How did the merchant class in northern Italy influence the renaissance?
The merchant class in northern Italy influenced the renaissance from small city-states having a high percentage of citizens that could be involved in politics, which they dominated. They used their wits to be successful and deserved power and wealth from individual merit.

In what ways did literature and the arts change during the renaissance?
Literature and arts changed completely, from writing in vernacular form, self-expression to portray the individuality of a subject.

Artists glorified the human body and promoted the individual.

What did northern European rulers do to encourage the spread of renaissance ideas?
Northern European rulers encouraged the spread of renaissance ideas by being patrons purchasing paintings, and supporting artists and writers.

How were the Christian humanists different from the humanists of the Italian renaissance?
Christian humanists were different than those of the Italian humanists by the Italian humanists wanted to revive classical languages and classical texts, while Christian humanists wanted to reform society, in particular education.

On what three teachings did Martin Luther rest his reformation movement?
The three teachings that Martin Luther relied on for his Reformation movement is that people could only win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness not good works, all church teachings should be clearly based on the bible, and all people with faith are equal. People did not need priests to interpret the bible.

Why did the Holy Roman emperor go to war against Protestant German princes?
The Holy Roman emperor went to war against Protestant German princes because many German princes and to assert their independence from the church and to force princes to enter the church.

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Why did Henry VIII create his own church?
Henry VIII created his own church because he needed a son which required a divorce which the pope refused. That pushed him to split with the church and create the Church of England.

In what ways was John Calvin’s church different from the Lutheran Church?
John Calvin’s church is different from the Lutheran church by Calvin putting an order to the faith that Luther had begun also by expanding Luther’s teachings with “predestination” and a religious government called a “Theocracy” he also followed strict rules.

What was the goal of the catholic reformation?
The goal of the catholic reformation was to help Catholics remain loyal to Catholicism within the catholic church itself, also known as the “counter reformation”.

What are three legacies of the Reformation?
The three legacies of the reformation is that the Roman catholic church became more unified, Protestants gave more emphasis to the role of education in promoting their beliefs, and individual monarchs and states gained power, which led to the development to modern nation-states. People are no longer united by religion, laid the groundwork for later rejection of Christian beliefs.

How did medieval thinking differ from renaissance thinking?
Renaissance thinking was when new ideas flourished compared to the medieval period where ideas remained in the religious theme.

An intellectual movement based on human potential and achievements.

Worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with here and now.

People who put money towards something.

A type of drawing which shows three dimensions on a flat surface

Native Language

The book that Thomas Moore wrote that means “no place”/

William Shakespeare
The most famous writer of the Elizabeth age.

Johann Gutenburg
The craftsman that invented the printing press.

A pardon that released the sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for his sins.

A movement for religious reform

What Luther and his followers were known as

A Christian who belonged to non-catholic churches

Peace of Ausburg
A famous religious settlement

To set aside

A church with Elizabeth at head, to return her kingdom to Protestantism

A government controlled by religious leaders

Followers of Knox

Believers who thought that those who are old enough to decide if they want to be Christian should be baptized.

Catholic Reformation
Helping catholics remain loyal to catholicism within the church itself

Members of the society of Jesus

How did the reformation lead to great changes?
The reformation led to great changes in European ideas and institutions in Religion, Political, and Social fields. First, religion christianity became more unified, split of church, Church of England created, Protestants divided. Second, political monarchs and states gained power, laid the groundwork for Enlightenment, modern nation states. Social effets- end of serfdom, peasants revolted.

What role did the printing press play?
The role that the printing press played in the spread of democracy by allowing people to read more information. More books available, bible more readable, own ideas about religion. More ideas and opinions about democracy and government structure.

How did the renaissance expand cultural interaction?
The Renaissance and reformation expanded cultural interaction in and out of Europe by both Italian artists inspired northern artists and writers (when they were uprooted) through trade.

What conditions were needed for the renaissance to occur?
Conditions needed for the Renaissance was Artists/writers, had to be supported financially. Open new ideas/thoughts, Europe had to be stable/at peace (less money spent to warfare).

How did the role of women change?
Not a drastic change but they were expected to inspire art not create it.

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Chapter 17 Review. (2019, Feb 20). Retrieved from

Chapter 17 Review
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