Essays on Chemistry

The Ozone Hole Above the Antarctic Over the South Pole
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The ozone hole, is technically not a ‘hole’, meaning that there is no ozone present. This hole is actually a region of great depletion of ozone present in the stratosphere. The ozone hole above the Antarctic over the south pole, and appears every spring since the 1980’s. There has also been a depletion of ozone in the stratosphere in both hemispheres of the Earth too (EPA, 2018). Ozone is naturally created in the stratosphere when oxygen (O2) get broken up…...
Air PollutionChemistryEnvironmentEnvironment PollutionNatural EnvironmentOil Spill
Application Bacteriology in Forensic Science Using Animal Model
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Over the past century of scientific inquiry into the process of decomposition, nearly every mammal (and other taxa) has been studied. Forensic microbiologists are developing new applications to investigate the dynamic and coordinated changes in microbial activity that occur when a human host dies. There is currently a paucity of explorations of the thanatomicrobiome (thanatos-, Greek for death) and epinecrotic communities (microbial communities residing in and/or moving on the surface of decomposing remains). Ongoing studies can help clarify the structure…...
Electromagnetic Radiation Is a Form of Energy That Is Always Around Us
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What is mostly invisible to the bare eye, makes little sound, has no taste and is always present in our lives, but has the ability to kill all the people on earth? Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that is always around us and in different types. There are radio waves, which are the longest and are used to transmit data ex. Satellites. Microwaves are another example of EM rays, microwaves are used to cook food and for communication.…...
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The Biodiesel Companies Using This Specification for Upcoming Product Testing
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The microscopic cracking wont affect the increased damage on the notch. Therefore, the minor cracking length is larger when compared to the axis surface. The consequences of the specimen notch will be greater than the axis surface. Mostly the cracks which appeared on the notches of the grain boundaries and they will usually occurs on the basis of the notch strains. There are more than 10,000 industrial standards of Astm are consuming worldwide to develop the good product to satisfy…...
Filtrating Dust Particles From Smoke
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Introduction Our experiment will indicate whether common household items that we have chosen is effective in filtrating dust particles from smoke and can be used as a cheaper alternative to get rid of dust in smoke which is present in a common example of air pollution in Singapore, haze. Our hypothesis is that the light intensity measured through the bottle will be the most when activated carbon is used to filter the dust particles from the smoke. This is one…...
AddictionAir PollutionChemistryExperimentLightSmoking
Many People Like to Consume Smoked Foods
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Today many people like to consume smoked foods. However, the traditional fumigation process with direct contact with smoke can trigger the presence of carcinogenic compounds because traditional smoking can cause air pollution because during the combustion process it produces emissions of poly-hydrocarbons which we know are very dangerous and can causing cancer. Therefore, now with technological advances new alternatives have emerged for processing fishery products using liquid smoke that is safer for health. Tuna fish is popular with the community…...
An Internship in Indian Institute of Science Education and Research
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Since, I was a child chemical reactions and the magical colors they produced fascinated me to know the actual reason behind the process. When in the 9th grade I was introduced to the subject of chemistry, I was instantly attracted towards it and its contribution for the benefit of mankind in the field of pharmaceuticals, fertilisers etc. My interest towards chemistry from 11th class onwards gradually increased manifold as I gathered deeper knowledge of the subject. As the syllabus increased,…...
Advantages Disadvantages Geothermal Energy Points
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Small land footprint Geothermal power plants are the smallest land footprint of any major energy source. They can provide base capacity or top power. It is also cost-competitive in some areas. Accessibility Pros In most of the places, some level of geothermal energy is available. Benefits of Renewable Geothermal energy is extracted from the core of the earth and will be obtainable as long as the world exists. It is therefore easily renewable and can be used for unevenly another…...
Carbon DioxideChemistryEnergyEnergy SourcesNatural Environment
Advantages Disadvantages Nuclear Energy
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Nuclear energy signifies only 15% of the electric power produced worldwide. However, in France, 80% of its electric power manufacture is from nuclear and more than 1/4th of electricity power in Europe originates from energy. Nuclear energy signifies a very small fraction of many countries’ entire electricity power production, but this fraction is likely to go up in the upcoming years. Nuclear power is produced using Uranium, an inorganic material of which one of the elements, U- 234 is unstable.…...
ChemistryEnergyNuclear EnergyNuclear Power
FYP follow Template
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Department of Applied PhysicsFinal Year Project ReportLED reliability and failure analysisStudent Name: Lui Ming YeungStudent Number: 17021178DProgramme code: 11439-OPT2018 – 2019AbstractAcknowledgementI would like to express my gratitude to the support of the Department of Applied Physics,The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, especially my supervisor Professor Dai.Professor Dai has been very supportive throughout my final year project. He never stops teaching me knowledge about LED, practically or theoretically. The insightful instruction always benefits my project. Assistance provided by Dennis and Mr Lam…...
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
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Introduction Anhydrous caffeine is found as a white crystalline powder or white crystals, in water it is sparingly soluble but becomes freely soluble when the water is boiling (, 2019). Caffeine is an alkaloid xanthine derivative (Tarnopolsky, 2010) that acts as a psychostimulant and mild diuretic to humans and animals and is found within the beans, leaves and fruit of more than 60 plants, (Institute of Medicine (U. S.) et al., 2014), it is mostly consumed by humans as coffee…...
lab report 9
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Vi TranExperiment 9: Structure of solids. Inter-atomic distance from Bragg reflection and from theorySeptember 22th, 2019TA: Aleksander PikalovAbstractIn this experiment, two procedures were performed. First, ab-initio strategies were utilized to get structural parameters of NaCl. additionally, the second a part of the experiment concerned utilizing Bragg’s law of reflection to work out the ionic radii of atoms within the NaCl lattice victimization diffraction (XRD). it absolutely was all over that the optimized NaCl structure obtained a bond distance of 2.82A…...
Hydrogen peroxide is the end product LAmino oxidase [EC 1432] a flavo
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Hydrogen peroxide is the end product L-Amino oxidase [EC], a flavo enzyme of cobra snake venom (Shine Yee Fung, 2018). It stereospecifically does oxidative deamination of L- amino acid to corresponding ?-keto acids, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Cholesterol oxidase [EC] is produced by bacteria. Mycobacterium (Brzostek A, 2007), Brevibacterium (Uwajima T, 1973), Streptomyces (Tomioka H, 1976), Corynebacterium (Shirokane YNK, 1977), Arthrobacter (Chen YR, 2006), Pseudomonas (Lee S, 1989 ), Rhodococcus (Yazdi MT, 2008), and Bacillus ( CH, 2002…...
BacteriaBiologyCell BiologyChemistryEnzymeOrganic Compounds
Conversely subsurface systems are often characterized by a high
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Conversely, subsurface systems are often characterized by a high buffer capacity with pH range usually close to neutral values (e.g., pH 6–8), making the acidification of the system quite complicated (Petri et al. 2011). To overcome this issue, soluble ligands, such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), oxalic acid and sodium pyrophosphate, were considered for their capacity to keep the iron in solution as an organo-metallic complex at near-neutral pH ranges (Gan et al.…...
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In order to maintain higher health standards in human welfare to prevent infection caused by microorganisms used antibiotics as a drug, not only human welfare, but also used in production of livestock as poultry farms and aquaculture to prevent diseases and their promote growth (Kummerer, 2009; Berglund 2005). Moreover relieve infection by action of antibiotics uncreatian quantities remain, but have limited metabolism simantlously accumulated in soil and water trough excretion. Very long back antibiotic detected in surface water, but still…...
Solar energy projects
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Chapter 1 Introduction1.1 IntroductionDuring the 21st century, the lifestyle of many societies has changed and the demand for energyhas increased rapidly and the consumption of energy wills strong increase along the next decades asa result of the improvement on living conditions in emerging economies like Egypt. Solar energy canbe defined as the energy formed from the Sun's radiation. This energy comes in two forms, light andheat. Since solar energy reaches from the sun it is considered a renewable source of…...
Apa DepressionChemistryDepressionMental HealthPhysicsSolar Energy
Molecular imprinting technique
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More than quarter of century ago Molecular imprinting technique (MIT) was first presented by Wulff in 1970s is a promising approach to identification specifically target. Actually, molecularly imprinting is the technology, in which artificial recognition sites for target analytes that synthesized by polymerizing of functional monomers and cross-linker around a template molecule. In recent years, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) because of its superiorities such as desirable chemical and thermal stability, high adsorption capacity, effectively detection of specific molecules, excellent reusability,…...
OCH 204 Proposal
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-298450050203100ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF BHUTANSHERUBTSE COLLEGEKANGLUNG: BHUTANName: Yeshi Phuntsho Enrolment No: 07170491Programme: B.Sc. ChemistrySemester: V Module: BCH 301Assignment No: 1Due date: 18/09/2019 Submission date: 18/09/2019Submitted to: Mr. Tshewang DhendupI have read and understood the definition of academic dishonesty as given in the Wheel of Academic Law, RUB, which is reproduced on the backside of this cover page. I hereby declare that this assignment is written in my own words and the reading materials referred in the text have been duly acknowledged.…...
BiologyBreast CancerChemistryDiseaseHealthNutrition
Snails are widely used as environmental monitors for pesticides
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Snails are widely used as environmental monitors for pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs, glyphosate, glufosinate and heavy metals. Various snail species have been studied, such as Indothais gradata (Proum et al., 2016), Papillifera papillaris (Emilia et al., 2016), Helix aspersa (Abdel-Halim et al., 2013 ; Viard et al., 2004), Pomacea canaliculata (Dummee et al., 2012 ; Ramli et al., 2019 ; Wu et al., 2019), Achatina fulica (Cho et al., 2019) and Cantareus apertus (Mleiki et al., 2016). Among these…...
BiologyChemistryCopperEcologyEnvironmental SciencePollution
GENERALPeptidyl transhydrolase is an enzyme EC 31129 which
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GENERALPeptidyl trans-hydrolase is an enzyme (E.C which hydrolysis the ester bond in the middle of peptide and nucleotide of peptidyl-tRNA produced throughout the abortive translation, which happens about 10% of the time (Kurland and Ehvenberg, 1985; Bonin, et al., 2002). Peptidyl-tRNA also transpire because of expression of ORFs (Cruz-Vera, et al., 2003; Hernandez-Sanchez, et al., 1998; Tenson, et al., 1999) and macrolide action (Menninger and Coleman, 1993). Pth hydrolyses the ester bond betwixt the hydroxyl group at 2?- and…...
BacteriaBiologyBiotechnologyCell BiologyChemistryGenetics
Abstract—Growth of population increasing urbanization and
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Abstract—Growth of population, increasing urbanization and rising standards of living have contributed to increase in the quantity of variety of wastes generated by industrial, mining, domestic and agricultural activities. Disposal of these wastes is usually a main problem. Wastes including eggshells and banana peels once used and dumped, can accumulate without decomposing resulting inblocking of water channels, reduction of soil fertility by preventing moisture penetration into the soils and wide spread of diseases like malaria and cholera. Challenges associated with…...
Calcium CarbonateChemistryDiseaseMalariaManufacturingMaterials
CHAPTER 2 Example
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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionThis chapter will explain the previous studies related to the mathematical methods used to determine temperature distribution in packaged foods using software for heat penetration studies. The understanding of theoretical aspects is important before progressing to the design and calculation process. It will focus on the background of the study, problem statement, methodology, result and conclusion that have been used in the previous researches. All these findings could be used to analyze the problems faced and develop…...
AllergyChemistryHeatManagementPhysicsPlastic Waste Management
Using rice husk ash for production of bricks
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Utilization and effect of using rice husk ash for production of bricks Abhipsa Guru ?,Professor Mohibullah ? Department of Civi lEngineering ,KIIT Deemed to be University,KIIT Road,Patia,Bhubaneswar 751024 Department of Civil Engineering,KIIT Deemed to be University,KIIT Road,Patia,Bhubaneswar 751024,[email protected] Keywords: Rice husk ash ,Bricks ,Compressive strength ,flexural strength,durability Abstract: There is increasing demand for producing durable construction material.Rice husk ash(RHA) is aby product formed due to burning of rice husk.Due to its high pozzolanic action the strength and durability of concrete…...
Calcium CarbonateChemistryDensityManufacturingMaterialsRice
Methods for detection of sulfites
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Literature review There are many methods for detection of sulfites and Its important to asses one method and know its importance. Two liquid chromatographic frameworks were utilized. Although the two frameworks had an UV6000 diode cluster locator with a 50 mm light way and an AS 3000 auto sampler. Moreover the framework with the Fast Acid section utilized a Dionex GPM-2 slope siphon at a stream rate of 1.0 mL/min. Additionally the framework with the HPX-87H section utilized a ThermoQuest…...
Imaging by UV Fluorescence
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Imaging by Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescenceSince the UV radiation has a short wavelengths than the visible light, so by using a UV-fluorescence, it is possible to identify multiple paint layers. Previous practical applications showed that the UV imaging is advantageous in detecting any retouching, varnishes, successive over-paintings and old restorations (Rizzutto et al., 2015). In fact, pigments usually show characteristic fluorescent hues when impacted to a UV light. For example, minium (Pb2O5) = orange fluorescence, while azurite = deep blue fluorescence,…...
Lab 2 RecrystallizationChem 223 Organic Chemistry I
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Lab 2: RecrystallizationChem 223: Organic Chemistry I LabJulia Vinagolu-Baur6/6/195. INTRODUCTION:Recrystallization is an effective means of purifying a solid substance. In essence, a compound and its impurities are dissolved with a solvent, in this case water, and then the impurities or the pure substance can be “isolated” from the solution. In this case, the pure substance was isolated and crystallized back into a solid. It is crucial to use a proper solvent, usually determined by trial and error. As the laboratory…...
Polymers have always been considered as being very good insulators
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Polymers have always been considered as being very good insulators of electricity. However around thirty years ago no one would have believed that polymers have the potential to conduct just as well as metals. But since then such accomplishments have been achieved through simple modifications of organic conjugated polymers. These new polymers are called electrically conducting polymers or ‘synthetic metals’, they combine the electrical properties of metals with the array of advantages that polymers possess. These advantages include lighter weight,…...
21 Sodium NitriteNaNO2 is an inorganic yellowish white
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2.1 Sodium NitriteNaNO2 is an inorganic yellowish white crystal compound composed of sodium,nitrogen and oxygen atoms with a total of molecular weight of 68.995g/mol.It is a basic compound with a pH of 9 with melting and boiling point of 271OC and 320OC respectively(A.Young, 2008) and it is highly soluble in water (Parthasarathy & Bryan, 2012).NaNO2 replaced the old ways of preserving meet and poultry products such as the use of potasium nitrate (KNO3) and use of smokes to control spoilage…...
BiologyCell BiologyChemistry
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DESIGNING STRUCTURES WITCH NEW SELF-HEALING MATERIALSThomas J Henderson3rd Year MEng Civil EngineeringStudent ID: 1534812Cardiff UniversityProject Supervisor: Tony JeffersonAbstract:DeclarationI hereby declare:that except where reference has clearly been made to work by others, all the work presented in this report is my own work;that it has not previously been submitted for assessment; andthat I have not knowingly allowed any of it to be copied by another student.I understand that deceiving or attempting to deceive examiners by passing off the work of another…...
ChemistryCivil EngineeringConstructionEngineeringMaterialsStructural Engineering
dietary fats assignment
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Essentials of cell biology and chemistry DIETARY FATS Anahera Haami 20190007472019000747 1Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 2T RIGLYCERIDE DIAGRAM ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 3DIFFERENCE IN CHEMICAL STRUCTURE B ETWEEN SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FATS .............................. 4S ATURATED FATTY ACID DIAGRAM ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 4U NSATURATED FATTY ACI D DIAGRAM ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 4DIFFERENCE IN STRUCT URE BE TWEEN FATS AND OILS ................................ ................................ .................... 5CHEMICAL STRUCTURE O F FAT RESULTING IN A LACK OF SOLUBILITY…...
internship ncl report new
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STUDENT INTERNSHIP PROGRAM (SIP) REPORTCSIR National Chemical Laboratory, PuneSubmitted ByShreya Anil GonnadeT1850650120160364SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGMIT ACADEMY OF ENGINEERINGALANDI (D), PUNESCHOOL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERINGCERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the “Student Internship Program (SIP)” report submitted by Shreya Anil Gonnade, PRN. No.: 0120160364 and Examination Seat No.: T185065 is work done by her and submitted during 2019 – 2020 academic year.Faculty Mentor School Internship Coordinator(Mr. M. Senthil Kumar) (Mr. Sudhir Gandhi)Coordinator – SIP School Dean(Mr.M. Senthil Kumar) (Mr. M. Senthil Kumar)ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am…...
Objective The purpose of this experimental work was to formulate
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Objective: The purpose of this experimental work was to formulate and optimize nanostructured lipid carriers(NLCs) for hydrophilic drug ceftriaxone sodium, anti meningitis drug, to increase its permeability across the CNS barrier after parental administration.Methods: Box-Behnken design was used to optimise the formulation by considering the three factors at three different levels. The effects of individual variables and interaction of different variables on particle size, entrapment efficiency and zeta potential were studied. The optimized preparation was freeze dried and evaluated.Results :…...
The idea of a selfluminescent stone without any form of
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The idea of a self-luminescent stone without any form of excitation seems like something impossible. However, in 1603 that was what Italian cobbler cum alchemist, Vincenzo Casciarolo had encountered. He had found greyish bright and unusually heavy stones from the countryside around Bologna, Italy. After heating the stones in the air (this process is known as calcination), they had become fluorescent in the dark. Not only was the fluorescence astonishing, but it was also persistent (for years!). This was one…...
FOOD 398 – Research EssayAntimicrobial and Emulsifying Potential
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FOOD 398 – Research EssayAntimicrobial and Emulsifying Potential of LegumesYaying Luo – 1131815Due Date: 20th October 2019?1. IntroductionLegume is the fruit and grain seed of Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) family (Pina-P?rez and Ferr?s P?rez, 2019) which includes approximately 18000 species (Allaire and Brady, 2008). Moreover, legume provides high quality protein, fiber, and fat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where legume plays essential role in their diet (Odendo et al., 2011).Proteins can be classified based on solubility, physiological role, and structure (Oomah…...
BacteriaBiologyCell MembraneChemistryFood
Quality characteristics of groundwater The summary
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Quality characteristics of groundwaterThe summary results of groundwater of our study are shown in Table 1. The water temperature ranged from 22.5-27.1 °C during the study period. The pH of water varied from 6.4-8.0 and indicated that the waters were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (Table 1). The COD of the study water ranged from 1.2-3.9 mgO2/L. The alkalinity and hardness values varied from 12-81 mg/L and 40-226 mg/L, respectively. We found significant variability in EC values, with the values…...
Unknown Organism
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Unknown OrganismEnterobacter AerogenesJaya AttaluriBIOL 2420-41101Professor Danita Bradshaw-WardNovember 3, 2019Eastfield CollegeIntroductionPresent general information about microorganisms. Include nutrition requirements, pH, etc. You should also include general information about metabolism and the purpose of conducting biochemical tests. You should also provide a brief introduction of your organism.Microorganisms are microscopic organisms that cannot be seen without the aid of a microscopic. Some examples would be bacteria, viruses, or fungus. Different microorganisms have a wide variety of requirements when it comes to their environments. Each…...
Anaerobic RespirationBiologyCellular RespirationChemistryDiseaseHealth
Salivary Digestion Lab Report
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This sample essay on Salivary Digestion Lab Report reveals arguments and important aspects of this topic. Read this essay's introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion below.These large molecules cannot cross last membranes intact to be absorbed from the lumen of the digestive tract into the blood or lymph; hence, it must undergo degradation in size (Sherwood, 2013). This degradation process is catcalled by hydrolysis enzymes, which split large molecules into smaller, observable units by combining with water. (Similarity, 2013) The…...
BiologyCancerCell BiologyChemistryDigestive SystemDisease
H12o6 Water
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The following academic paper highlights the up-to-date issues and questions of H12o6 Water. This sample provides just some ideas on how this topic can be analyzed and discussed. Photosynthesis is a process in which green plants use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. This is the basic energy source for virtually all organisms. A by-product of this process is oxygen on which all organisms depend. In the leaves and the green stems of plants…...
BiologyChemistryNaturePhotosynthesisWaterWater Analysis
Two Factors Affect The Viscosity Of Magma
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The essay sample on Two Factors Affect The Viscosity Of Magma dwells on its problems, providing shortened but comprehensive overview of basic facts and arguments related to it. To read the essay, scroll down.Magma is molten material beneath or within the earth’s crust, from which igneous rock is formed. Magma can only be in places that are hot enough to melt rocks. When magma is formed it rises to the surface through the earth’s crust. When magma reaches the earth’s…...
Effect Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity Experiment
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The essay sample on Effect Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity Experiment dwells on its problems, providing shortened but comprehensive overview of basic facts and arguments related to it. To read the essay, scroll down.The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of temperature on the rate that enzymes work. The purpose was to determine whether increasing the temp made the enzymes more active, and if so, at what temperature does the activity start to decline. The experiment consisted…...
Biological SciencesChemical ReactionChemistryEnzymeMaterials
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FAQ about Chemistry

GENERALPeptidyl transhydrolase is an enzyme EC 31129 which
...To design an antibiotic against pth , the structural details of Pth from various pathogenic bacterial strains are required. Earlier, crystal structures of Pth enzymes were known only from a few bacterial species. These included structures of Peptidyl...
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