mobile receiver went towards the transmitting antenna. During the peak hours though the Rx level was good but due to huge number of users the signal quality index decreased. SQI depends on the bit error rate, frame error rate and S/I value.

REFERENCES

• J. McNair & F. Zhu, June (2004) “Vertical Handoffs in Fourth-generation Multi-network Environments”, IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp 8–15.

• Rappaport by Helen. F Rappaport

• eceebooks4u.blogspot.com/p/ece-text-books.html

•

• S. G. Glisic, Advanced Wireless Networks: 4G Technologies, Wiley, 2005.

• IEEE 802.16-2004, “Local and Metropolitan Networks —Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems,” 2004.

• Qing-An Zeng & Dharma P. Agrawal, (2002) “Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile

• Computing”, John Wiley & Sons Publishers

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