How To Read Literature Like A Professor Chapter Answers

Chapter 1: Every Trip is a Quest (Except When it’s Not)
1. What five things does a quest consist of?
• A “Quester”
• A place to go
• A stated reason to go there
• Challenges and Trials
• The REAL reason to go there
2. What is the real reason for a quest (always)?
The real reason to go is never for the stated reason; the quester often fails at the original task; The real reason for a quest is always to gain self-knowledge.
3. What is Foster’s overall point about journeys or trips in literature?
Foster’s point was that trips and journeys represent the growth and maturing of the main characters.

It’s never JUST a trip.
4. What is a book or short story that you have read that involved a quest? Explain how it fits the five aspects of the QUEST.
The aspects of the QUEST can be applied to one of my favorite books, Ella Enchanted by Gail Carson Levine. Ella is the quester, who was born into a noble family and “gifted” by a powerful fairy, Lucinda, with always being obedient.

She must go to a finishing school shortly after her mother passes away with two malicious girls, Hattie and Olive, who become her stepsisters when their parents marry. Ella runs away from school to find Lucinda to reverse her “blessing” so that people can no longer manipulate her; she has adventures with elves, giants, ogres, and Prince Charmont and experiences several internal struggles along the way. (Spoiler: in the end she figures out that she’s had the ability to resist other’s commands all along and becomes free.

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Chapter 2: Nice to Eat with You: Acts of Communion
1. What does “communion” mean?
Act of peace and sharing.
2. For what reason does Foster suggest that authors often include meal scenes?
Writing a meal scene is so difficult, and so inherently uninteresting, that there really needs to be some compelling reason to include one in the story.
3. What does a failed meal suggest in literature?
Stands for a bad sign,
4. Choose a meal from a literary work and apply the ideas of Chapter 2 to this literary description.
A meal from a literary work and that applies the ideas from Chapter 2 is Safe Haven by Nicholas Sparks: When Katie invites Alex over for dinner at her house, the way she eats is the first time she indulges herself since she escaped her abusive husband Kevin. Even though she is indulging herself and acting as though she is moving forward with her life, she takes tiny sips and bites, eating gingerly showing that she is still weary of Kevin returning.

Chapter 3: Nice to Eat You: Acts of Vampires
1. What is literal vampirism? What is symbolic vampirism? What are the “essentials of the vampire story” and what do they represent? Apply this to a literary work you have read.
The essential of the vampire’s story is that it must contain an older, alluring, corrupt individual taking advantage of a young, pure being. The vampire is someone who does not accept the autonomy of another and exploit people for its own needs. An example of this is in The Vampire Assistant novel where the older corrupt vampire Mr. Crepsley essentially forces Darren a young boy with naïve ideals to become a vampire. Darren as the story progress moral fiber to erode as he as to keep continuously disregard his human morality to survive as a vampire. Mr. Crepsley suck the live out of Darren youthful idealism like which is a major theme in the story.

Chapter 4: Now, Where Have I Seen Her Before?
1. What does Foster mean when he says that “there’s no such thing as a wholly original work of literature”?
Foster means to say that every piece of work is inspired by another. A specific device, scene or plot from a piece of literature is to always be believed to be derived from another. Therefore there really is no wholly original work, just regurgitated texts or pieces that allude to more well-known writings.
2. What does Foster mean by the term intertextuality?
Foster means to have intertextuality be recognized as the collaboration of one famous work in another. (ie. A reference to Greek mythology in a modern manuscript)
3. What is the benefit, or value, of picking up on the parallels between works of literature?
The benefit of picking up on the parallels between works of literature is obtaining a better understanding in what the writer is attempting to prevail.
4. Explain two examples that have helped you in reading specific works.
Intertextuality was involved in “The Poisonwood Bible” by incorporating verses and events that alluded to the Bible – especially when reading the titles of different sections in the book!

Chapter 11: … More Than Its Gonna Hurt You: Concerning Violence
1. Why does violence occur in literature?
Violence occurs in literature as symbolic literary devices to help promote the theme or events of the book.
2. What are the two categories of violence in literature?
The specific injury that authors cause characters to visit on one another or themselves. The narrative violence that causes characters harm in general
3. What questions should a reader ask about the violence found in a piece of literature?
What does this type of misfortune represent thematically?
What famous or mythic death does this one resemble?
Why this sort of violence and not some other?
4. Present examples of the two kinds of violence found in literature.
Category 1- shootings, stabbings, garratings, drownings, poisonings, bludgeonings, bombings, hit-and run accidents, starvations
Category 2- the deaths of characters to promote plot advancement or thematic development

Chapter 6:…Or the Bible
1. Why is the Bible so often alluded to in literature? Every writer prior to sometime in the twentieth century was solidly instructed in religion. Even today a great many writers have more than a nodding acquaintance with the faith of their ancestors.
2. What are some of the ways that writers allude to the Bible? Some of the ways that writers allude to the Bible are through titles, quotations, situations, plots, characters, whole stories, motifs, themes, etc. Many modern and postmodern texts are essentially ironic, in which the allusions to biblical sources are used not to heighten continuities but to illustrate a disparity or disruption.
3. What’s the benefit of knowing/understanding Bible allusions in literature? The benefit of knowing/understanding Bible allusions in literature is gaining the ability to look past the surface of the story and see the underlying significance of the story. It allows stories to become timeless and archetypal.
4. Explain a story or novel that you have read that uses Biblical allusions. The Scarlet Letter references the parable found in the Gospel of Matthew with the allusion to the Pearl of Great Price. Pearl’s birth was a sacrifice her mother made that cost her reputation and her marriage.

Chapter 5: When In Doubt, It’s from Shakespeare…
The Titanic is a film that has a similar theme to Romeo and Juliet. The two lovers are at ends because of class differences (family in play), so in secret they fall in love. The boat begins to sink (Tybalt dies), so they try to survive and he dies. Both deal with themes of class separation, love, forbidden love, death, and young love.

Chapter 15: Flights of Fancy
1. Why do so many writers “toy with flight” in their works?
Humans cannot fly* naturally. Therefore it is completely natural to wonder and imagine what the experience would be like. This is evident in the fact that across many cultures from around the world and from many ages, people have always had this desire and some have attempted to portray this experience through written narratives depicting an emulated experience of flight. The idea of “toying with flight” is what results from attempting to understand this unattainable, humanly unnatural phenomena of seemingly defying gravity which cultures with a less developed model of physics attribute to magic.
2. In what ways might flight be symbolic in literature?
Flight in its literal sense can be defined as the movement of an object through the air. Terrestrial creatures, such as humans, would generally view a thrown object as fitting for such a description however the avian creature’s perspective is a controlled flight which to us appears to defy gravity. From our grounded viewpoint the notion of defying a force which pervasively controls every aspect of movement in our lives is liberating. To be able to defy such force, symbolically alludes to freedom. Flight can also evoke other symbols in literature such as escape, which is a derived form of freedom, a strong UPlifting spirit(upward flight symbolizes triumph), or biblical symbolism in the descriptions of divine angel like wings.
3. What is the symbolic deal with interrupted or failed flight?
As regular flight symbolizes freedom and triumph, which are positive attributes, interrupted flight such as falling, symbolizes failure, death. It is important to note that when something falls, it ends up lower than when it started. Symbolically this can represent degradation of a character such as the progressively declining moral values of a character throughout a story or once revered admired public figure slowly fading away out of history. Falling can also allude to more biblical ideas because of the story of Lucifer, the fallen angel who represents rebellion, resentment, protest.
4. Select a literary work in which flight signifies escape or freedom?
In the “The Hunger Games” series of books, the main character Katniss owns a mockingjay pin(a type of bird). In context this is a symbol of freedom because, as we learn from Katniss, the mocking jay bird is not a natural wild species of bird. This bird was created in a lab by genetically engineered species created by the capitol which escaped captivity. This bird parallels Katniss’ life because like the bird, Katniss was also sheltered within her district all her life because of the totalitarian regime which like the scientists controlled every aspect of their lives until one day later on in the books, Katniss escapes and is free from the oppressive clutches of the government.

Chapter 7: Hanseldee and Greteldum
1. Why do writers borrow from “kiddie lit” in their works?
Writers “kiddie lit” their works to provide the reader a better interpretation by using analogies, parallels, and plot structures to other fairy tales in order for the reader to get a better understanding.
2. What are some of the ways writers allude to “kiddie lit” in their writings?
Writers allude to “kiddie lit” to have an in depth connection due fairy tales being very broad with its topics so it would give a better understanding with the author’s writing.
3. Think of a work of literature that reflects a fairy tale. Discuss the parallels.
Alice in Wonderland is an example of a literary work due to it reflecting that a young girl goes to a world that its expectation are the opposite of what is expected in reality, and in this world the opposite is the norm. An example of a parallel would be when the door is too small which was a problem for Alice which relates to someone that contains many problems that cannot fit in the door.

Chapter 8: It’s Greek to Me
1. What does Foster mean by the term myth? According to Foster, a myth is a body of story that matters. It’s a story that functions as material for literary creators whether it’s Shakespearean, biblical, or folk/fairytale. A myth is merely a story that has the ability to explain “ourselves to ourselves” in ways that physics, philosophy, mathematics, chemistry cannot.
2. Why do writers allude to mythology? Writers allude to mythology because it allows them to explain themselves to the reader. Myths for example in Greek mythology Homer presents four aspects that human beings struggle with – nature, divine, other humans, and ourselves. Because the struggles presented in myths like these are applicable to all types of humans in general, writers allude to authors in order to better explain their stories and overall motif of their writings. Alluding to mythology allows the readers to make connections and further understand the authors.
3. What are some of the ways that writers allude to mythology? Writers will use certain references like a struggle with nature to allude mythology. They create an original unique story yet incorporate a theme, a symbol, a motif that references a myth. They use these myths to allow the reader to grasp the idea therefore normally writes allude to mythology by the use of a key idea, a conflict, a solution. Writers use aspects of myths that underlie the story so that the reader is able to grasp the purpose and the significance.
4. Explain two commercials or advertisements derived or inspired by characters or situations from Greek mythology. Nike, the shoe company, uses this name as a logo and as a way to advertise their merchandise. Nike was the Greek goddess of victory; this company advertises their shoes by naming it after a symbol of victory as most of the shoes are used for athletic purposes.
The Honda Odyssey, a car, was named after the Greek king and hero Odysseus who went on a long journey. This car was named after Odysseus in order to convey that this car will travel far and take the owner wherever he/she would like. This was a way of advertising the vehicle as people absorbed the idea that this car could endure long trips.

Chapter 9: It’s More Than Just Rain or Snow
1. How can weather be symbolic in literature?
It can represent the mood of the situation or character, and help develop the plot of the story.
2. How can weather serve as a plot device in literature?
It can help describe the setting or set the mood of a particular scene.
3. What are some of the common “meanings” of various types of weather?
Sunshine is typically associated with happiness, innocence, youth, rain usually symbolizes sadness, thought, resurrection, life, and snow symbolizes death, sadness, and sometimes joy.
4. Discuss the importance of weather in a specific literary work, not in terms of plot.
In The Great Gatsby, it rains when Daisy and Gatsby reunite, representing their uncertain and almost upset emotions, but when their love reawakens, the rain stops and the sun comes out.

Chapter 10: Never Stand Next to the Hero
1. What is the most important thing that characters can do?
Characters have to do things. The reason for their existence is to relay a story, whether the story is meaningful or not. If characters don’t take any action, there is no story and therefore no interest to a reader or viewer.
2. Name three literary works in which the main character’s friend had to die in order to get across a certain point to the main character.
a. Tessa (The Infernal Devices) is kidnapped twice in order for the main villain to marry her and use her special abilities for evil purposes. After her brother Nathan revealed that he was the one who helped in her kidnapping, he was killed off because he had served his previous purposes as a supporting character. His death also meant Tessa was alone in the world, so she must find a new home with her allies.
b. Eragon (The Inheritance Cycle) is a farm boy who becomes the last Dragon Rider in history and must accept the responsibilities of his newfound role. Brom becomes Eragon’s mentor in his abilities but in order to present more challenges to the main character and lead Eragon to his new allies, Brom is killed by monsters sent by the evil king.
c. Ralph (The Lord of the Flies) is the main character and leader of the misfit boys on the island. Another kid named Jack gets into a rivalry with Ralph and when confronted, Piggy dies. Piggy’s death is the symbolism for the fall of order and rise of chaos and savagery among the society of children.
3. Define round / dynamic characters.
Round characters are usually more “believable” than flat characters because they have more personality and characterization than the latter. Dynamic characters evolve over time because they start out with room to grow. The purpose of dynamic characters is to progress a story and/or create meaning to the literature.
4. Define flat / static characters.
Flat characters lack characterization and complexity in their personality and appear to be less “believable” than round characters. Static characters do not evolve through the story and usually have brief appearances that are to aid the main character(s).
5. Why aren’t all characters round characters?
If all the characters were round, they’d all be competing for the reader’s attention, and we wouldn’t know who the main character was. This would also mean books would be a lot thicker with all the details, and the authors would have to do a lot of unnecessary work to capture all these details. Characters are made to serve a purpose, and if they all of their own irrelevant purposes, it would make the story confusing.
6. Present examples, from two books you’ve read or movies you’ve seen, of characters who die so that the hero/heroine might live or be better. Describe these characters in terms of either flat or round characters. How does their relationship to the hero help to characterize them? Remember not to use the examples Foster used.
a. In The Avengers, Phil Coulson dies in order to push the Avengers so they would work together to save the world. Coulson was mostly a flat character and, without context that is outside of the movie, was “made” to serve that sole purpose. His death creates change in the Avengers’ characters and makes them rounder aka dynamic.
b. Aslan from The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe sacrificed himself to save Edmund when Edmund had to atone for his betrayal of his siblings. Aslan and Edmund are both round characters, and Aslan’s sacrifice allows Edmund to live.

Chapter 16: It’s All About Sex…
1. What are some of the things that symbolize sex and/or gender?
Female symbols: chalice, Holy Grail, bowls, rolling landscape, empty vessels waiting to be filled, tunnels, images of fertility. Male symbols: blade, tall building
2. Why does sexual symbolism exist/occur in literature?
“Another reason is that scenes in which sex is coded rather than explicit can work at multiple levels and sometimes be more intense than literal depictions.” (Foster 141)

Chapter 17: …Except Sex
1. When writers write about sex, what are they really writing about?
Writers are usually focusing on the bond between two characters as well as important information about an individual’s characteristics when writing about sex.
2. Why don’t writers usually write actual sex scenes?
Sex is mostly used in writing to convey a metaphorical idea, there are only so many ways an author can write about sex.

Chapter 18: If She Comes Up, It’s Baptism
1. When and how is water symbolic of baptism in literature?
Water is symbolic of baptism in literature quite often. I believe that it is evident that it is symbolizing baptism when the character of a story enters a body of water, whether it be a stream or a river or lake, and exits in some changed form.
2. What does it mean when a character drowns?
When a character drowns it’s like a failed baptism. Instead of emerging a new person they are weighed down by unchanged person they are and have to come to a near-death realization in order to understand themselves. If they survive and emerge from the water they will realize the needed change and the baptism was successful but if they drown then obviously they cannot change and they die the way they were before.
3. Think of a “baptism scene” from a significant literary work. How was the character different after the experience?
An example of this is Fahrenheit 451, when Guy Montag crosses the river in order to wash off his scent to avoid the tracking dogs. He enters the river a desperate man running from the law and exits a confident, changed man who is now free.

Chapter 12: Is That a Symbol?
1. What’s the difference between symbolism and allegory?
An allegory serves as a one-to-one correspondence, meaning that everything directly stands for something else. Take Animal Farm for example, it is a political allegory of the Russian Revolution. A symbol, unlike an allegory, can have a range of possible meanings. It doesn’t stand for just one specific thing.
2. What impacts a readers’ understanding of symbolic meaning?
The symbolic meaning is “determined to a large extent by how the individual reader engages the text.” This means that every reader will pick up different elements from the text they are reading. Readers also use knowledge and background on various issues like “educational attainment, gender, race, class, faith, social involvement, and philosophical inclination.”
3. What, besides objects, can be symbolic?
A symbol can also be any actions or images presented in a literary work.
4. How should a reader approach symbolism in a text?
A reader should think with creative intelligence, listen to their instincts, and pay attention to what their feelings are portraying.
5. Give an example of a short story or novel that uses symbolism.
The Great Gatsby uses quite a bit of symbolism. The east and west egg, the eyes of Doctor TJ Eckleburg, the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock, and the Valley of Ashes are among the symbols used by Fitzgerald.

Chapter 19: Geography Matters…
1. How can geography reinforce theme?
The landscape and easily set the mood and tone for a story.
2. How can geography define/develop character?
The geography that a character is in can shape a character. How they adapt to certain geographical elements shows how their character is.
3. How can geography be character?
The geography can be the main antagonist in a story. For example, in Tom O’Brien’s Going After Cacciato the Vietnam landscape the harsh land has a face of menace.
4. How can geography play an important plot role?
The geography of a story can facilitate characters, inhibit them, or just be their goal, thus being a plot element.
5. What are some patterns of symbolism with regard to geography?
If a character is sent south, it’s so they can run amok. Flat or rolling hills with fertile fields feels homely and nonthreatening.

Chapter 13: It’s All Political
1. In what ways do authors include social criticism in their writings?
Authors use their writings as a way to portray their emotions towards politics through the beliefs or actions of their characters.
2. Why do authors include social criticism in their writings?
I believe Foster includes social criticism in their writings to grasp the reader’s attention. By giving the reader a relatable topic, the writer has formed a connection with the reader and is more likely able to portray his emotions to him.
3. What are some of the common “political” issues that writers tackle?
Writers tackle political issues such as gender interactions, social class relationships, division of power, and racial/ethnicity differences.
4. Assume that Foster is right and “it is all political.” Use his criteria to show that one of the major works you have read during high school is political.
Besides my government book which strictly states that everything is political, I have read Animal Farm by George Orwell which uses animals and compares their “Animalism” to “communism”. Orwell writes this satire in order to show the lies and deception which lead to a bad division in power.

Chapter 20: … So Does Season
Spring is a time of birth, to start anew, to be productive. Summer can indicate freedom, relaxation, carefree. Fall is homely, calming down, almost nostalgic; it can also be foreshadowing. Winter is closing off, trouble approaching.

Chapter 14: Yes, She’s a Christ Figure, Too
1. What are the characteristics of a “Christ figure”?
Christ figures tend to have wounds all over their body and they are in agony. They are enduring the pain to sacrifice themselves. Christ figures also tend to be good with children, loaves, fish, water and wine. They tend to be very forgiving along with being the creator of many aphorisms and parables. They also may have followers. This is not a full list, but these are the most common characteristics. Basically anything that Jesus does in the Bible, could be a characteristic of a Christ-figure.
2. Does a character need to resemble Christ in all ways to be considered a “Christ figure”?
Not at all. An author can use as many characteristics they want, whether it be two or ten. It is just important for the author makes it obvious for the reader to figure out.
3. Why do writers use Christ figures?
Christ figures, like stated above, tend to sacrifice themselves for the good of society. These characters can portray a theme of redemption, hope, or sacrifice. IT can also give the readers a feeling that the Christ figure is the hero.
4. Apply the criteria to a major character in a significant literary work.
In the series, The Chronicles of Narnia, Aslan is the Christ figure. He is good with children, and he provides for many animals in Narnia. The great lion spent much time in the forests of Narnia alone. The citizens of Narnia look up to him. He also sacrificed himself to save Edmund from being killed. His killer, the White Witch, can be perceived as the Devil. But even though Aslan was killed on the Stone Table, he rose from the dead the next morning and proceeded to help the Narnians fight against the White Witch’s forces.

Chapter 21: Marked for Greatness
1. What might physical marks or imperfections symbolize?
Physical marks and imperfections symbolize an obstacle or struggle that a character or person must overcome which can involve morals or emotions.
2. How can landscapes be “marked” as well? What might it mean?
Landscape can be marked by containing a special quality that can provide a structural meaning as well as the development of potential meaning or significance in literature.
3. Beyond the individual, what can imperfection or deformity indicate?
Deformity can take form such as physical imperfection, when caused by social imperfection, often reflects not only the damage inside the individual, but what is wrong with the culture that causes such damage
4. What are some of the symbolic indications of monsters in literature?
The hunch back of Norte Dame and the Beauty & the Beast are both symbolic indications of monsters in literature. Both tales describe a person that is ugly on the outside but have a pretty inside.

Chapter 22: He’s Blind for a Reason, You Know
1. What can physical blindness mirror?
It can represent psychological, moral, or intellectual blindness. Being blind could mirror someone’s moral blindness if they are known for being mean to others and making the wrong decisions.
2. What is often the irony behind a blind character?
When author introduces a physically blind character, there is also most likely metaphorical blindness occurring. Metaphorical blindness could mean that the character is oblivious to something happening in the story. It can be the failure to see reality, love, truth, etc.
3. How are darkness and lightness related to sight?
When you are in the dark, you cannot see anything. By contrast, when you are in the sunlight you can see everything. Blindness can be compared to darkness because the characters cannot see everything that is occurring, whether it be physically or metaphorically.

Chapter 23: It’s Never Just Heart Disease… And Rarely Just Illness
1. What are some of the symbolic possibilities associated with the heart?
Heart disease can show trouble in a relationship or love, loneliness, depression, and anger.
2. Why?
The heart is the center of human emotions. It is commonly known that we feel everything through the heart, such as love being the main example. A sick heart would be implying that there is something off about the character.
3. What things make a “prime literary disease”?
“It should be picturesque, mysterious in origin, and have strong symbolic possibilities.” Foster is trying to say that a good literary disease would be one which is not too obvious to the reader but can still pack a punch.
4. What are some of the conventional symbolic meanings of various illnesses?
AIDS is the modern plagues, which is symbolic in its ability to stay dormant in our bodies. Malaria can show someone suffering due to someone else’s immorality.
5. Recall two characters who died of a disease in a literary work. Discuss the effectiveness of the death as related to plot, theme, or symbolism.
Reverend Dimmesdale from the Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne and Mrs. Mallard from The story of an hour by Kate Chopin. Dimmesdale’s death was symbolic to how his heart could not stand the burden he felt after committing adultery.

Chapter 24: Don’t Read with Your Eyes
1. Why did I italicize “your” in the chapter title, above?
We have to be able to read from another point of view than ours.
2. What is Foster’s main point in this chapter?
Don’t read just to read, become the text and go back to the time it was written and engage in it.
3. Do we have to accept the values of another culture to accept the impact those values had on the writing?
4. Choose a scene or episode from a novel, play, or epic written before the 20th Century. Contrast how it viewed by a reader today versus a contemporary reader. Focus on specific assumptions that the author makes that would not be made in this century.
Edgar Allan Poe wrote a short story called The Masque of the Red Death. It was popular in its time period. Today, it doesn’t matter that much. The story talks about a plague that sweeps the country and how the people had to avoid contact with each other. In today’s world, we don’t have to worry about plagues because we have a cure for pretty much every disease.

Chapter 25: It’s My Symbol and I’ll Cry if I Want To
1. What is a “conceit”?
An extended metaphor as an organizing device.
2. What is the conceit of the symbol of the flea in John Donne’s so-named poem?
The conceit is that the narrator is closer to the flea than he is to his lover.
3. What is the primary meaning that Foster refers to in a work?
The story that it is telling.
4. What is the secondary meaning that Foster refers to in a work?
The metaphorical meanings and the implications.
5. Yeats’ had a great fondness for gyres which seem to have an inside meaning that take work to uncover.
6. What is Foster’s three statements of wisdom toward the end of this chapter? (Hint: They are in bold!)
Use what you know, every work teaches us how to read it as we go along, and you know more than you think you do.

Chapter 26: Is He Serious? And Other Ironies
1. What does Foster mean when he says, “Irony trumps everything”?
Foster means that all of the other things he talks about in the book (such as Quests, Journeys, markers, symbols and diseases) can become insignificant if irony is used by the author.
2. How can you tell if something is ironic?
A story or aspect of a story becomes ironic when the outcome is the opposite of what the readers expect.
3. What does Foster mean when he says, “Irony doesn’t work for everyone”?
For many authors Irony can be difficult to employ, hard to enjoy and can be easily misunderstood by readers who will then be confused.
4. Select an ironic work and explain the nature of the irony in the work.
For instance, in The Gift of the Magi the girl protagonist cuts her beautiful, long hair to buy the fob chain for the male protagonist, who sold his watch to buy her combs that would hold her long hair up. Now both of the gifts are useless. The irony was in the plot twist and was meant to show that the importance of the gifts were not in the gifts themselves but rather the sacrifice it took to present the gifts to one another.

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How To Read Literature Like A Professor Chapter Answers
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