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Chemistry Research Paper Topics & Free Essay Examples

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Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction

Introduction: In this experiment, we utilized the ability for the iodide ion to become oxidized by the persulphate ion. Our general reaction can be described as: (NH4)2S2O8 + 2KI A I2 + (NH4)2SO4 + K2SO4 (1a) However, we know that in an aqueous solution, all of these compounds except iodine will dissociate into their ionic…

Calcium Carbonate and Ca2+ Ions

Experiment. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown solution Experiment. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ in an unknown water sample Modified 9/2012 Objective: The most common multivalent metal ions in natural waters are Ca2+ and Mg2+. In this experiment, you will find the total concentration of calcium ions that can react with EDTA with the assumptions…

A Guaiacol Dye-Coupled Reaction Reports That Catalytic Activity of Peroxidase Isolated

Enzymes are proteins which serve to reduce the activation energy required for biological reactions (Russell and others 2010). This allows biologically important chemical reactions to occur rapidly enough to allow cells to carry out their life processes (Russell and others 2010). Enzymes are made of one or more polypeptide strands, which individually or as an…

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To Determination the Partition Coefficient of Ethanoic Acid Between Water and Butan-2-Ol

To determination the partition coefficient of ethanoic acid between water and butan-2-ol. Procedure 1. The room temperature was recorded. 2. 15cm3 of the given aqueous ethanoic acid and 15cm3 of butan-2-ol were poured into a 100cm3 separating funnel, using suitable apparatus. The funnel was stoppered and was shook vigorously for 1 to 2 minutes. (The…

Gun Powder

Gunpowder (a. k. a black powder) is a mixture of sulphur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate. Gunpowder is a compound that can be made just using potassium nitrate and charcoal, but without the sulphur, the powder is not as strong as with the sulphur. It burns rapidly, producing a volume of hot gas that is made…

Heat Transfer

Consider the cylindrical receiver in a solar thermal power plant shown below. The receiver is made of opaque material and has a diameter D = 8m and length L = 14m. At a particular time, the heliostats direct a concentrated solar flux of q”S = 80 kW/m2 onto the receiver. The ambient air has a…

X-ray interactions with matter

This document presents the interactions of x-ray with matter. It talks about the five types of x-ray interactions with matter, photoelectric absorption, compton scattering, pair production, coherent interaction, and photodisintegration. Each of this x-ray interactions are discussed in a manner that it can be understood by the general public. This document also dwells on the…

Experiement to test for anions and cations

The aim of the experiment is to test an unknown substance with a variety of experimental methods, by doing this the identity of the substance will be known. The two types of different testing methods will be anions and cations. Cations are positively charged ions; this is because the atom looses an electron during a…

Assessing Ethanol From Cell Wall Polysaccharides

Introduction With lifting demand for alternate fuels, ethyl alcohol is emerging as a good option for some good grounds more significantly, it can cut down pollution. The major beginning for production of ethyl alcohol is transition of biomass by agitation. Conventionally, ethyl alcohol is made from agitation of Sugarcane or maize. However they are non…

Retort stand and clamp

In reference to the safety aspect, the radiation source is kept inside a lead block, inside a wooden box, inside another wooden block, tongues are present for the movement of the source so it never directly handled. The sources themselves are in holders, which channel the radioactive output in one direction alone. However as I…

Jared Diamond versus Charles Mann on the Sophistication of Metalwork

Jared Diamond’s theory in his book Guns, Germs and Steel states that the Europeans were able to conquer the Natives because of their favorable geography, a key factor that lent itself to the manufacturing of steel and which Charles Mann, author of 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, also discusses in detail.Both Diamond…

Aflatoxins

Drumhead Aflatoxins are extremely toxic fungal metabolites found in human and carnal nutrients. Aflatoxin B1 is the most carcinogenic and mutagenic metabolite nowadays in animate being, feedstuff and alterations to Aflatoxin M1 in milk. Aflatoxin M1 has a considerable hygienic hazard for human wellness. Previous researches have been shown different attacks for decontamination of this…

Determination of the amounts

Determination of the Amounts of Sodium Hydroxide Solution and Sodium Carbonate in a Mixed Solution Date of Experiment: 21/9/2005 Objective: To determine the percentage by mass of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate in a mixed solution. Introduction Sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide are both alkaline in nature. When hydrochloric acid is added to the mixture,…

Antacid effectiveness analysis

1. To determine the neutralizing ability of antacids in different brands. 2. To compare the effectiveness of commercial antacids and their side effects. Reasons for Choice of Topic In nowadays, many HK people are suffering from upset stomach due to heavy workload, nervous tension due to the stress of daily life and poor eating habit,…

Compared to the original Daniell Cell

By completing and testing this hypothesis our group believes that it will factor in the aim of increasing the voltage and current of our Daniell Cell. Hypothesis 2 According to the Standard Reduction Potentials for Half-Reactions table, our group hypothesises that by changing the half cells so that their E0 values are a greater distance…

Furagin: Forced Degradation Studies

Furagin: Forced Degradation Surveies Index Index of Figures Index of Tables Abstraction Keywords Abbreviations 1.Introduction 1.1.Forced debasement surveies 1.1.1. Overview of regulative counsel 1.1.2. Review of bing literature and different attacks 1.2.Furagin 1.2.1. Chemical and Physical Information 1.2.2. Pharmaceutical Information 1.2.3. Impurities 2.Aim of the Study 3.Method 3.1.Equipment and stuffs 3.1.1 Method AHPLC/AUPLC 3.1.2 Method…

Uses and applications of Graphene Paper

Uses & A ; Applications of Graphene Paper Abstraction Graphene oxide paper was ab initio separated in 2004 via scientists in the North Western University. It is a sort of paper that is ready from Graphite by oxidization responses. It is 10 times stronger than steel, more slender and tantrum to take power and these…

Making a standard solution

To find the molarity of the unknown acid, first we had to create a standard solution, the solution we created was Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). We wanted a 0. 1 molar solution of sodium hydroxide so to get this we had to dissolve 4g of NaOH into 1000cm? of water, but we didn’t want 1000cm? we…

Electroplating works

This research was found from a website that gave the process of electroplating and how it works. It basically explains what electroplating is and what its function is in the process of electroplating. A section from this website gives detail parts of how electroplating works: “Electroplating is the deposition of a metallic coating onto an object by…

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF INDICA RICE BPT5204 WITH CRY1Aa3 GENE

Introduction It is indispensable that we better our nutrient production and distribution in order to feed and maintain a turning universe population free from hungriness, while at the same clip cut downing the environmental impacts of high populations and bettering the quality life for most worlds. This will necessitate continued development and responsible use of…

Extraction of metals and Alloys

An alloy is a mixture of metals, which may have different and improved qualities from metal elements, which make it. The percentage of elements in an alloy can be tailored to the application or purpose it is being made for. Usually an alloy is made of one metal (the base metal) with small amounts of…

Chromatography and Solvents

Chromatography is a method of separating compounds and mixtures so that they can be identified and analyzed. The word chromatography means color writing. There are many kinds of chromatography such as the thin layer chromatography, Partition chromatography, Column chromatography, and Paper chromatography. Chromatography is important in the analysis of processes and materials such as environmental…

Aristo Book 5 Experiment Answer Essay

HKDSE CHEMISTRY – A Modern View ( Chemistry ) Experiment Workbook 5 Suggested replies Chapter 52 Importance of industrial procedures Chapter 53 Rate equation Experiment 53. 1 Determining the rate equation of a reaction utilizing method of initial rate ( A microscale experiment ) 1 Chapter 54 Activation energy Experiment 54. 1 Determining the activation…

The Laramie Project

This paper example uncovers the main arguments and facts regarding Project. Find out about The Laramie Project below. The polymer will lose its high bendable strength as more water is animal units bonded together. Polyvinyl acetate is a rubbery synthetic polymer. This polymer is a component in glue. Mixing borax with polyvinyl acetate will cause…

Thermal insulators

To investigate different materials for the most effective thermal insulator for a house. Introduction Heat transfer is the gain and loss of energy. There are three ways in which thermal energy can be transferred:  Conduction  Convection  Radiation Conduction – this is when energy travels from molecule to another. When one molecule receives energy it begins…

The Pygmy Chain Sword Plants

Understanding the process of photosynthesis is also vital in other areas, such as medicine, agriculture, energy production, and even electronics. In medicine, since light has extremely high energy content, sometimes it can cause damage to living organisms such as skin cancer and skin aging. To combat the high-energy content, plants developed photoprotective mechanisms to limit…

Fermentaion

Dilution is achieved by controlling the flow of process water from the dilution tank TAB 1201 into the mixer GAL. 1230. Process water flow rate is controlled to achieve the desired density of the mixed solution. The now diluted C-molasses solution flows into the vapor condensate EAI 1204, where it is preheated by the condensing…

Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone

Megan Entwistle, Maria Amos, and Paul Golubic CHEM 0330 Organic Lab 1 Sodium Borohydride Reduction: Diphenylmethanol from Benzophenone 11/16/11 Introduction Redox (shorthand for REDuction-OXidation) reactions are chemical reactions in which the oxidation state (or oxidation number) of atoms has changed. Oxidation can be observed through the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state…

Specific Heat Capacity

In this experiment, we are going to use a calorimeter (a solid metal block of aluminium). And we are going to expose it to different temperatures and measure the difference in temperature over time. We will also measure the changes in electric properties from the heater over time: Volts and Amperes. In order to get more…

Advances in Automobile Emission Control Techniques

Contents: Abstract Introduction Types of emissions a) Tailpipe emissions b) Evaporative emissions 4. Emission standards 5. Need to control emissions 6. Emission Testing Procedures 7. Emission control techniques I. Tailpipe emission control techniques i) Increasing engine efficiency by Electronic Ignition, Fuel injection… ii) Increasing vehicle efficiency ii) Increasing driving efficiency iv) Cleaning up the emissions…

The chemistry of the stratosphere

Open book paper Different methods of collecting data to investigate the chemistry of the stratosphere The troposphere extends from 12km – 50km above the Earth’s surface. Ozone is present from 15km – 35km. Many different techniques are used to investigate the stratosphere. Monitoring Measurements can be taken using the helium balloons. A 10 miles long…

Investigate the Strength of Straw

The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the relationship between the number of straw used and the strength of straw when weigh is constant. First and foremost, experiment was started by using one straw. The initial reading from the pointer was taken before the masses were suspended. Then, the slotted mass carrier together with…

Discussion of the adaptations of plants

Salt marshes are intertidal ecosystems, surrounded by land and open to the sea by way of an estuary (Pomeroy & Wiegert 1981). As a result salt marshes are constrained, by silt and saline water, to the type of communities it can sustain (Ranwell 1972). However because of the tidal nature of these ecosystems and the…

Air Pollution Flashcards

Carbon Monoxide A gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels, mostly in cars. It cannot be seen or smelled. Nitrogen Dioxide A reddish-brown gas that comes from the burning of fossil fuels. It has a strong smell at high levels. Particulate Matter Solid or liquid matter that is suspended in the air Stratospheric…

Tungsten in light bulbs

  The reason for tungsten’s unusually high melting point is that potassium was located in small bubbles in the tungsten. It is these potassium bubbles which provide the wire with its unique high temperature creep resistance. Potassium is essentially insoluble in the tungsten. The bubbles are first formed from the doped powder in the pure…

Lost Foam Casting

LOST FOAM CASTING ——————————————————————————————————————— ABSTRACT: The Report presents some theoretical and practical aspects regarding the casting of alloys in lost foam moulds. The stages of the procedure, the economic benefits and several ecological aspects are synthetically presented. KEY WORDS: casting, alloys, lost foam process, Expanded polystyrene ——————————————————————————————————————— Introduction The lost foam casting process offers several…

The Arrhenius Equation and Activation Energy

In this lab, our task is to determine how different degrees of temperature affect reaction rates. A Swedish chemist, named Svante Arrhenius discovered the relationship between temperature and reaction rate. In finding this relationship a new equation was formed called the Arrhenius Equation: Reaction rate constant k = A e -Ea/RT The factor A represents the frequency of…

ATOC 1060

The term “albedo” refers to the absorption of radiation False Without an atmosphere, the earth’s temperature would be a frigid -100 degrees Celsius False Over the past 400,000 years, CO2 abundances in Earth’s atmosphere have varied in correlation with Earth’s temperature True Molecules are called ‘greenhouse gases’ if they Absorb infrared radiation, but are transparent…

(Chapter 3) Environmental Toxicology

basic assumptions of toxicology all substances are poisons; there is none that is not a poison. the right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy. “the dose makes the poison” toxicology the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms Paracelsus –one of the founders of modern toxicology–active during time of da Vinci…

Synthesis of chloropentaaminecobalt(lll) chloride

  Insert the tube into the MSB and take a mental average of the fluctuating reading. 5. Repeat the previous step three times. 6. If the MSB displays a negative number, the coordination complex is diamagnetic and no further steps are necessary. 7. Determine how many unpaired electrons reside on the cobalt. E. Interpreting Infrared…

The final product

Abstract: In this experiment three Werner complexes, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride, pentaamminechlorocobalt(III) chloride and hexaamminenickel(II) chloride were synthesized so their structural formula could be examined through magnetic susceptibility, electronic conductance measurements and the analysis of free chloride in the two cobalt complexes through titrations of silver nitrate. Cobalt (III) coordination compounds usually only form in low spin,…

Diagnostic Subsurface Horizons

Agric -illuvial horizon formed under cultivation-significant amounts of illuvial silt, clay and humus-directly below Ap horizon-thickness of 10cm or greater Albic -eluvial horizon that is lightly colored and low in clay and oxides (leaching)-1cm or greater-separate horizons that, if they were together, would meet requirements for a mollie epipedon or separate lamellae that together would…

High Technology Fibers

HIGH TECHNOLOGY FIBRES FOR TECHNICAL TEXTILES 1 INTRODUCTION Human life is surrounded by hundreds of textile fibres either in the form of clothes, interior textiles or in the form of high performance technical textiles made of conventional or high technology fibres for various applications. A textile fibre is usually defined as a flexible, macroscopically homogenous…

Ames Test

The Spot-Overlay Ames Test was used in the lab to find the mutagenesis of Diet Coke and ThermaFlu. Along with these substances three mutant strains of salmonella were also tested. TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538 all lacked the ability to grow the amino acid histidine unless reverted back by the potential mutagens. After the…

Flame Test

Title: Flame Test Aim: To determine the cation in each of the unknown substance X, Y and Z by observing the flame colour of different metal compounds. Introduction: A distinctive feature of many s-block metals is their ability to produce flame colours. At temperature of a Bunsen flame, a compound will decompose to give gaseous…

The Lambda Protocol Physics Investigation

This experiment is designed to produce ? -DNA bound in gel to fragment according to the restriction enzyme used to cut it up and to the sizes of these subsequent fragments. The aim of this experiment is to produce a -DNA fragmentation, which will be of known sizes because the entirety of the -DNA genome…

Determining the Molecular Weight of a Volatile Liquid

In today’s society, many products are designed to undergo many chemical reactions before the desired product(s) is created. This principle, also known as chemical synthesis, is an integral part in the operation of products such as an automobile airbag. Beginning with the releasing of nitrogen gas to inflate the bag and ending with the production…

Devoid of life

Roughly 126-127 thousand cubic kilometres is contained in lakes, rivers and streams (Clarke 1993: 8; Marshak and Prothero 2001: 479). Water inter-reacts with the three other spheres and can erode rock using onshore wave action or flood movement, transporting material as with moraines or lahars (Gomez et al. 2002: 217-222), warm or cool the atmosphere,…

Surface tension of water

The capillary rise method was used to measure the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and acetic acid. Molar concentrations of 0. 5 M and 1. 0 M for each solution were tested. The results were then compared to the surface tension of pure water to observe how solute properties affect the surface…

Nitrosyl Complexes: Preparation

The aims of this experiment are as followed: 1) To distinguish between the linear and bent coordination and draw possible metal to NO coordination modes. 2) To form the product [NiBr (NO) (PPh3)2] and provide a balanced equation for the product. 3) To record the melting point, weight and infra-red spectrum of the product. Assign…

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