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World Religions

Jewish history begins with stories recounted in the Hebrew Bible or the
Tanakh

Jewish teachings and traditional practices are codified in the compendium of law and lore called the
Talmud

The stone tablets on which God had inscribed the commandments were kept in the tabernacle known as the
Ark of the Covenant

Non-Jewish peoples may be referred to as
gentiles

Under Greek oppression, some Jews began to believe that there would be a __________, who would bring evil to an end and establish a reign of peace.
Messiah

A Jewish meeting place is called a
synagogue

In the process of __________, rabbis have actually introduced new ideas into Judaism while claiming they were merely revealing what already existed in the scriptures.
exegesis

The name for God’s presence in the world is
Shekhinah

The movement dedicated to the establishment of a politically viable Jewish state is known as
Zionism

A traditional Jewish prayer shawl is called a
talit

The Pentateuch refers to the
Five books of Moses

The covenant is a
contract between God and God’s people

The scattering of Jews outside of the land of Israel is known as the
Diaspora

Which was not a Jewish sect in Judaea during the time of the Hasmonean kings?
Samaritans

A minyan is a
quorum of ten adult Jewish males

What is the name of the movement emphasizing ecstatic piety?
Hasidism

Which is the Jewish holy day of atonement and cleansing?
Yom Kippur

Modern Israel became an independent Jewish state in what year?
1948

Many Jews believe that a Jewish state is the only way for Jews to resist and survive Anti-Semitism
true

On God’s behalf, Isaac attempted to sacrifice his son Abraham.
false

Under the reign of King David, a great temple was built in Jerusalem.
false

The Zealots rose up in armed rebellion against Rome in 66 CE.
true

Kabbalah refers to the esoteric teachings concerning the interactions between the spiritual dimension and the physical world.
true

In the Holocaust, almost six million European Jews were killed in Nazi Germany.
true

At the highest level, Torah refers to God’s will.
true

The rabbinic literature maintains that the Torah has 613 commandments, known as mitzvot.
true

A Jewish ritual bath is called a kosher.
false

The Sabbath begins Saturday night at sunset.
false

Contemporary Judaism has only two main branches: Orthodox and Reform.
false

In Judaism, only men can become rabbis.
false

In Jewish tradition, rabbis interpret Hebrew scriptures through a process of study called Midrash. Midrash traditionally yields two types of interpretation: halakhah and haggadah. Please distinguish between these two types of teachings and describe why both are important for Jewish religious life.
students should distinguish between required conduct and non-legal teaching, while explaining the importance of both for a rich participation in Jewish faith

Please name and distinguish between the major branches of Judaism today. Be specific in citing examples that illustrate the points of commonality and distinction among the different branches.
students should discuss in accurate detail Orthodox, Reform, Conservative, and Reconstructionist Judaism. They should speak to specific attitudes of each regarding doctrine, practice, and leadership

The field of theological study that attempts to interpret scripture is
hermeneutics

The four books of the New Testament that tell about the life of Jesus are called the gospels, meaning
good news

The Christian doctrine that Jesus is the divine Son of God is called the
Incarnation

Jesus’ two great commandments were to love __________ and __________.
God and neigbor

The title Christ literally means
anointed one

Christians believe in the __________, the doctrine that Jesus is risen from the dead.
Ressurection

The belief that God is three equal persons in one divine being is called the doctrine of the __________.
Trinity

The __________ Reformation was a reform movement in the 16th century in which many Christians broke away from Roman Catholic authority and doctrine.
Protestant

A Christian ritual of public worship is called __________.
liturgy

Some Protestant Christians anticipate the __________, a time when Christians will be transported up to heaven to live with Jesus in immortal bodies.
rapture

Which of the following is not one of the synoptic gospels?
John

Jesus taught spiritual lessons by telling stories called __________.
parables

Jesus died by
crucifixion

Missionaries who spread the Christian faith in the first century were called __________.
Apostles

In the history of Christianity, the year 1054 is important because it was the year in which __________.
the Western and Eastern churches excommunicated each other

In 1962, Pope John XXIII convened the __________ for the express purposes of updating and energizing the Church.
Second Vatican Council

A distinctive feature of Orthodox Christianity is the veneration of __________.
icons

Which of the following is not an alternate name for Eucharist?
Penance

Jesus wrote his teachings in a book called the New Testament.
false

There is substantial historical evidence concerning the life of Jesus in sources other than the gospels.
false

During the life of Jesus, many Jewish people were expecting a messiah who would save them from foreign oppression.
true

In the gospel stories, Jesus baptizes John when he is about thirty years old.
false

The Transfiguration was when Jesus climbed a mountain and Moses and Elijah appeared.
true

The first witnesses at Jesus’ empty tomb were James and Peter.
false

Paul insisted that all male converts to Christianity must be circumcised.
false

The pope is the Bishop of Rome.
true

Lent is the name for the Christian celebration of Jesus’ Resurrection.
false

Relics are body parts or clothes of saints that are felt to radiate the holiness of the saints’ communion with God.
true

Evangelicals place great emphasis on the experience of being “born again.”
true

The majority of the world’s Christians today are found in Europe and North America.
false

Liberation theology stresses the need for concrete political action to help the poor.
true

During the Protestant Reformation, many new Christian denominations were formed. Select three different Christian communions and compare them on salient aspects of belief and practice.
students should creatively discuss and compare specific aspects of different Christian denominations (e.g., Lutheran, Reformed, Pentecostal). Students may wish to do additional research;

Contemporary feminist scholarship has undertaken the task of investigating how women are regarded in the Christian tradition. Although the historical tradition has been dominated by men, strong evidence suggests that women were very active with Jesus and in the early years of church development. How does or should this new evidence reshape women’s roles in Christianity today?
students should constructively discuss the insights of feminist theology and consider how these insights might apply to the Christian faith community today

One of the central themes of Jesus’ teaching was love. Today, this teaching finds concrete expression in Christian charities and social justice initiatives. Citing specific examples from the reading, please describe some of these initiatives today. How do your examples illustrate the contemporary Christian effort to live practically Jesus’ teachings?
students should connect their examples to specific aspects of Jesus’ teaching

Muhammad was born in the year __________.
570 C.E

Muhammad’s life and sayings are preserved in literature called the
Hadith

A single authoritative version of the Qur’an was produced as a written text in around __________.
650 C.E.

“There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” This sentence is known as the __________.
Shahadah

Name the Five Pillars of Islam
Shahadah; prayer five times daily; almsgiving; fasting; during Ramadan; Hajj;

The two main opposing factions in Islam are
Sunni and Shi’a

The Muslim community is referred to as the
Ummah

The sacred law of Islam is called
Shari’ah

The mystical inner tradition of Islam is called
Sufism

The practice of veiling women for modesty is called
hijab

Islam traces its ancestry to the patriarch
Ahbraham

Abraham and Ishmael built the holiest sanctuary in Islam known as the
Ka’bah

The sacred book of Islam is called the
Qur’an

The name for God in Islam is
Allah

In Islam, charity or almsgiving is known as
Zakat

Those who follow the elected caliphs are
Sunni

Which religious groups do Muslims see as “People of the Book?”
Christians and Jews

madrasas
are Muslim educational institutions.

The hijrah (migration) of Muslims from Mecca to Medina took place in 622 C.E.
true

A successor to the Prophet Muhammad is known as a caliph.
true

There are over 650 chapters (or suras) in the Qur’an.
false

The Qu’ran emphasizes that after a period of repose in the grave, s select number of holy human beings will be bodily resurrected for a last judgment.
false

The practice of salat (formal prayers) differs between men and women as well as by local custom.
true

Only men who are physically and financially able to do so are required to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.
false

Sometimes Muslims can choose to demonstrate their piety by fasting during the month of Ramadan.
false

Shi’ites make up about 80% of all Muslims in the world today.
false

The Shi’a pay allegiance to a succession of seven or twelve Imams (leaders, guides).
true

Poor mendicant mystics who have no possessions or attachments in the world are called Dervishes.
true

The best way to translate jihad is “holy war.”
false

A fighter in the Path of God, or one who values God more than life, wealth, or family, is called a mujahid.
true

Ijtihad refers to independent judgment and reasoned interpretation by a qualified scholar.
true

What is the Arab Spring, and what are specific challenges that Muslims face today with respect to the intersection between Islam and politics? Name and discuss three examples from the text. In your answer, please address how Muslims today might retain ancient traditions and culture within an increasingly globalized world.
students should creatively discuss Islam in politics with a special consideration of issues such as jihad, radicalization of faith, and western globalization

How are women regarded in the Islamic tradition? Give contrasting examples to show a range of perspectives. How do you evaluate these contrasts?
students should discuss the modern situation of Islamic women, with a special consideration of the insights of Muslim women scholars. Students may also be invited to do additional research on women within the Islamic tradition

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