Essays on Chemistry

Free essays on chemistry are educational resources that allow individuals to learn more about the science of chemistry at no cost. These essays cover a wide range of topics, from basic concepts in chemistry to more complex scientific theories and experiments. They provide insights into the chemical properties of various elements and compounds, the history of chemistry and its contributions to society, and the latest developments in this field. By reading these essays, students can deepen their understanding of chemistry and gain valuable knowledge that can help them in their academic and professional pursuits.
IGCSE Coordinated Science: Consequences of Energy Transfer
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IGCSE Coordinated Science: Consequences of Energy Transfer Identify and explain some of the everyday applications and consequences of conduction, convection, and radiation: In our everyday environment, conduction, convection, and radiation are constantly taking place. They have many applications and can be very useful. Some examples include: When we heat up pots and pans, the thermal energy is transferred through conduction. Air conditioners use convection currents to cool the indoor environment. When heating up water, the heat is applied from below,…...
IGCSE Coordinated Science:Identification of Ion and Gases
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IGCSE Coordinated Science: Identification of Ions and Gases Use the following tests to identify aqueous cations: Ammonium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III), and zinc by means of aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate. Ammonium (NH4+): Add dilute sodium hydroxide, then heat gently. If the cation is present, damp red litmus paper turns blue and ammonia gas is released. Copper (II): Add dilute sodium hydroxide or ammonia solution. If the cation is present, a pale blue precipitate forms. However, as you…...
IGCSE Coordinated Science: Chromosomes and Genes
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IGCSE Coordinated Science: Chromosomes and Genes Define inheritance: Genetic information that is passed down from one generation to another. Define the terms: Chromosome: A thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes. Gene: A length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation. Allele: Any of two or more alternative forms of a gene. Define the terms: Haploid nucleus: A…...
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IGCSE Coordinated Science: Carbonates
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IGCSE Coordinated Science: Carbonates Carbonates: Describe the manufacture of lime (calcium oxide) from calcium carbonate (limestone) in terms of the chemical reactions involved, and its uses in treating acidic soil and neutralizing industrial waste products. Carbonates are “salts” of Carbonic Acids (H2CO3). A particularly significant carbonic acid is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Uses of Calcium Carbonate: Helping extraction of iron from its ore. Manufacture of cement. Manufacture of Lime: One industrial use of Calcium Carbonate is that it can be used…...
IB Chemistry: The Atom
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IB Chemistry: The Atom 2.1 Atom 2.1.1 State the position of protons, neutrons and electrons in the atom Proton: Inside the nucleus Neutron: Inside the nucleus Electron: Orbiting the nucleus. However, do note that the distance that the electron orbits the proton is VERY large. Visuzalize yourself where you are and pretend you are a proton. The electron will be two blocks away from you. 2.1.2 State the relative masses and relative charges of protons, neutrons and electrons. 2.1.3 Define…...
IB Chemistry: Entropy
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IB Chemistry: Entropy Entropy Introduction Entropy (S) is considered to be the amount of disorder in a system. It is an important concept in thermodynamics, which will be studied both in IB Chemistry and IB Physics. However, it isn’t a very difficult topic and can easily be mastered with some revision. State and explain the factors that increase the entropy in a system Changes of state: When the product changes from state from solid to liquid and lastly, to gas,…...
IB Chemistry: Physical Properties
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IB Chemistry: Physical Properties Compare and explain the properties of substances resulting from different types of bonding Ionic Bonding Conduct Electricity in liquid state Some are soluble in water. E.g. Sodium Chloride. Some aren’t; e.g. Silver Chloride High Melting Points and Boiling points Simple Covalent Bonding Volatile Low melting and boiling points Giant Covalent High melting point (graphite’s is around 3730 Celsius) High boiling points Insoluble in water (but may react and form ions) Non-polar Solvents Good conductor of electricity.…...
Lab Report on the Enzyme Activity in Relation to Lactose Intolerance
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inside the human body there are many functions that occur too slow within the body to stand alone. that's where enzyme and catalyst come in. The purpose of the enzyme is to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. To do this the substrate is guided to an active site, While in the active site, it is hugged and changed in order to make the enzyme work more efficiently Metabolism is a function in the body that transfers…...
ChemistryLactose IntoleranceMilk
An Overview of Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
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Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease of Caucasians. which causes certain glands to malfunction. In CF mucous glands produce a thick. sticky mucus which interferes with breathing and digestion. Mucus clogs passages in lungs and ain/vays. causing breathing difficulty. chronic coughing, and sometimes heart failure. Mucus also blocks ducts in the pancreas. preventing digestive enzymes from reaching the intestines. and it may also clog the liver and digestive tract. Today about 30.000 people in the United…...
BiologyBiotechnologyChemistryCystic Fibrosis
A Discussion on the Effects of Cystic Fibrosis
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Cystic Fibrosis is characterized by a build-up of thick, sticky mucus that can bring about the onset of progressive damage to the respiratory system and chronic digestive system debilitationst. The abnormal mucus can clog airways, which may lead to respiratory conditions and bacterial infections in the lungs, causing chronic coughing, wheezing, and inflammation. Accumulation of mucus and infectious agents results in permanent lung tissue damage, formation of fibrous scar tissue, and the development of cysts in the lungs. Due to…...
BiologyBiotechnologyChemistryCystic Fibrosis
Effects of Increasing Temperature on Carbon in the Soil
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In Margaret Torn’s research, the main focus is on the effect increases in temperature have on carbon in the soil, Recent increases in temperature have scientists and researchers like Torn wondering if it will have an impact on the amount of carbon retained in soil. WiLh anthropocentric activity is accountable for vast quantities of carbon emissions, it is crucial to examine the increase in temperature with respect to carbon retention in soil. Based on my notes on the panelist presentation,…...
CarbonClimate ChangeNatural EnvironmentNature
The Use of Carbon Dating to Understand the Origin of Man
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Carbon dating is one of the most, if not the most, important techniques employed by anthropologists. Other techniques include comparisons to the pre-existing fossil record, like Darwin employed, and applying forensics to determine possible causes of death. Carbon dating works by measuring the decay a radioactive isotope of carbon - carbon-14f Because carbon-14 is produced by the Earth’s atmosphere via the decay of nitrogen at a relatively constant rate, it is absorbed by all living things as long as they…...
The Medical Research Requirements for Carrying Out Experiments on Humans
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Medical research involving human beings is necessary for elucidation of the physiological or pathological processes in health and disease, ascertaining the response to particular interventions by individuals whether ill or healthy, and determining the effect of preventive and therapeutic measures in communities. The process of carrying out human experimentation has very strict rules and regulations with regards to whether the new treatment is likely to bring better benefits to the patient. In the recent past, there has been an unprecedented…...
AutonomyExperimentMedical ResearchMedicine
An Experiment of Electrolysis and Faraday’s Two Laws
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During the course of my experiment, I shall attempt to prove Faraday is two laws regarding electrolysis correct. I will attempt to keep my experiment accurate within the limits of human error. Faraday's Laws: The mass of a substance produced at an electrode during electrolysis is proportional to the quantity of electricity that has passed. The number of Faradays required to discharge one mole of an ion at an electrode is equal to the number of charges on that ion.…...
Chemistry Goes Green – Jennifer Weeks
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Global warming and climate changing have been the most discussed topics for the past decade. Unprecedented high temperatures as well as the increase in pollution urge the scientists to find a way to fix the problem fasts. Scientists and researchers from many different aspects of science had been working to find out method to save our planet from a doomed faith. In her article "Chemistry: Green and Clean", Jennifer Weeks persuades her audience that green chemists are working to develop…...
ChemistryGreen ChemistryPollution
The Human Genome Project
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The Human Genome Project was first proposed in 1990, to map and sequence human DNA. This grand project was extremely ambitious, aiming to identify almost all 25,000 genes in human DNA, as well as sequence all the base pairs that make up human DNA. It is also a revolutionary piece of scientific advancement that was both costly, in terms of money and time. The first draft of the project was published in 2001, and the finished sequence was published in…...
BiologyChemistryHuman Genome Project
Smallest Average Weight Loss
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There was a little difference (By comparing Mixes 2 and 4, it can be concluded that the addition of agro-based chemicals has improved the ice melting capacity of the deicers. This conclusion comes from the fact that Mix 5 is only made of sodium formate, but Mix 4 is made of sodium formate, and plant extracts. Higher ice melting capacity of Mix 4 demonstrates the positive effect of sugarbeet and dandelion leaves extracts on the ice melting capacity of the…...
ChemistryMaterialsNatureWeight Loss
The Objective and Subjective Aspects of Psychology
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I think that some aspects of psychology are objective while others are subjective Because psychology covers such a wide range of topics, it’s difficult to call the whole science objective or subjective. For example, many psychologists research the brain and what happens when you poke and prod at the different parts of it. That’s pretty straight forward and objective. A brain is a brain is a brain and most people have very similar ones. Many psychologists also use mathematics and…...
The Significance of Chemical Changes in Science
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A chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances, In the following experiment, a solution that begins with copper nitrate II will undergo a series of chemical changes. Examples of evidence for a chemical change include temperature change, color change, precipitate formation, and gas given offl During a change of temperature, a solution is exothermic meaning there is an increase in the speed of molecules. Exothermic is the taking in of energy When a…...
A Personal Mission to Alert Society on Dangerous Foods
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I would start by doing a general internet search about the food item I heard was potentially dangerous. While doing the search I would first look at any recent news articles related to the food to determine if it was potentially dangerous, and I would make sure those news articles were reliable, I would also look to see what research or experiments were done to determine that the food was dangerous. Next I would look to see what other articles…...
The Modern Society and the Teenage Pregnancy
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Many people in today's society believe that the only thing involving teen pregnancy is harsh judgment but in reality there is so much more than that. In the article “Teen Motherhood and Long»Term Health Consequences" the author begins to announce a series of statistics and control group experiments to acquire information pertaining to the mental and physical health of teen mothers as they age compared to other mothers. This article is very strong on it's use of statistics and experiments…...
ExperimentMotherPregnancyTeenage Pregnancy
Chemistry of Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable Polymers
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Introduction The group presented information on their chosen topic, biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, by answering four knowledge questions contributed by each of the group’s members. These knowledge questions became the main concepts discussed in the report. The group arranged the concepts in this manner: introducing the chosen topic by discussing the fundamental concepts of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, presenting the effects of these polymers in the environment, sharing some of the alternative uses of these polymers aside from the current…...
An Interpretation of Girl Before a Mirror, a Painting by Pablo Picasso
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We look into the mirror and it’s not the reflection we see, but what we think we see I admit throughout my life, I’ve constantly struggled with my appearance. Every time I stepped in front of any reflective surface, it always came back to the one aspect that made me cringe For a long time no one gave me a reason to think otherwise 7 then one particular image in a textbook made me stop and realize that these things…...
Interpretation on the Contributions of Dr. Franklin to the Discovery of DNA
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Despite the fact that Drt Franklin had contributed heavily to the discovery of DNA‘s structure many have blamed the historical misogyny of the era for her exclusion in the history books . According to the research of Brenda Maddox this is not the complete truth. As it turns out, the reasons why Watson, Crick, and Wilkins did not include Dr. Franklin in the paper or cite her work was because Dr. Franklin had made it clear that she wanted no…...
An Analysis of the Atomic Theory in Ancient Greece and the Modern Society
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In this report I will give a history on the development of the atomic theory. I will cover some of the most important dates in the development of atomic theory. An atom was first thought of by the Ancient Greeks who believed that matter was made of smaller particles called elements. The name they gave to these particles was the atom. In 1776 the man known as "The Father of Atomic Theory", John Dalton was born in England. He is…...
Atomic TheoryChemistryElectronics
Explaining the Atomic Theory
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Water, earth, fire, air, long ago were once known as the four main elements. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle contributed to the theory by adding a fifth element, aether. Before Aristotle though, the Greek believed everything was made up of the four elements. Hippocrates used the four elements to describe the four humor theory he proposed himself. Despite all the belief in the theory of the four elements, soon it was discovered that the four elements theory was wrong. Near the…...
Atomic TheoryChemistryScience
The Growing Problem of Child Obesity in America
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Every day in the news, it is reported that childhood obesity is a growing problem. Many doctors have linked childrenÐ2Ð,â,cs weight gain to the drinking of juice instead of milk and water. Most parent feel good about giving their children 100% juice with no sugar added, thinking it is nutritious. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention notes that children need very few calories per day and the sweet drinks, like apple juice, are a source of added sugar in…...
ChemistryChild ObesityHealth
The Three Metal Brothers: Gold, Silver and Copper
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Once upon an olden time. there were three metal brothers: Gold, Silver and Copper. They are from IB family of the Transition elements. They were happy With their life and friendship, but once they had an argument, who is the best metal. They went to a court and start to prove to a Periodic Table who is the best and most important. Silver said: I am the best, because my melting point lower than Coppers and Golds, I have been…...
Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien and Bright Copper Kettles by Vijay Seshadri
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Literature is the creation of scripted work of languages, and philosophy. Literature must be examined to understand the meaning of its values It does not define actuality but further more divines it This purpose is to identify the conflict of individual verse individual from both literatures, The literary techniques in both literatures can be a representation of the different features moving towards the scheme. lt functions as food for thought and stimulant for imagination and innovation. Over all, I will…...
The Characteristics and Dangers of Copper Ore Mining
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Copper is a naturally occurring substance found in rocks in the form of ore. In order for copper to be used it must go through the production process that transforms the are into copper that will be suitable for use. Copper mines, like most other mines, are owned mostly by multi-national corporations that often exploit the workers and people who live around them. Copper is a commodity that is vew important in today's society and has many practical uses. however,…...
Minor Character Conflict in The Fox and the Hound
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Throughout human history, seemingly minor differences between groups of people have directly resulted in major tragedies between them Differences in religion, racial background and moral beliefs cause wars between otherwise similar societies. Rather than accepting differences or working together to solve a conflicting issue, the clash between two groups often results in segregation and even attempts at annihilation of the lesser group. In the film “The Fox and the Hound,” director Ted Berman portrays this sad reality through the minor…...
Women Empowerment in Daughters of Copper Woman
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The most obvious theme in Daughters of Copper Woman by Anne Cameron is the idea of life and creation from women and the empowerment that comes from being a woman, but what l found to be interesting in that is how different these first few stories are from what l learned growing up in a conservative, Sephardic-Jewish household. The very first story, the creation of Copper Woman, The Creator is never announced as man or woman. Growing up going to…...
Ozone Layer Chemistry and Earth’s Stratosphere Assessment
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The ozone layer is a stratum in the earth's stratosphere at an altitude of about 10 kilometers with a high concentration of ozone gas (World Meteorological Organization, 2010). This layer absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth from the sun. Chlorofluorocarbons are organic compounds that contain carbon and Group VII elements of the periodic table such as chlorine and fluorine; produced as volatile derivatives of methane and ethane. The ozone layer is caused by photochemical mechanisms. These mechanisms…...
MaterialsOzoneOzone Layer
Advance Wastewater Treatment at Tertiary
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The project opportunity I have this year is a great chance for learning and technical development. Motivation and co-operation are the two main pillars for the success of any project. A technical write paper should be incomplete if I do not convey our heartfelt gratitude to those people from whom I have got considerable support and encouragement during this technical write paper preparation. Many people have helped, provided direction, technical information and it’s my pleasure to say vote of…...
MaterialsPollutionWastewater Treatment
Research Related To Coal Mining And Emitting A Limited Amount Of Co2
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In the United States, the use of coal for energy production is widespread across every region. The combustion of coal accounts for approximately 69% of America’s 1,774 million metric tons of CO2 emissions. Coal has been used for millennia, and, in relatively recent years, it has been used to meet the energy needs of civilization. However, this does not mean that its use should be continued. The health and environmental effects of coal have been and continue to be tremendous…...
Alternative EnergyCarbon FootprintCoal Mining
An Introduction to the Various Sources of Water in Today’s Society
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Each time you get a drink or take a shower, do you think of where that water came from to begin with? Many people, including you and I, take the unlimited supply of water that comes from the tap at home for granted. In reality though, all this water we use and drink comes from very vulnerable natural sources. And taking care of these natural sources of water can be a very hard and complicated task, especially at heavily contaminated…...
Environmental ChemistryWater
An Introduction to the Environmental Problem in Canada
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  This paper will mainly focus on the recycling of plastics although the aspects of reducing and reusing/repairing will be briefly touched upon. To begin with an over view of what plastics are, the types of degradable plastics that exist, and current methods of plastic desposal will be presented. Finally, an overall assessment of the plastic recycling effort will be made. What are plastics? Plastics are made of long, chainlike molecules called polymers. There are two different types: Thermoset plastics…...
CanadaEnvironmental Chemistry
DGT Techniques for Heavy Metal Mobility in Soil
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This review paper assessassesses the progress of the Diffusive Gradients in thin films (DGT) application and the latest advances with a focus on the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. Soil chemical extractions are extensively used to predict nutrient elements in the soil. However, these measurements have their weakness and shortcoming. Comparing DGT with conventional extraction methods, DGT is a sampling technique with significant advantages; including speciation capabilities, sensitivity, time-integrated signal, low risk of contamination, and, time-averaged concentrations.…...
Environmental Chemistry
Phosphate concentration in Shoewalter Fountain water by spectrophotometry
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Phosphate is a major contributor to the environmental balance in marine ecosystems. If there is too much phosphate in water, algae can use the excess as a nutrient and grow at uncontrollable rates. This uncontrollable growth is called eutrophication which results in severely depleted oxygen levels in the water. These low levels of oxygen cause fish and other marine animals to die from lack of oxygen1. In the Gulf of Mexico, run-off from a variety of sources including fertilizer has…...
Environmental ChemistryResearch
Statement of Teaching Philosophy
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I am always a keen observer of my teachers and mentors, often consciously or in my unconscious mind I compare their ways of teaching, interaction with the students, and assess the methods which is most helpful for my own learning and also to the other students. My teaching methods is based on my own experiences as a student, a mentor and as a teacher. I mentored/taught students of different grades (high school, undergraduate and graduate), ages, races and ethnic backgrounds.…...
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