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Banning public executions was hailed by the Daily Telegraph as an end to ‘a fragment of medieval barbarism’

In May 1868 Parliament passed the Capital Punishment Amendment Act which abolished the practice of public executions in the United Kingdom. Instead the Capital Punishment Amendment Act required that all prisoners sentenced to death shall now be executed within prison walls and their bodies should also be buried within the grounds of the prison. [1] Read More

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The Bay of Pigs

John F. Kennedy endured arguably the most highly pressurised start to his Presidency than any preceding President. The expectations Kennedy brought with him into office were ones of hope and prosperity for the American public all wanting to be part of the American Dream. The new decade of the 1960’s offered a great deal to Read More

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Wars of counter-insurgency cannot be won

The Soviet Union pulled out of Afghanistan defeated after many years of fighting the Taliban. The United States is currently fighting the same Taliban after invading them for the deadly attacks of Sept 11 2001. After a tremendously successful and devastating attack on the mullahs who ran Afghanistan with bunker busting bombs, the Americans and Read More

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How Useful Is the Term Americanization When Discussing post 1945 Western European Popular Culture

American influence on European popular culture was undoubtedly considerable in the postwar period. This said, historians are often keen to explain the process by which European culture was adapted as more complex than the term ‘Americanization’ suggests. One can view the ‘Americanization’ of popular culture as part of broader trends emerging in that period; those Read More

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Independence and Occupation in Poland since 1918

Following the Second World War, a Soviet-imposed communist regime was established in Poland. [1] Using the themes of consumption and the informal economy, livings standards, and social welfare, it is possible to shed light on the nature of this socialist regime, and the extent of its impact on the lives of ordinary people. These themes Read More

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To what extent was the United States responsible for the collapse of the Grand Alliance at the end of the Second World War

The Grand Alliance was the term given to the co-operative mutual assistance relationship between the western powers, especially the United States and Britain, and the Soviet Union, which was formed to engineer the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Second World War. For the duration of the conflict, relations between these nations were fairly good: Read More

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Williamson Murray and Macgregor Knox

According to historians Williamson Murray and Macgregor Knox in their writings on World War I, technology has made war “exponentially more complex. ” As scientific developments and weapons systems improve, warfare demands “fresh thought and ever-greater tactical, technical, and logistical expertise” (dynamics, p 176-77). In other words, improvements in technology lie at the heart of Read More

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The Conquest of New Spain

As an eyewitness to the actual conquest of New Spain it is often assumed that Bernal Diaz’s account of the event is one of a rare and credible pieces surrounding the event. Whilst this extract enables us to analyse and explain particular historical questions we should not, without discrediting Diaz, immediately assume its reliability without Read More