inside the human body there are many functions that occur too slow within the body to stand alone. that’s where enzyme and catalyst come in. The purpose of the enzyme is to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. To do this the substrate is guided to an active site, While in the active site, it is hugged and changed in order to make the enzyme work more efficiently Metabolism is a function in the body that transfers energy from enzymes that allow them to go through the process.
Without enzymes, the body would not be able to function properly Identifying what the ideal levels that catalyst activity occurs. it can dictate how they function. Cellular conditions show that pH and temperature change the shape and the activity level of enzymes. To test the hypothesis the breakdown of H202 occurs at the same rate in a cell. To certify that. different tissue samples will be compared by adding hydrogen peroxide to each of them Another hypothesis would need to also be tested to prove cellular conditions are a valid point.
To prove that temperature has no effect on catalyst activity, each sample would be placed in different controlled temperatures to indicate catalyst activity activation point An essential part of the diet is dairy. The purpose of diary is to promote strong bones, teeth, and decrease osteoporosis The enzyme lactase is not present in many people‘s bodies especially in Africa Asia and South America, Without the presents of lactase, the enzyme that breaks down lactose can cause many problems for a person.
Understanding the purpose of an enzyme, it will help understand lactose intolerance. Materials and Methods Multiple experiments were running to test how densely catalyst were present if they are in different substances and the impact that temperature has on catalyst reactions. The first test was used to prepare different tissue samples that would be tested for enzymes.
The second test was to test if the breakdown of Hydrogen Peroxide (“202) occurred at the same rate in all cells. The final test was used to test the temperatures effect on catalyst activity. To prepare the first test. an apple was cut into a 0,5 cm cube and placed into a mortar and pestle, then a pinch of sand was added to the mortar and pestle along with lml of tap wateri Once all was added, the mixture was smashed into a pulp until the apple was no longer visible. After it had been grounded well, the liquid was poured into a test tube and labeled (try to avoid putting sand in the test tube by putting your finger over the lip of the pestle and mortar when pouring). Once the liquid had been emptied, the monar and pestle should be cleaned to avoid cross-contamination. The same process was repeated with water in test tube 2 and chicken breast in test tube 3‘ Liver was also done, the beef liver was cut into 0.5 cm cubes, 3 cubes were placed into a mortar and pestle along with a pinch of sand and 3 ml of tap water. It was then smashed to a line pulp and the liquid was poured into a test tube and labeled test tube 4 and saved for another test to be done later.
For the second test, use the labeled test tubes as controls, take 1 drop of the tissue extract from each of the test tubes and place them in separate test tubes and label them 5-8, Add 1 ml of water to each of the test tubes Take 1 ml of Hydrogen Peroxide (H202) and place it into each test tube Wait 1 minute, then record the height oi the foam in the test tube. *lf overflowing occurs. try to eyeball the overflow of foam for each test tube ‘ The final test was used for temperature. An additional 8 test tubes was labeled 1A, 1B, 2A, ZB, 3A, 38, 4A, and 413. Take 1 drop of liquid solution from the original liver and place in test tubes A along with 1ml of water. In test tubes B, 1 drop of the liver from the original test were added with the addition of 1 ml hydrogen peroxide. To analyze each test tube. each pair was placed in controlled temperatures 1A and l B were placed in a container of ice (0 °C). 2A and ZB were left at room temperature (around 22° C) The third set of test tubes, 3A and 3B, was place in a water bath at 70° C, The last set of test tubes 4A and 413 were placed in boiling water (100° C) on a hot plate.
Each pair could stay in the controlled temperatures for 10 minutes, Once the 10 minutes were up, the test tubes were taken out and poured into their corresponding test tubes (1A into 1B. 2A into 2B. 3A into 3B, and 4A into 4B). They could rest for 1 minute and foam was recorded Results Four things were tested for catalyst activity, beef liver, chicken breast, potato, and an apple. Each of the subjects were placed in test tubes and hydrogen peroxide was added, the thickness of foam for each subject was recorded Each set of test tubes were mixed at approximately the same time After 1 minute of each being mixed together, a picture was taken. Aline was drawn to indicate where the original liquid was before adding the adjacent test tube. Marking allowed to see the growth between test tubes and measure each test tubes foam growth accuratelyt Catalyst activity was recorded initially at room temperature. The subject needed to be tested for temperature effect on catalyst reaction. Each was placed in four different settings. ice, room temperature, warm bath, and boiling water. The thickness of the foam was then recorded.
To comprehend the initial hypothesis. the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide occurs at the same rate in all cells and temperature has no effect on catalyst activity were tested during experiments. Both hypotheses were disproved while doing these tests. In the first test was testing the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide in different cells. Four different types of cells were tested, apples, potatoes, chicken breast, and beef liver. The purpose of catalyst is to speed up reactions in the body allowing functions of the body by lowering the activation energy. All the cells tested were found in different types of organisms with each sewing a different purpose. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide into each test tube, only the beef liver foamed. The foam layer in the liver grew to 90 mm compared to 0 mm in each plant cell (apple and potato) and 0 mm in the chicken breast as seen in Figure 2.
The second hypothesis was also disproven. The rate in which catalyst reactions can happen depending on the temperature of cells. Using the results from the first experiment, the livers foam, was substantially different than in the second set of experiment. Catalyst reactions have a temperature in which homeostasis can be maintained. Catalyst activity is slowed when in a cold temperature, such as ice water; however, catalyst activity is nonexistent when the temperature is too high, like with boiling water. Studying enzyme activity and how the shape can change, what about how they affect the body when they are not in the body? The enzyme lactase is not present in the intestinal track. When lactase is not present in the body, it causes people to have stomach pain, diarrhea, bloated, constipated, etc. Studies have shown that lactose intolerance has been linked to genetics.
Those people whose family have a history of lactose intolerance, are more likely to carry the LCT gene, which is the enzyme that contains the information for the lactose enzyme. To help counteract that. many people find a calcium substitute, The reason they must find a substitute for milk, is because they milk has a large amount of calcium in themt Many people find different forms of milk. such as almond. coconut. soy. and different types of butters. and other dairy based products. The purpose of enzyme is to speed up reactions within the body to happen. Enzymes have specific purposes and when they are not present that cause many issues within the body where they cannot function well, They can only function in certain conditions, if the pH level is too acid (unless in the stomach) they cannot survive. The temperature is another area where enzymes cannot function well if homeostasis is not maintained.