Why does Major ask the animals to congregate in the barn after Mr. Jones has gone to sleep?
has a speech for them, wants to communicate his vision, believes his death is coming
According to Major, what is the source of the animals’ misery and slavery?
humans-animals are exploited and left with minimal necessities
According to Major, how do most animals on Manor Farm die, and what does their manner of death indicate about Mr. Jones’ attitude toward his animals’ values?
Slaughtered by humans when no longer able to work, Jones does not care about his animals’ value
Why does Orwell introduce the term comrade in the first chapter? What 2 purposes does the introduction of this term serve?
sense of unity, establish everyone is equal, establishes connection to Russian Revolution-term Stalin used in rule of Russia, how politicians referred to one another
What is Major’s most significant warning/commandment?
brotherhood-comrade community, all have to work together to achieve goals, treat each other fairly
Why does Major’s song Beasts of England become an instant success with the other animals?
signifies the rebellion, relates with hardships and desires, makes them feel like they are apart of it
What does Orwell establish with his decision to capitalize the word ‘Rebellion’ throughout the text?
significant event, puts in same category as large revolutions, already happening, game changer
Why do the pigs immediately take over the role of organizers and teachers after Major’s death?
teaching and organizing is natural for them, cleverest
How and why does Napoleon emerge as a character who seems destined to become a leader?
Only Berkshire Boar, fierce appearance makes him seem powerful-intimidating, enforces laws, smart, natural leader, opinionated, communicates point
What allegorical reference is embedded in the philosophy of Animalism?
Why do the other animals not want Mollie to display her ribbons?
badge of slavery, like being a human, sets her apart from other animals
According to Moses, Sugarcandy Mountain is a place where it is Sunday seven days a week.
What kind of place or idea does the concept of Sugarcandy Mountain describe?
Animal heaven, perfect place where it is a ‘rest’ day all week, lots of food, clover in season all year, representation of Christian idea of heaven, Moses-part of church
What information does the narrator reveal in Chapter 2 that helps justify the Rebellion?
Jones had not fed them-starts drinking and gets sloppy with farm
Why are the pigs the only animals that have the capacity to write the 7 commandments on the wall of the barn immediately following the expulsion of Mr.
Jones? (Chapter 2)
only ones who learned to read and write, other animals do not ask a lot of questions about them doing it
What is the main purpose of the 7 commandments? What do they principally achieve to explain?
to give laws to their farm that cannot be broken, unified, presents rules of Animalism, prevents from adopting human habit
In the last sentence of Chapter 2, the narrator explains that, “when (the animals) came back in the evening it was noticed that the milk had disappeared.” This sentence is an example of what literary or narrative techniques?
dramatic irony-reader figures the pigs took it, other animals cannot figure it out, also builds tension and foreshadows
What is significant about Orwell’s syntax about the missing milk, “when (the animals) came back int he evening they noticed that the milk had disappeared”. (Chapter 2)
Animals too naive to know what happened to the milk, idea that someone might steal is inconceivable to the animals
What differentiates the work the pigs complete during hay harvest from the work the other animals complete?
pigs do not actually work-just direct and supervise others
How successful is the animals’ first harvest after the Rebellion?
very successful, lots of food, finish in 2 days less time than Jones and men, validation of experiment-results are great, makes them feel good
Are all animals required to work the same hours and complete the same kind of work, or work that is equally difficult and exhausting?
Complete work that matches their capacity
In addition to the pigs, which other animal does not actually seem to complete any substantial physical labor and why?
Mollie-makes excuses to leave work early, narcissistic and laxy, humans were nice to her and she misses that, Cat-disappears when work needs to be done
What allegorical significance does the fact that Napoleon and Snowball disagree during the animals’ meetings carry?
symbolizes Stalin and Trotsky disagreeing-power struggle
What is Napoleon’s attitude toward educating the animals?
thinks education of young is more important than anything that could be done for those who are grown up, wants to brain wash young to his beliefs, takes puppies and keeps from other animals and raises them
How does Squealer explain to the other animals that the pigs have been secretly taking all the milk for themselves?
Squealer-represents propaganda, say the pigs were not being selfish, that they dislike the milk and apples but need them to preserve their health, you don’t want Jones to come back
Why is Squealer successful in explaining to the other animals that the pigs alone deserve the milk? How is he able to silence any doubters? Which theme emerges through his explanations?
Squealer says that if the pigs do not eat the milk and apples Jones will come back, and the animals know they do not want that to happen, he is very convincing, theme of propaganda-live in fear
How and why is the sentence
“The importance of keeping pigs in good health was all too obvious” an example of Orwell’s use of irony
other animals not smart enough to know what the pigs are doing, the reader knows, everyone is supposed to be equal but the pigs know how to read and write and have special privileges with food rations
What rumors do Mr. Frederick and Mr. Pilkington spread about Animal Farm? (Chapter 5)
animals at the farm are fighting and starving to death, terrible wickedness, cannibalism, everything going wrong
How do the events on Animal Farm effect the animals on neighboring farms?
animals start acting up-rebellion, tune of Beasts of England is known everywhere, however they do not have a good leader and it is not full in their hearts
How does Snowball prepare for the attack by Jones and his men?
read book of Julius Caesar’s campaigns, each animal has an assigned post, he becomes in charge of defense operations
What experience during the Battle of Cowshed deeply affects Boxer and how does Snowball attempt to help him?
he accidentally kick a stable lad, Snowball says war is war and the only good human is a dead one, Boxer is still very sad
Why is Snowball’s explanation that ‘the only good human being is a dead one’ dangerous with regard to the spirit of the 7 commandments?
no one had said anything about killing humans before, just being enemies, concept of murder/killing for a purpose is a human characteristic
How does the Battle of the Cowshed ultimately serve to inaugurate a series of rituals that help solidify the growing totalitarian state?
awarding medals at end of war-human thing, rituals put in place by pigs, put Jones’ rifle and prop it up to remember glory and victory, gun linked to a military state=human
Mollie’s disappearance (chapter 5) not only indicates her desire to receive special treatment at the hands of humans, but also functions as a reminder of the dangers of forced obedience and the requirement of conformity. Explain how her disappearance forms part of Orwell’s criticism of the emerging totalitarian structure of Animal Farm.
cannot force a rebellion on someone-not everyone will want it, Mollie stands apart from the others, illustrates danger of blind conformity, every other animals is against her wanting of those things, Mollie is a threat to their goal because of her opinions and actions
In the growing dispute between Snowball and Napoleon, how does Snowball hope to gain trust and support of the other animals? What is Napoleon’s tactic?
Snowball-plans for a windmill, labor would be saved from it, education as main tool, increase productivity, smarter not harder, Napoleon- no windmill but increase food production so they have plenty, wants power, argues with Snowball on everything, cannot reveal that Snowball has good ideas
What are Snowball’s ideas for defending Animal Farm against possible human attacks? What are Napoleon’s ideas? (chapter 5)
Snowball- send out more pigeons to stir up rebellion among the animals on other farms, if rebellion is everywhere there is no need to defend themselves, there are more animals than humans, Napoleon-get firearms and train themselves to use them
Why does Snowball so fervently advocate the building of a windmill?
decrease amount of labor to 3 days a week, increase productivity, add electricity
How can you explain the fact that no animal comes to Snowball’s defense after Napoleon calls on his vicious attack dogs and chases Snowball out of the barn? Keep in mind that the animals are clearly in the majority compared to Napoleon’s gang?
animals live in fear, they are afraid of the dogs and do not want to step up
After Snowball’s expulsion (chapter 5), Napoleon explains the changes he plans to implement on Animal Farm immediately. How do these changes reflect the principles of a totalitarian/authoritarian state?
no more sunday morning meetings, no debates, special committee of pigs to meet in private, stands on platform in barn, moves into Jones’ house, keeps the dogs as a protection group, sheep always bleat 4 legs good 2 legs bad-function of stopping anyone in opposition, other animals have no say in what happens-one controlling leader
Squealer describes Napoleon’s suddenly changing attitude toward the windmill as ‘tactics’. What does he mean by that? What might be a more accurate and truthful description of Napoleon’s tactics?
tactics-Napoleon’s strategy to take over Snowball and be in control, Napoleon does not come up with creative ideas, his skill is manipulation, propaganda to remain in control, he had never been opposed to windmill but waited til he could get rid of Snowball