Which of the following is not a major value of sharing literature with children?
Studies show that
Children go through the same stages of language development although the rate of development varies.
Using words, stories in rhyme, and acting out sounds and movement are important aspects of
Walter Loban’s research suggests that discussion should be a vital part of elementary literature programs because it helps children
Organize ideas and illustrate complex generalizations.
How can wordless picture books stimulate oral and written language development?
They encourage children to tell the story in their own words.
The processes involved in perception, memory, reasoning, reflection, and insight constitute
A teacher who is leading children’s discussions about a series of books on the same subject written by different authors is encouraging cognitive development through
Why are concept books good for developing the cognitive skill of classifying?
They reinforce basic concepts while providing concrete practice in ordering and classifying.
Which of the following types of stories would be least appropriate for development of organizational skills?
Concept books that use different levels of abstractness to introduce children to concepts.
According to child development authority Joann Hendrick, which is not a stage of emotional development encompassed by early childhood?
Insight and perspective versus self-condemnation
The ability to express emotions, express empathy toward others, and develop feelings of selfworth and self-esteem describes
Encouraging a child to read a book because of the possible therapeutic effects that may be gained from the reading experience is called
The history of children’s literature was most strongly influenced by
The social attitudes toward children
The earliest history of children’s literature began with
The oral tradition.
How is the literary role of the 16th century storytellers most like the role of the modern American children’s authors?
They both are entertainers.
What was the attitude toward children in feudal Europe that led to the conclusion that stories for children were not necessary?
A child was considered a small adult who should enter into adult life as quickly as possible.
The most significant event related to literature in the 1400s was
Johannes Gutenberg’s discovery of movable type
What characterized horn books?
They were used to teach reading and numbers, they were printed sheets of text mounted on wood and covered with translucent animal horn, and they included the alphabet, numerals, and the Lord’s Prayer.
Crudely printed, inexpensive books sold by peddlers or “chapmen.”
Puritan influence of literature emphasized
Moral development of children.
The enlightened belief for the late 1600s that children should go through a period of childhood rather than be treated as little adults was credited to
What was Charles Perrault’s contribution to children’s literature?
He was one of the first writers to recognize that fairy tales belong to the world of children.
The original Mother Goose of 1698 contained
Retold French fairy tales such as Cinderella, Little Red Riding Hood and Sleeping Beauty.
The 18th century authors whose adventure stories were adopted by children were
Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift.
Why is it important for a literature program to provide a balance of selections, including classics and contemporary stories, fantasy, prose, poetry, biographies, and nonfiction?
A balanced literature program will develop children’s literary heritage, children do not know what they will like until encouraged to read different types of literature, and if children are exposed to a wide variety of literature, they will develop recognition and appreciation of good literature.
What is probably the most important reason that people responsible for choosing books for children read works of literary criticism?
They can be guided by experts to identify quality literature they might not otherwise have known about.
Which of the following guidelines is not important for literary criticism?
A condemnation of the book on censorship charges
If you read a descriptive review of a book in the Bulletin of the Center for Children’s Books you would expect to read
Description of the book and a mention of literary elements.
If you read an analytical review in The Horn Book, you would expect to read
A discussion, comparison, and evaluation of literary elements in the book.
Multicultural literature teaches
Children of the majority culture to respect values and contributions of minority groups, children to broaden their understandings of history, geography, and natural history, and children of the majority culture to respect and value contributions of people in other parts of the world.
To develop the order of events in a biography, an author would probably organize the narrative in which of the following ways?
Which of the following is not a contribution of the plot to the development of a story?
It provides a background and creates a mood.
What is the usual source of plots in literature?
Literary conflicts in which the main character’s actions, desires, or values differ from those of others around him or her represent conflicts of
Person against society.
Why is person against self conflict a popular device in children’s literature?
All children must overcome fears and personal problems while growing up.
Authors may develop the full nature of a character by
Describing the character’s physical appearance, showing the character in action and revealing the perceptions of others, and
The role of illustrations in children’s literature is to
Inspire the imagination, invite the reader, and complement the text
How are illustrations in picture books different from illustrations in most older children’s literature?
They join the text in telling the story.
Artists use line to suggest
Mood, motion and energy, and direction.
In the relationship between line and natural phenomena, vertical lines suggest
Lack of movement
Which type of line usually suggests loss of balance?
In the relationship between color and natural phenomena, which of the following colors have warm or hot connotations?
A book page design with text placed opposite bordered illustrations on adjacent pages is considered
The most formal arrangement
The level of formality of page design is most important to evaluate in light of its harmony with the
A very informal design with text combined with two or more arrangements and text printed in different forms, colors, and sizes might be appropriate for which of the following types of literature?
The most informal type of page design would be
No text or words
Artistic media refers to
The materials and techniques an artist uses to illustrate a book.
The earliest books for children were illustrated with which of the following?
Black and white woodcuts
Which of the following distinguishes picture books from other types of books?
In picture books, the illustrations are as important as the text or even more important than the text.
Which of the following is probably the least important criteria for evaluating picture books?
The size of the type
According to Cianciolo, which of the following is not a major factor in how a child responds to a picture book?
The background of the artist
According to Cianciolo’s analysis of children’s choices of picture books, children prefer illustrations that
Are colorful and detailed, depict the here-and-now fantasy, and/or humor, and are drawn in a realistic or cartoon style
Mother Goose serves as an excellent introduction to verse for very young children because of its
Rhyme, pleasing sounds, and rhythm
The Mother Goose rhyme “Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers” has a repetition of sound called
Which of the following is probably the strongest reason that there have been so many collections of Mother Goose rhymes?
They have strong, enduring appeal for children.
Toy books can include
Cloth and plastic books, board books, and pop-up books
Why are toy books a valuable addition to children’s literature?
They stimulate the language, cognitive, personal, and social development of preschool children.
Tell stories that are meaningful in the lives of children, help children understand their expanding experiences and environments, and can be used as a way to introduce concepts such as clothing and seasons to children.
In alphabet books designed specifically to teach young children the letters and their sounds, which of the following is particularly important?
Pictured objects should not have more than one commonly used name.
When analyzing counting books for preschoolers, which of the following is least important?
The books are designed to develop the concepts of addition and subtraction
In general, why were traditional literature stories told?
To relate stories about people who performed brave deeds, to relate stories of mythical heroes, and to speculate about the beginning of things
Which of the following was a popular theme in the traditional literature of common people?
Overcoming social inequality to obtain a better way of life
Which of the following is not a characteristic of traditional literature?
Reflects only the peasant classes
Why are cumulative tales, that sequentially repeat actions, characters, or speeches until a climax is reached, appealing to young children?
Because children know the repeating part of the story, they can join in as each new happening occurs.
The type of folktale that explains why an animal has certain characteristics or why people have certain customs is a
Similarities among tales from different countries emphasize that
Humans throughout the world have had similar needs and problems.
Which of the following is not a value of traditional literature for children?
Identifying with realistic and contemporary heroes
Folklore from around the world should
Reflect the original culture’s beliefs
Favat maintains that the characteristics of folktales correspond with the characteristics that
Jean Piaget ascribed to children.
What is the most likely reason that so many folktales, even folktales of different origins, have the same types of themes and recurring actions?
Folktales reflect universal themes and morals.
Folktale characters are least likely to have which of the following characteristics?
They have both good and bad qualities
Which of the following is a common theme in folktales?
Kindness, diligence, and hard work bring rewards, intelligence wins out over physical strength, and good overcome evil
When writing modern fantasy, authors
Alter one or more characteristics of known reality.
Persuading readers to suspend disbelief is most successful in modern fantasy when
There is an internal consistency in the story.
What is a requirement of settings in modern fantasy?
The writer creates a world in which unusual circumstances are believable, they must be developed so completely that readers will believe anything is possible, and the writer combines reality and fantasy as characters or stories go back and forth between two worlds.
Which of the following is not usually a theme of modern fantasy?
The value of facts and information
What is a major difference between myths and modern fantasy?
People at one time believed that myths had a basis in fact.
The first author of literary fairy tales for children is usually considered to be
Hans Christian Andersen
According to Bruno Bettelheim, why do many folktales have religious themes?
Religious themes are universal, many folktales originated in periods when religion was an important part of life, and religious themes are very popular.
C. S. Lewis created The Chronicles of Narnia based on
His knowledge about medieval allegory, his interest in theology, and his knowledge about Norse mythology.
Which of the following authors is best known for religious allegories?
C. S. Lewis
Most modern fantasies about mythical quests and conflicts emphasize
The writings of which author have been said to “form a continuation of the mythic tradition into modern literature”?
What is the most likely reason that E.B. White’s Charlotte’s Web is so appealing and is considered a classic American children’s book?
It deals convincingly with the universal themes of the importance of friendship and loyalty.
Various definitions of poetry highlight
Distinctive sounds, emotional impact, and the importance of an original combination of words.
Researchers who investigated children’s preferences in poetry concluded that
Children enjoy poems about familiar experiences.
When selecting poetry to share with children, which of the following is not a criterion?
Poems should be written down to a child’s level of understanding and readability.
Rhythm in children’s poetry words particularly well when it
Reinforces the content of the poem
The repetition of initial sounds in a line of poetry is called
The repetition of vowel sounds by a poet to create interesting and unusual sound patterns is called
Which of the following refers to words that imitate the actions or sounds with which they are associated?
Which of the following primary elements in poetry encourage children to see, hear, feel, taste, smell, and touch the worlds created by poets?
Which of the following are implied comparisons between two things that have something in common but are essentially different?
Word division, line division, punctuation, and capitalization make up the poetic element called
Which of the following describes the structure of haiku?
A three-line poem in which the first and third lines have five syllables and the second line has seven
Five line poems in which the first, second, and last lines rhyme are called
The term contemporary realistic fiction infers that everything in the story
Could happen in our contemporary world.
In contemporary realistic animal fiction, animals
Must be realistic by the standard of what we know and expect
Which of the following is the greatest value of contemporary realistic fiction for children?
It allows children to identify with and learn from characters who have similar interests and problems.
In which of the following time periods was realistic fiction characterized by traditional family roles, strict roles for males and females, and strong religious commitment?
The late 19th century
In which of the following time periods was realistic fiction characterized by wise grandparents, respected parents, happy and secure families, and white, middle-class family values?
Overcoming fear, meeting responsibility and problems related to adoption, divorce, disabilities, and minority social status are common themes of which time period?
The late 1970s
Young people in much of contemporary realistic fiction reflect
Resilience, resourcefulness, and hope
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the problem novel?
The characterizations are the most important part of the story.
Which two issues does sexism in realistic fiction involve?
Exclusion of females and stereotyped roles for females.
Why is it most important that picture books are not sexist?
Children decide early in life what roles are appropriate for males and females.
One of the most widely censored authors of children’s literature is
In Walk Two Moons, Sharon Creech’s main character, Sal, is on a quest to find out
Why her mother left.
Which of the following is not a major value of historical fiction for children?
Children can be introduced to contemporary role models
An emphasis should be placed on human relations when selecting notable historical fiction so that children will realize that
When human relations deteriorate, tragedy usually results, their present and future are linked to the actions of people in the past, and in all times, people have depended upon one another.
Which of the following is not a criterion for evaluating historical fiction for children?
The plot is full of adventure and is fast-paced.
Credible plots in historical fiction most often emerge from
Authentically developed time periods.
Which of the following is the most important concern in developing characters in historical fiction?
Characters’ actions, beliefs, and values must be realistic for the time period.
What is probably the worst problem with making a famous person rather than a fictional person the pivotal character in a fictional story?
The story may describe the famous person inaccurately
Which of the following literary elements is most essential in providing historical fiction with authenticity?
What is a major problem authors of historical fiction encounter when describing settings for very young children?
Young children generally have little prior knowledge of historical periods.
Which of the following is one of the most common themes in historical fiction?
Loyalty and honor are essential
Which of the following statements is not correct when evaluating theme in historical fiction?
The theme should be found only in that historical time period.
Which of the following best describes an allusion in historical fiction?
An implied reference to another event.
In which of the following periods of historical fiction is the theme “hate, not people, is the greatest enemy” most common?
Ancient times through the middle ages
What has been the major influence on the authors of biographies for children over the years?
Social attitudes toward children
Biographies written for children in the 17th and 18th centuries usually emphasized which of the following?
In the late 1800s the goal for children’s biographies changed from
A religious to a political one
What is the main reason that few biographies of the early 1900s dealt with women, African Americans, Native Americans or members of other ethnic and racial minorities?
The contributions of women and non-whites were not highly regarded, Americans did not consider women and non-whites to be appropriate subjects for biographies, and traditional social patterns kept women and non-whites out of positions of power.
What is the most likely reason that biographers writing for young readers have often focused on the boyhood years of their characters?
They wanted to increase the ability of the children to empathize with political heroes.
What is the most serious result of glorifying biographical subjects, avoiding any of their weaknesses, mistakes, and flaws?
It gives children a distorted, rather than a realistic model of the contributions people have made and can make.
The greatest change in the attitudes toward the biographical content of children’s books occurred in the
What is the most important literary element in biography?
Which is probably the most appropriate and practical way that authors of biographies for children begin their research on their subjects?
They study original materials such as autobiographies, diaries, journals, and letters.
Which of the following is the most important question an author should ask before deciding to write about a particular person?
Has the person made a significant impact on the world for good or ill that children should be aware of?
A well-known author of historical biographies for young children is
According to Joanna Rudge Long, how should illustrated biographies be evaluated?
The style and visual references should be appropriate for the intended audience, the pictorial motifs should suit the text, and the author and illustrator should provide sources.
Which of the following is a value associated with reading informational books? Children will
Be encouraged to stretch their minds, expand this curiosity, and develop observational powers, experience the excitement of new discoveries, and be introduced to the scientific method.
Which of the following is probably the most important criterion in evaluating informational books?
The facts are accurate.
Which of the following is more important when evaluating informational books than when evaluating fiction?
The author’s qualifications
An author of an information book who discusses both the benefits of and the detrimental consequences of forest fires is concerned with
Providing differing views on controversial subjects
Giving human emotions and attributes to animals.
An informational book that would not encourage analytical thinking and evaluation would
Present facts and theories without differentiating between them
Which of the following is not a common organizational technique in informational books?
Which of the following would be the best way for an author to ensure that an informational book is not too difficult to understand?
Define terms within the context of the book
How can authors develop credibility in writing about the ancient world?
By citing the latest information gained from their own research or that of others, by describing details so that the readers can visualize the ancient world, and by including drawings or photographs of archaeological sites
Which of the following informational books chronicles Philadelphia’s epidemic that killed 4,000- 5,000 people and caused the evacuation of about 20,000 citizens?
Murphy’s An American Plague: The True and Terrifying Story of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793.
Jim Murphy’s The Great Fire distinguishes between
Facts and rumors
Alice Provensen’s The Buck Stops Here: The Presidents of the United States is an example of what type of informational book?
The modern world