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APEH CH 13 Book Quiz

Why is the mid-fourteenth century regarded as an era of crisis in the West?
Select one:
a. Europe was threatened by renewed invasions from the Magyars, Saracens, and Vikings.
b. Europe was plagued by devastating outbreaks of the plague as well as by destructive wars
c. Ottoman invasions threatened to topple the pope from his throne in Rome
d. Global warming led to devastating droughts and the introduction of tropical diseases
b. Europe was plagued by devastating outbreaks of the plague as well as by destructive wars

What is Francesco Petrarch best known as?
Select one:
a. The first humanist
b. The husband of Laura, to whom he dedicated many romantic poems
c. The lover of Beatrice, about whom he wrote extensively
d. A victim of the Babylonian captivity
a. The first humanist

Conciliarism can be understood as:
Select one:
a. a schismatic movement within the Roman Catholic church
b. a process through which cardinals sought to appease, or conciliate, the papacy
c. a movement to assert papal superiority over monastic orders
d. a movement to have the cardinals or the emperor convene a church council
d. a movement to have the cardinals or the emperor convene a church council

The political power of the Medici family of Florence stemmed from:
Select one:
a. the wealth of the Medici bank and its involvement in papal finances
b. the support given to the family by the Ottoman Turks
c. the Medicis’ role in finding overseas routes to Asia that bypassed the Ottoman base in the Middle East
d. the family’s significant investments in the textile and wool industries of England, North Africa, and France
a. the wealth of the Medici bank and its involvement in papal finances

One important element of the French king’s campaign to consolidate and strengthen the monarchy was Gallicanism, which was characterized by which of the following?
Select one:
a. The establishment of a centralized bureaucracy, with its seat in Paris, that was in charge of all provincial tax, administrative, and military responsibilities
b. A state-sponsored propaganda effort linking the current French monarchy with the legacy and glory of the ancient Roman Empire
c. The rejection of further territorial expansion in favor of securing and developing the territories within current state borders
d. Royal control over ecclesiastical revenues and the appointment of all French bishops
d. Royal control over ecclesiastical revenues and the appointment of all French bishops

An indulgence was a certificate offered by the church to:
Select one:
a. ensure that one would bypass purgatory altogether and enter heaven directly
b. reduce the time one spent in purgatory
c. grant entry to the sites where sacred relics were held
d. vouch that proper baptismal practices had been followed
b. reduce the time one spent in purgatory

What term was used for the European Christian boys who were forced to convert to Islam and made up the core of the Ottoman army?
Select one:
a. Osmans
b. Millets
c. Sultans
d. Janissaries
d. Janissaries

Why did the plague spread so rapidly on the European continent in the mid-fourteenth century?
Select one:
a. The fighting during the Hundred Years’ War allowed the disease to erupt among wounded and exhausted
soldiers
b. The bacterium that likely caused the disease, Yersinia pestis, followed major trade routes to and across the continent
c. Invading Ottoman troops spread the disease to Europe during their siege of Constantinople and their attacks on the Balkans
d. Europeans had yet to learn about quarantines or other measures that could effectively halt the spread of disease
b. The bacterium that likely caused the disease, Yersinia pestis, followed major trade routes to and across the continent

In The Defender of the Peace (1324), Marsilius of Padua stated that the:
Select one:
a. king of France had the right to select all churchmen within his realm
b. church must be defended from secular rulers by a strong papacy
c. sacrament of Mass was less important than a believer’s conscience
d. true church consisted of the people, who should elect the pope
d. true church consisted of the people, who should elect the pope

How did warfare change during the Hundred Years’ War?
Select one:
a. Armies became more professional and centralized
b. Armies relied on conscripts
c. It became increasingly chivalrous
d. Knights on horseback played a decisive role
a. Armies became more professional and centralized

Which of the following statements about the Swiss Confederation is true?
Select one:
a. It was conquered by the duke of Burgundy
b. It was formed to facilitate the hiring out of mercenaries to the rulers of Europe
c. It was created by the cities of the Alpine region of the Holy Roman Empire
d. It was dominated by the landed nobility
c. It was created by the cities of the Alpine region of the Holy Roman Empire

What triggered Wat Tyler’s Rebellion in 1381?
Select one:
a. King Richard II’s imposition of military conscription
b. The imposition of a universal tax to raise revenue for the Hundred Years’ War
c. Widespread famine and rumors that barons were hoarding grain
d. The teachings of John Wycliffe, who held that the people, not the king, owned the land
b. The imposition of a universal tax to raise revenue for the Hundred Years’ War

Which of the following initially precipitated the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)?
Select one:
a. The French king Philip VI laid claim to Guyenne, a fief of the English king Edward III
b. King Edward III of England invaded France at Calais and laid claim to the French crown
c. The English king Edward III decided to march from Guyenne into Languedoc, which enraged the French king Philip VI
d. The duke of Burgundy attempted to seize English lands in Normandy
a. The French king Philip VI laid claim to Guyenne, a fief of the English king Edward III

Which Ottoman sultan succeeded in conquering the city of Constantinople in 1453, thus administering the deathblow to the Byzantine Empire?
Select one:
a. Mehmed I
b. Murad I
c. Mehmed II
d. Osman I
c. Mehmed II

In the year 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella succeeded in reunifying Spain by conquering what kingdom on the Iberian peninsula?
Select one:
a. The Muslim kingdom of Granada
b. The Jewish kingdom of al-Andalus
c. The British outpost on Gibraltar
d. The Christian kingdom of Portugal
a. The Muslim kingdom of Granada

Individuals who sought to appease God by traveling from city to city and scourging themselves with whips were known as:
Select one:
a. flagellants
b. Franciscans
c. Waldensians
d. mendicants.
a. flagellants

What did the Oxford scholar John Wycliffe argue?
Select one:
a. The true church was a community of believers, not an ecclesiastical hierarchy
b. The papacy had lost its moral authority for not having settled the Hundred Years’ War
c. Pious monks needed to oust corrupt and materialistic churchmen from their high positions in the church hierarchy
d. The Greek Orthodox church and not the Roman Catholic church was the rightful heir to the keys of St. Peter
a. The true church was a community of believers, not an ecclesiastical hierarchy

Between 1384 and 1476, what state filled the territorial gap between France and Germany but was, unlike most other European states, an artificial creation whose existence depended entirely on skillful rulers?
Select one:
a. Genoa
b. Burgundy
c. Venice
d. Guyenne
b. Burgundy

What alliance brought together many cities in northern Germany and the Baltic for the purposes of trade and defense?
Select one:
a. The Hanseatic League
b. The Delian League
c. The Burgundian League
d. The Holy Roman Empire
a. The Hanseatic League

Why did Ferdinand and Isabella establish the Inquisition in Spain in 1478?
Select one:
a. The Cathar heresy had not been completed eliminated in the Spanish Pyrenees
b. The Ottoman Empire had forged an alliance with the king of Granada to regain territories lost in previous centuries as part of the Christian reconquista
c. The papacy had put pressure on them to establish religious homogeneity on the Iberian peninsula
d. Resentment was growing at the success of those Jews who had converted to Christianity
d. Resentment was growing at the success of those Jews who had converted to Christianity

Which of the following did the Peace of Lodi (1454) accomplish?
Select one:
a. It established permanent boundaries between the Papal States and the northern Italian city-states
b. It led to a truce between Venice and the Ottoman Empire and the division of the Adriatic Sea into separate zones for Venetian and Ottoman commercial traffic
c. It put an end to the conflict between Venice and Milan that had been raging since 1450
d. It established a truce between the kingdoms of Naples and Aragon and allied them against the Ottoman Turks
c. It put an end to the conflict between Venice and Milan that had been raging since 1450

Why did the Great Schism inadvertently provide a boost to Renaissance composers?
Select one:
a. All of the popes wereserious musicians themselves and sought to reinvigorate the church’s musical heritage
b. The popes enlisted a large number of musicians in their struggle against heresy
c. Local lords and kings attempted to steal away the finest composers from Rome and Avignon and employ them in their courts
d. Rival popes attempted to outdo one another in the realm of pageantry and sound
d. Rival popes attempted to outdo one another in the realm of pageantry and sound

Toward the end of the Hundred Years’ War, which of the following shifted support from England to France?
Select one:
a. The duchy of Burgundy
b. Bavaria
c. Aragon
d. The Papal States
a. The duchy of Burgundy

At Reims, with Joan of Arc at his side, the dauphin was anointed and crowned as:
Select one:
a. King Charles II of Burgundy
b. King Philip VI of France
c. King Louis X of France
d. King Charles VII of France
d. King Charles VII of France

Under pressure from Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to resolve the Great Schism, Pope John XXIII convened a church council at Constance in 1414, which elected a new pope,
Select one:
a. Gregory XII
b. Martin V
c. Clement VII
d. Alexander V
b. Martin V

How did outbreaks of the plague lead to the founding of new universities in Europe?
Select one:
a. Searching for the causes of the plague led to major scientific discoveries and the creation of new
universities to train future scientists
b. Local princes received money and property from those who had perished, and they used this income to
become patrons of education
c. The plague forced more than eighty percent of existing universities to close their doors, necessitating the creation of new institutions
d. Mass death led many wealthy noblemen to lose faith in the church, and they opted to will their resources to secular institutions rather than to the church
b. Local princes received money and property from those who had perished, and they used this income to
become patrons of education

Why did Jan Hus’s ideas gain such a large number of followers in Bohemia?
Select one:
a. John Wycliffe’s ideas had spread throughout Bohemia several decades earlier, thus providing fertile soil for Hus’s ideas to grow in
b. Church leaders tolerated the spread of Hus’s ideas
c. His ideas tapped into the resentments of the Czech majority against the dominant and largely urban German-speaking minority
d. His doctrine of justification by faith minimized the ecclesiastical power of the unpopular Bohemian church hierarchy
c. His ideas tapped into the resentments of the Czech majority against the dominant and largely urban German-speaking minority

The uprising of French peasants against the nobility in the summer of 1358 was known as:
Select one:
a. Wat Tyler’s Rebellion
b. the Jacquerie
c. the Jacobin Rebellion
d. the Fronde
b. the Jacquerie

Which of the following is regarded as a signal innovation in Renaissance art?
Select one:
a. The use of linear perspective
b. The introduction of pointillism
c. The depiction of mythical figures
d. The use of oil on canvas
a. The use of linear perspective

In their quest to revive the cultural glory of the ancient world, Renaissance humanists focused much attention on:
Select one:
a. classical history and literature
b. classical architecture
c. mathematics and astronomy
d. ancient Roman law and jurisprudence
a. classical history and literature

What triggered the Great Schism in 1378?
Select one:
a. Challenges to scholasticism posed by William of Ockham
b. The election of Urban VI, an Italian, as pope
c. Disputes over how severely to treat those whose ideas were deemed heretical
d. The refusal of the patriarch of Constantinople to obey the Roman pontiff
b. The election of Urban VI, an Italian, as pope

During the late medieval period, there was both a flowering of vernacular literature and a:
Select one:
a. return to the religious traditions of the established church paired with a renewed interest in monasticism
b. rejection of previously popular luxury goods in favor of an austere and simple lifestyle
c. decline in the study of the Latin language and literature
d. revival of classical learning that led to a new intellectual movement called humanism
d. revival of classical learning that led to a new intellectual movement called humanism

By the end of the fourteenth century, Lithuania, whose rulers were the last in Europe to remain unconverted to Christianity, had:
Select one:
a. entered into a union with Poland
b. invaded the Holy Roman Empire
c. been weakened by nearly constant war with neighboring Russia
d. been conquered and converted by the Teutonic knights
a. entered into a union with Poland

In what way may the Hundred Years’ War be seen as a world war?
Select one:
a. Its outcome had global significance
b. It was fought on multiple continents
c. Both the English and the French hired mercenaries from other countries
d. It lasted for more than a century
c. Both the English and the French hired mercenaries from other countries

Which of the following contributed to rising prosperity in England during the fifteenth century?
Select one:
a. Increased trade with eastern Europe
b. The expansion of the cloth industry
c. The growing role of the peasantry in politics
d. The absence of warfare on English soil
b. The expansion of the cloth industry

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