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Cardiovascular System, Study Guide Paper

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Paper type: Essay, Subject: Iron Deficiency Anemia

Chapter 18 The Circulatory System: Blood True / False Questions 1. Hemostasis is the production of formed elements of blood. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 2. Blood viscosity stems mainly from electrolytes and monomers dissolved in plasma. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 3. Lymphoid hemopoiesis occurs mainly in the bone marrow. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 4. Oxygen and carbon dioxide bind to different parts of hemoglobin.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 5. The liver stores excess iron in ferritin. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 6. The most important components of the cytoplasm of RBCs are hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 7. A person develops anti-A antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen A, and anti-B antibodies only after he is exposed to antigen B. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand

Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 8. Incompatibility of one person’s blood with another results from the action of plasma antibodies against the RBCs’ antigens. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 9. Rh incompatibility between a sensitized Rh+ woman and an Rh- fetus can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 10. Circulating WBCs spend most of their lives in the bloodstream. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes

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Topic: Cardiovascular System 11. Lymphocytes secrete antibodies, coordinate action of other immune cells, and serve in immune memory. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 12. Monocytes differentiate into large phagocytic cells. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 13. Coagulation starts with a vascular spasm and ends with the formation of a platelet plug. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 14.

Clotting deficiency can result from thrombocytopenia or hemophilia. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 15. After a wound is sealed, tissue repair is followed by fibrinolysis. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System Multiple Choice Questions 16. Blood does not A. transport a variety of nutrients. B. help to stabilize the pH of extracellular fluids. C. participate in the initiation of blood clotting. D. produce plasma hormones. E. elp to regulate body temperature. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 17. The buffy coat does not contain A. lymphocytes. B. granulocytes. C. erythrocytes. D. agranulocytes. E. platelets. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 18. Hematocrit is ____________ of the total blood volume. A. less than 1% B. 47% to 63% C. 25% to 37% D. 42% to 45% E. 37% to 52% Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 19. _____________ is not found in plasma. A. Glycogen B. Fibrinogen C.

Glucose D. Urea E. Albumin Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 20. ___________ is a protein not commonly found in plasma. A. Albumin B. Hemoglobin C. Transferrin D. Prothrombin E. Fibrinogen Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 21. _____________ is the most abundant protein in plasma. A. Insulin B. Creatine C. Bilirubin D. Albumin E. Creatinine Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 22. _____________ would not decrease colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in blood.

A. Severe liver failure B. A diet predominantly based on red meat C. Starvation D. An extremely low-protein diet E. Hypoproteinemia Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 23. Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of __________. A. fibrinogen. B. nitrogenous wastes. C. platelets. D. glucose. E. albumin. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 24. Tissues can become edematous (swollen) when A. colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is high. B. there is hyperproteinemia. C. he concentration of sodium and proteins in blood is high. D. hematocrit is high. E. there is a dietary protein deficiency. Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 25. Myeloid hemopoiesis in adults happens in the A. thymus. B. spleen. C. red bone marrow. D. yellow bone marrow. E. liver. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 1 Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 26. The viscosity of blood is due more to _____________ than to any other factor. A. fibrin B. albumin C. sodium D. erythrocytes E. nitrogenous wastes Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. Introduction Topic: Cardiovascular System 27. Erythrocytes transport oxygen and serve to A. defend the body against pathogens. B. initiate blood clotting. C. regulate erythropoiesis. D. transport nutrients. E. transport carbon dioxide. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 28. Most oxygen is transported bound to A. the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. B. alpha chains in hemoglobin. C. beta chains in hemoglobin. D. delta chains in hemoglobin E. heme groups in hemoglobin. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 29.

If all the 280 million molecules of hemoglobin contained in RBCs were free in the plasma, A. it would considerably increase blood oxygen carrying capacity. B. it would facilitate delivery of oxygen into tissues irrigated by small capillaries. C. it would facilitate oxygen diffusion into cells distant from blood capillaries. D. it would significantly increase blood osmolarity. E. it would drastically increase osmotic colloid pressure. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 30. An increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys would lead to all of the following except A. ncreased hypoxemia. B. increased blood osmolarity. C. increased RBC production. D. increased blood viscosity. E. increased hematocrit. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 31. Many RBCs die in the A. stomach and small intestine. B. red bone marrow. C. spleen and liver. D. lymph nodes and thymus. E. stomach and liver. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 32. All these can lead to polycythemia except A. cancer of the erythropoietic line of the red bone marrow. B. iron deficiency. C. dehydration.

D. emphysema. E. excessive aerobic exercise. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 33. ______________ is more likely to cause anemia than any of the other factors below. A. High altitude B. Air pollution other than by carbon monoxide C. Renal insufficiency D. Smoking E. Any factor that create a state of hypoxemia Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 34. Anemia has these potential consequences except A. blood viscosity is increased. B. the individual is lethargic. C. blood osmolarity is reduced. D. lood resistance to flow is reduced. E. more fluid transfers from the bloodstream to the intercellular spaces. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 35. What is the final product of the breakdown of the organic nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin? A. biliverdin B. bilirubin C. globin D. heme E. iron Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 36. Correction of hypoxemia is regulated by A. a self-amplifying mechanism. B. an enzymatic amplification. C. a positive feedback loop. D. a negative feedback loop. E. a cascade effect.

Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 37. A deficiency of _____________ can cause pernicious anemia. A. vitamin C B. iron C. vitamin B12 D. EPO secretion E. folic acid Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 38. Sickle-cell disease is not A. caused by a recessive allele that modifies the structure of hemoglobin. B. a hereditary hemoglobin defect. C. advantageous to protect carriers against malaria. D. a cause of malaria. E. a cause of anemia. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 2 Erythrocytes

Topic: Cardiovascular System 39. The ABO blood group is determined by _____________ in the plasma membrane of RBCs. A. glycolipids B. glycoproteins C. antibodies D. antigen-antibody complexes E. agglutinins Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 40. Type A blood can safely donate RBCs to _____________ and can receive RBCs of type ___________. A. O; AB B. AB; O C. A; B D. B; A E. O; O Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 41. Type AB blood has ____________ RBC antigen(s). A. no B. anti-A and anti-B C. anti-A D. nti-B E. A and B Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 42. RhoGAM is an antibody given to Rh- women who give birth to a Rh+ child. RhoGAM is what type of plasma protein? A. gamma () globulin B. beta () globulin C. alpha () globulin D. fibrinogen E. albumin Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 43. The universal donor is A. AB, Rh-negative. B. AB, Rh-positive. C. O, Rh-negative. D. O, Rh-positive. E. ABO, Rh-negative. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 4. An individual has type B, Rh-positive blood. The individual has _____ antigen(s) and can produce anti-_____ antibody(ies). A. A and D; B B. B and D; A C. B; A and D D. A; B and D E. D; A and B Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 45. The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh-positive is because A. anti-A antibodies in the donor will agglutinate RBCs of the recipient. B. anti-A antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor. C. anti-B antibodies in the donor will agglutinate RBCs of the recipient.

D. anti-D antibodies in the donor will agglutinate RBC of the recipient. E. anti-B antibodies in the recipient will agglutinate RBCs of the donor. Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 46. A woman’s first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), or erythroblastosis fetalis. The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood. The mother is most likely type _____ and both children are most likely _____. A. A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive B. A, Rh-positive; B, Rh-negative C.

O, Rh-negative; AB, Rh-negative D. AB, Rh-positive; O, Rh-negative E. AB, Rh-positive; O, Rh-positive Difficulty Level: Evaluate/Create Section: 18. 3 Blood Types Topic: Cardiovascular System 47. These are the least abundant formed elements. A. platelets B. basophils C. erythrocytes D. neutrophils E. eosinophils Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 48. These are the most abundant agranulocytes. A. macrophages B. eosinophils C. monocytes D. lymphocytes E. neutrophils Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 49.

Differential count of ______________ typically increases in response to bacterial infections. A. basophils B. monocytes C. erythrocytes D. eosinophils E. neutrophils Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 50. ___________ aid in the body’s defense processes by secreting histamine (vasodilator) and heparin (anticoagulant). A. Eosinophils B. Basophils C. Neutrophils D. Platelets E. Monocytes Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 51. Leukopoiesis begins with the differentiation of A. pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs). B. precursor cells.

C. colony-forming units (CFUs). D. myeloblasts. E. lymphoblasts. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 52. Some lymphocytes can survive for A. days. B. weeks. C. months. D. years. E. decades. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 53. A total count above ____________ WBCs/L is called leukocytosis. A. 100,000 B. 50,000 C. 10,000 D. 5,000 E. 1,000 Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 54. All these can cause leukopenia except A. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

B. lead poisoning. C. radiation therapy. D. dehydration. E. immunosuppressant drugs. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 55. This figure shows the formed elements of blood. What does “7” represent? A. a monocyte B. a lymphocyte C. a neutrophil D. an eosinophil E. a basophil Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 4 Leukocytes Topic: Cardiovascular System 56. Platelets do not secrete A. procoagulants (clotting factors). B. thrombopoietin. C. growth factors. D. vasoconstrictors. E. chemicals that attract neutrophils. Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 57. The cessation of bleeding is specifically called A. vascular spasm. B. homeostasis. C. hemostasis. D. platelet plug formation. E. blood clotting (coagulation). Difficulty Level: Apply/Analyze Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 58. Thromboplastin A. initiates the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. B. initiates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. C. converts prothrombin into thrombin. D. acts as a potent vasoconstrictor to reduce blood loss. E. dissolves the clot after the tissue has healed.

Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 59. When a clot is no longer needed, fibrin is dissolved by A. prothrombin. B. thromboplastin. C. kallikrein. D. plasmin. E. platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 60. All of these prevent the spontaneous formation of a clot except A. the presence of tissue thromboplastin. B. the smooth prostacyclin-coated endothelium of blood vessels. C. he dilution of thrombin when blood flows at a normal rate. D. the presence of antithrombin in plasma. E. the presence of heparin in plasma. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 61. Platelets release ____________, a chemical vasoconstrictor that contributes to the vascular spasm. A. heparin B. thrombin C. thromboplastin D. prostacyclin E. serotonin Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 62. The structural framework of the blood clot is formed by A. oluble fibrinogen. B. soluble fibrin. C. a fibrin polymer. D. a fibrinogen polymer. E. a thrombin polymer. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 63. Most strokes and heart attacks are caused by the abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. Moreover, a piece of the ____________ (clot) may break loose and begin to travel in the bloodstream as a(n) ______________. A. thrombus; embolus B. embolism; thrombus C. plaque; thrombus D. thrombosis; plaque E. plaque; embolus Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 64. __________________ participates in the extrinsic mechanism only. A. Calcium B. Prothrombin activator C. Prothrombin D. Thromboplastin E. Thrombin Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System 65. Most clotting factors are synthesized in the A. spleen. B. red bone marrow. C. perivascular tissue. D. kidneys. E. liver. Difficulty Level: Remember/Understand Section: 18. 5 Platelets and Hemostasis – The Control of Bleeding Topic: Cardiovascular System

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