Criticism & Theory Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION The success of many fast-food chains in Metro Manila is largely due to the fact, that they are able to deliver the equality of services expected of them of the people who lead hurried lives. These people businessmen, executives, ordinary employees and workers, students and others, depend on these fast food chains for their food sustenance to keep them going throughout the day. Thus volume of customers turned to these establishments everyday, that keeps service crew on their toes to attend to them especially during peak hours.

Customers satisfaction however, depends on the efficiency of their service crew in meeting the demands of the many customers they have to attend to everyday. No where is the importance of human resource clearly exhibited than in fast food chains.

According to Martines, people constitute an organization’s most important and vital factor in its success or failure. By and large, while the human factor determines both its input and output, it is also its most significant input and even output in many instances.

Through and by men, the others money, machines materials, methods and markets are acquired and utilized. The quality and utilization of the latter are almost always affected by decisions about and by human resources. Indeed, the accomplishment of the goals of an organization depends upon the availability and utilization of all these ingredients the interaction of which are people caused.

The acquisition, utilization and development of financial, material, technological and marked resources which may be exhaustible are dependents on human resources.

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If the latter is available and capable, the other factors can be of great use to the organization. It is through people that they can be either harnessed and developed or dissipated and lost. Man does or undoes what exists, man creates or by passes opportunities and scenarios. Hence, people power is the most significant and potent factor of all the resources available to an organization.

An organization may start with zero funding, but with creative, resourceful, hardworking and honest people, it becomes financially available has really just begun. The fact that this subordinates can do the job well does not mean that they necessary will. There is always the possibility that the quality and the quantity of their work may fall short of targeted objectives. This implies that job satisfactions and employees morale is dependent on the leadership style of the manager. From these perspective, the study adopts the concept that leadership contributes significantly to the success or failure of the organization, by its effects on the morale and job satisfaction.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The focus of the study is to determined the effects of the leadership style of the managers of the fast food chains on the morale and job satisfactions of the service crew. Specifically, it seek to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the service crew in terms of: a. Sex b. Age c.

Civil Status d. Educational Attainment e. Experience (As service crew) 2. What is the leadership style of the managers of fast food chain as perceived by the service crew? 3. What is the level or degree of job satisfaction of the service crews? 4.

What is the degree of job satisfaction among the service crews? 5. Does leadership style of managers affect the morale and job satisfaction of the service crews? ASSUMPTIONS The study and the problems advanced herein are based on the following premises: 1. Managers of the three fast food have more or less similar leadership style. 2. The morale and job satisfaction are partly influenced or enhanced by leadership style of the managers.

3. Managers do not adopt a single leadership style. HYPOTHESES In relation with the problems and assumptions advanced in the study, the following hypotheses are tested: Managers has no single or specific leadership style; The service crew are the human resources of the fast food chains o who rest the success of these organization through customers satisfaction. In relation to this, the foregoing looks on the effects of managers leadership on the morale and job satisfaction of their service crew of leading fast food chains (Jollibee, McDonalds and Wendy’s) in Metro Manila. These three fast food chains, Jollibee, McDonald’s and Wendy’s are among the most successfully operated fast food chains in Metro Manila.

They employ hundreds of service crews managed and supervise by able managers designed in their difference branches. In determining the effects of these managers leadership style on the morale an job satisfaction, the study is undertaking from the employees (service crews) point of view. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK According to Lorenzana, even if the organization has been properly staffed and workers have been trained to the point where they are suite capable of doing a good job, the managers work as a director (and leader) of people. The leadership style of mangers has no effect on the morale and job satisfaction of the service crews. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY The study limited its investigation to 120 service crews of the three leading fast food chains in Metro Manila; Jollibee, McDonald’s and Wendy’s.

it specifically focused on the determination of the effects of the managers leadership style on the morale and job satisfaction of the service crews. The study’s major limitation is the fact that it does not attempt to make a comprehensive evaluation of the other factors that may affect job satisfaction and morale like working conditions, pay and son on. The study also does not make an attempt to compare the manager’s leadership styles between the three fast food chains. Thus, the study is generally focused rather than specifically focused, at least on the aspects of leadership style effects on the morale and job satisfaction of the subjects. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY the study is deemed significant to managers, as it bring forth through its findings, the vital perspective on the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction and morale among their subordinates.

These may serve as bases for formulating a framework of management and leadership style appropriate in local setting aim not only in bringing about sound management practices, but in enhancing greater efficiency and productivity among Filipino employees and workers as a result of better employee- management relationship. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following are some of the terms that are given their operational definitions according to the context they are used in the study: Age – It refers to the chronological are of the respondents as expressed in terms of years. Autocratic Leadership – it means the type of leadership where the leader tells and concerns or threatens for compliances; authoritarian and despotic. Civil Status – it refers to the status of being single, married, widowed, divorced or separated. Democratic Leadership – Means the leadership that is characterized by participant decision- making and consultative assemblies to enforce majority decision of the group.

Educational Attainment – the term means the highest education attained by the respondents. Experience – as used in the study refers to the number of years the respondents worked as service crew, expressed in years. Laissez faire – It is a free- reign leadership, characterized by high people orientation and little task orientation. Leadership – as used in the study refers to the behavior of an individual who is involved in directing group activities. Leadership style – It is the pattern of behavior designed to integrate organizational and personal goals and interests in the pursuit of objectives.

As used in the study it refers on the behavior adopt by an individual in directing group activities. Morale – means the state of mind with reference to confidence, satisfaction and cheerfulness. Satisfaction – particularly job satisfaction is a general towards ones job; the difference between the amount of rewards the workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. Sex – Refers to the respondents gender attributes, whether female or male. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the researcher presents a resume of literature that have significance to the present study.

On Leadership According to Plunkett and Attner, in interacting with employees in the work environment, a manager must play four basic leadership roles; educator, councilor, judge and spokesperson. All managers must perform the leadership role of educator. Managers fulfill this role by teaching employees job skills as well as acceptable behavior and organizational values. Managers accomplish much of behavioral education through the execution of their own daily work. Their work habits, attitudes and behavior serve as a role model to all who observe them.

In addition to providing education, managers are ultimately responsible for the formal training of their employees. They may provide this skills training directly or arrange for it to be provided by other. Regardless of who ultimately performs the training, the managers should be knowledgeable about training principles learning theory, and training techniques in order to perform this role. There are many opportunities for fast food chain managers to assume this role. Most of them educates their subordinates on company operations and policies.

A second leadership role of a manager is councilor. This role involves listening, giving advice and preventing and solving employees problem. In performing this role, managers are fulfilling two expectations of the employees; 1. Awareness and concern for the individual employee; and . Assistance in solving a problem.

The counselor role does not mean that the manager is expected to solve all the employees problem, but it does mean providing help in recognizing the basic problem and in searching for potential solutions. Fast food managers often assume the role as adviser or counselor. They offer advice on their subordinates on how they can effectively do their tasks, and on work related problems. Playing the leadership role of judge involves appraising subordinates performances; enforcing policies, procedures, and regulations, settling disputes, and dispensing justice. Appraising or evaluating performance requires a knowledge of the standards that are used to measure output.

The enforcing of policies, procedures, and regulations is tied to communication and to training. People should be told, and shown what limits and guidelines exist and how these apply to their specific situations. The function of settling disputes requires the exercise of tact and concern for resolution of conflicts. Dispensing justice entails giving credit and rewards, as well as appropriate discipline. Managers act as spokespersons for subordinates when they relay their suggestions, concern and points of view to higher authorities.

“Doing something” about subordinates problems may mean going to bat for them on a higher management level. It may mean that the manager will have to fight for changes to improve procedures, morale and working conditions. In performing this leadership role a manger must be willing to represent a subordinate’s view even when she or he disagrees with it. In pursuing these leadership roles, the managers may adopt one or combination of the following leadership styles: 1. Democratic type This type of leader is characterized by his concern for the achievement of goals set with the group.

He is sensitive and understand the needs of the individuals and groups within the organization and helps them to fulfill their needs as well as the functions of the group. He maximizes the use of communication and encourages open inquires, discussions and disagreements. 2. Autocratic or Dictatorial type This type of leader uses authority and title to hide certain shorting because he feels insecure. He is domineering toward staff members and co-workers but submissive towards superior officers.

The autocratic leader is rigid and reluctant to delegate authority or to permit staffs subordinates to participate in policy and decision- making matters. 3. Laissez – Faire Type This leader gives complete freedom to group or individual decisions with the minimum of leader participation or direction. This type of leadership merely supplies materials and remains apart from the group and participates only when required. He makes no attempt to evaluate or regulate the members of the group of their progress towards achieving their goals and objectives.

The laissez faire type behavior is premised on the belief that the members of the group posses the ability to solve their problems and to determine their goals. Regardless of the leadership style that a manager applies, he or she is important in the organization. The success of an organization will largely depend on the kind of leader the organization has. With all the factors present in a no organization, the success or failure of any organization, whether governmental, business,civil, social political, whether service or profit- oriented, will largely depend on the kind of eader and the people in the organization. In the study about leadership styles and their development, leadership theories were formulated.

Fiedler holds that the most appropriate style of leadership for a manager depends on the situation in which a managers works The contingency model which e developed shows that the effectiveness of a leader is determined by the interaction of the managers orientation (task or employee) with three situational variables: leader- member relationships, task structure and leader position power. Leader- member refers to the degree to which the leader is or feels accepted by the group. It is measured by the degree of respect, confidence, and trust the subordinates feel from good to poor. If the relationship is rated as good, the leader should be able to exercise influence over the subordinates easily. On the other hand, if there is friction or distrust, the manager may have to resort to favors to get performance.

Task structure concerns the nature of the subordinates job or task. If reflects the degree of structure in the job; a structured job would be routine in nature with prescribed processes. An example would be the position of file clerk. An unstructured job would have complexity and variety, and room for creativity. Leader position power describes the organizational power has from which the individual manager operates.

The path- goal theory of leadership is concerned with the ways in which a leader can influence a subordinates motivation, goals, and attempts at achievement. It suggests that a leadership style is effective or ineffective on the basis on how the leader influences the perceptions of: 1. Work goals or rewards of subordinates 2. Path (behavior) that lead to successful goal accomplishment. According to Jose and Micheal, subordinates are motivated by a leaders behavior.

This behavior influences both goal attractiveness and the paths available to reach the goals. Their theory contains two propositions concerning leaders behavior: 1. Leader behavior is acceptable and satisfying to subordinates to the extent that they view such behavior as either an immediate source of satisfaction or an instrument to future satisfaction. 2. Leader behavior will increase subordinates efforts if it links satisfaction of their needs to effective performance, and is supportive of their efforts to achieve goals performance.

The theory provides types of leadership behaviors based on the work needed. These are: 1. Instrumental behavior It involves the planning monitoring and task assignment aspect of leadership. Instrumental behavior can be used to increases an employees work effort or clarify outcomes. 2.

Supportive Behavior It involves the employee oriented concern for the welfare and needs of subordinates. In addition, it includes creation of a warm, pleasant climate. 3. Participative Behavior It involves using subordinates ideas in decision making. A subordinates who operates independently and who has ability would respond favorably to this approach.

4. Achievement- Oriented Behavior This involves both developing a highly challenging climate for an employee and demanding good performance. These leadership behaviors are based on the situational factors. There are two situation factors that influentce leadership behavior: 1. The personal characteristic of the subordinates.

2. The environmental pressures and demands with which subordinates must cope to accomplish goals and satisfy personal needs. Personal characteristics of a subordinate include the person’s ability, self- confidence, and needs. These elements described the performance level of the ability and the degree of confidence in performing the job. This factor of personal characteristic affects how subordinates view their leader and themselves.

The stronger their abilities and beliefs in themselves, the less supervision they will tolerate from the boss. Environmental pressures include the influence on subordinates that hey cannot control but which affect their abilities to perform the tasks effectively. Co- workers, the tasks assigned, and the leaders exercise of power are examples of these influences. Co- workers who are not cooperating can influence job performance and minimize an employee’s perception of completing the job. On Morale Jucius, wrote that organizational cooperation and conflict are significantly affected by employee morale.

Hence, in personnel management it is important to understand the meaning of morale, the theory of morale development and the factors of morale development. Simply stated, morale is a state of mind and spirit, affecting willingness to work, which in turn affects organizational and individual objectives. Morale may range from very high to very low. It is not an absolute but is subject to change, depending upon management’s plans and practices. This simple definition emphasizes willingness to work.

This is important, a person contented with one’s lot may do only enough to get by. Another person works hard because of dissatisfaction and wants to achieve betterment. Good morale would scarecely be a condition of the former; it could well be of the latter. Dissatisfaction of a group need not be a sign of poor morale when it is associated with a deserve to improve through cooperation with organizational goals. Dissatisfaction with management could however well e a sign of poor morale.

Morale is, in essence, conditioned by a group’s understanding of the relation between personal interests and company interests. Employees who conclude that their interest are being served fairly when they contribute to the organization’s interests develop a favorable attitude of mind. Conversely, their attitude is poor when they perceive an unfair treatment of their interests. Essentially, then, morale develops out of a mutual satisfaction of interests. In the case of employees, they understand that to gain their goals, they must help the company achieve its goals.

And employees must also believe that the share they get is fair in relation to what they and others contribute. If the interests of all parties to a group endeavor are in their respective minds, fairly served, their morale will be high. Morale development takes place, therefore, through the process of successfully integrating interests. Immediately, good morale has some very important results for management and for employees. Management finds that subordinates are willing to follow their requests and commands with enthusiasm and respects.

Indeed, work is done without the need of commands or supervision. This is a very pleasant condition for the executive who will find that employees will work hard in the face of difficulties. When overtime or holiday work is called ofr, the response will be quick and understanding. And most of all, employees openly show the attitude of respects for an confidence in their leaders which is so satisfying to the leaders themselves. Good morale has immediate effects upon employees too.

They work with satisfaction and pleasure. The hours of work go by in an atmosphere of relaxed effort. Nothing seems to drag, the days are not empty and boring, and a feeling of insignificance is absent. It is in short good to work and in association with one’s co- workers and one’s superiors. Work as much as it can be is a pleasure and not a misery.

These immediate effects cause some desirable ultimate effects. To management, there is higher output of better products at lower costs. And in turn, there will be more consistent, higher profits. To employee there are higher wages, more secure employment, and a higher standard of living. And to society in general, there are more goods and services obtained more effectively from the limited supply of resources.

These effects do not all flow morale itself. Morale should not be looked upon as the only source of success. Even the best employee cannot make bricks without straw. But the best employee can do much, much better gives the same materials that can the worker whose morale is low. It is now pertinent to note the factors which have an effect upon employee morale.

As a broad statement, anything can do influence the attitude of employees, the factors are limitless. But practically speaking, morale is related to the following: 1. Employee factors The quality of morale is definitely influenced by the type of employees. Understanding has significant effects upon morale. And understanding is dependent in part upon the ability of people to understand.

If then, the ability of employees to understand reasonable explanations is low, management, try as it may, will not be able to get across its messages. Thus, in its hiring policies, a company should seek not only people who are capable of doing their jobs but also those who can grasp the logical relationship and rewards involved in group effort. The status and roles of employees have a bearing upon the possibilities of morale development. Employees may be members of a union. In that case, they will invariably take on attitudes are reactions because of their membership.

This does not mean that such attitudes will necessarily be negative. But it does mean that management will have to deal with a group which is not easy to convince of the views it considers correct. Even when not organized, labor may take on particular attitudes because of such things as labor- management history in a given community or the manner in which labor looks upon itself in the factory. 2. Management Practices The most important group of factors affecting morale are those falling within the province of management.

Few employees; indeed would be aware of or disinterested in how management deal with such matters of pertinence to them as goals, policies, procedures and communications. Any of these subjects can have serious impact upon the morale of the employees. Any one of these areas has more than enough powder to blow upon the relations between labor and management. The behavior of executives is particularly significant as a morale factor. Some executives are autocratic in their attitude toward subordinates.

Others imply a feeling that they are better that their subordinates that the latter are second class citizens. Others are suspicious of the motives and actions of employees and openly indicate their lack of confidence. Other avoid, if not despise, the company of their workers. And still others are contemptuous of the intelligence of employees. Such attitudes are quickly noted.

Obviously, it is natural for employees to return a negative attitude of mind. To reverse these behaviorisms serves to enhance the morale of employees. The author indeed emphasized how leadership style of management could affects the morale of the employees as one factor of morale development. 3. Extra Company forces and factors Morale may also be affected by forces and factors outside the company itself.

The union is significant example and various community and family relationships are another. The union is so interwined, and becoming increasingly more so with company affairs that it may be incorrect to classify it as an extra company agency. But legally it is, of not in other relationships. Certainly it is a potent morale factor. How employees feels toward their company is significantly determined by the indoctrination they receive from their unions.

And at times such as during a strike their attitude seems to be totally swayed by this force. Other extra company forces affecting employees morale are numerous. Though it may not be company business, an employee’s attitude toward at work is affected by a variety of things, such as; 1. How well he gets along with spouse, children and relatives. 2.

The nature of associations with friends and neighbors. 3. The state of personal health or of family well- being. 4. Whether or not the worker has picked a winner is politics, in a favorite team or in the last football pool.

5. Environmental factors in the community, such as parking and traffic conditions, housing conditions and ecological conditions. It might seem a herclean task to cope with such as infinite variety of morale factors. This is not so. Not all are effective at the same time.

But to work with any of them, management should be able to determine which ones are effective at particular times. On Job Satisfaction and Morale Robbins describes job satisfaction as an attitude. A person with a high level or job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward a job, while a person who is dissatisfied hold negative attitudes about the job. Attitudes of a person depend on the values they hold and that is important to them. Values strongly influence a person’s attitudes.

An employee’s performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if his or her values fit well within the organization. The determinants of job satisfaction are mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, supportive colleagues and personality job fit. Mentally challenging work employees to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Equitable rewards, pay systems and promotion policies that are fair and just, and in line with their expectations. Supportive working conditions, concerns the work environments of both personal comfort and feedback.

Temperature, light, noise and other environmental factors should be conductive. Supportive colleges; money or tangible achievements are not all that matter, work also fills the need for social interaction. Having friendly and supportive co- workers and boss increases Job satisfaction. Personality Job fit theory; people with personally types congruent with their chosen vocations should find that they have the right talents and ability to meet the demands of their jobs. Satisfied and committed employees, for instance have lower rates of turnover and absenteeism.

There are at least 4 reasons why organizations should consider the level of job satisfaction: 1. Dissatisfied employees skip work more often and more likely to resign. 2. Dissatisfied employees are more likely to engage in distructive behaviors. 3.

Satisfied employees have better health and live longer. 4. Satisfaction on the job carries over to the employee’s life outside the job. According to Lyman Porter and Lawyer, satisfaction is defined as the extent to which the rewards actually received meet or exceed the perceived equitable level forwards. The greater failure of actual rewards to meet or exceed perceived equitable rewards, the more dissatisfied a person is considered to be in a given situation.

There are four relative independent areas that will or will not contribute to job satisfaction: 1. Intrinsic satisfaction with the work itself 2. Satisfaction with the company, its goals, policies and procedures 3. Satisfaction with the relationship with co- workers and supervisors; satisfaction regarding rewards and advancement opportunities. 4.

Theory X and Theory Y were mentioned in the analysis. A flexible combination of both theories should be used to allow foe differences in people and conditions. In relation to satisfaction and performance, they found out that attitudes were related significantly to performance. As for what Vroom’s theoretical analysis Job Satisfaction is closely affected by the amount of reward that people derive from their job and level of performance is closely affected by the basis of attainment of rewards. Individuals are satisfied with their jobs to the extent to which their jobs provide them with what they desire, and they perform effectively in them to the extent that effective performance le

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Criticism & Theory Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies
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