In this chapter all of the constructs, theories and methods that are related with the direction Information system such as system, information system and MIS will be discussed. The construct of educational direction system is besides good presented. In other subdivisions the construct of EMIS will be considered in the universe by particularly concentrating this construct in Pakistan will be discussed. In concluding subdivisions of this chapter EMIS of COMSTAS institutes of information engineering will be discussed. This information will be so act as guideline to analyse the empirical findings of primary informations.
There have been legion sorts of systems that have been developed over the past several old ages. These information systems had helped to carry through the demands and demands of determination doing non merely at managerial but besides at the operational degree. Every organisation develops its ain direction information system ( MIS ) which is wholly dependent on the personal demands of the organisations. Management information system developed for one organisation is useless for other organisations with different demands ( Cassidy and Cresswell, 1997 ) .
In the direction information system, non merely the system itself is of import but to acquire the maximal advantages from the system it is of import that the human intelligence, perceptual experience and judgement must be powerful and strong plenty to acquire combined with the system information ( Thierauf 1984 ) . This combination will supply directors with the unique and valuable tool for the information direction in any company ( Cassidy and Cresswell, 1997 ) .
The system is capable of change overing the collected information from the everyday user and machine interactions in to the effectual information which subsequently on is used by the determination shapers to do efficient determinations.
In the direction information system, the most of import entity is system itself which is set of defined and interconnected constituents which are by and large described as all of the direct or indirect complex constituents or elements that are related in a insouciant web. Within any peculiar clip period, all of these complex constituents are related in more or less stable manner with at least some other constituents ( Thierauf 1984 ) . So a well developed and synergistic system is one which provides best and utile information to the directors at all degrees.
The best system is one that provides utile information and user interaction at all degrees. An information system is a aggregation of activities, processs, methods, engineering and peoples that are organized to acquire the valuable related informations and information. This system must besides be able to hive away this information until it is required by the user. It should be capable of informations processing and reacting to its terminal user by supplying the replies to all set of questions. Information systems should outdo interacts and communicates with the terminal user In order to supply the accurate required information ( Knight & A ; Silk, 1990 ) .
The information system which is composed of formalistic processs that can supply all of the relevant appropriate information at all degrees to all of the directors is called direction information system ( MIS ) . This system uses all of the internal and external resources to supply informations and information to the terminal users which enable them to take timely determinations that are effectual from the directing, planning and commanding point of position. As a whole this is an efficient system that can supply all of the needed information to the direction at all degrees at appropriate times. Management information system is fundamentally an affectional combination of human and engineering resources that consequences in informations storage, aggregation, and communicating, informations retrieval and use. In managerial operations and concern planning, these MIS systems play a critical function in concern success ( Lucey, 1989 ) .
In literature, there are several definitions of the direction information systems ( Lucey, 1989, Thierauf, 1984 ) . The system is capable of change overing the collected information from the everyday user and machine interactions in to the effectual information which subsequently on is used by the determination shapers to do efficient determinations. The specialised systems that are being used for determination devising for the direction at all degrees are by and large known as direction information systems ( Thierauf, 1984 ) . Information systems are of important importance in any type of organisation, by and large, it is truly impossible for any organisation to run without any kind of information system. These information systems are developed by concentrating the demands and demands of the peculiar organisation which are alone for every other organisation.
In the early 1960 ‘s, the importance of system interior decorators and decision makers gained much importance and attending. In an organisation, at the administrative degree, direction information systems are composed up of the human and machine combination that are used to carry through the information demands at these degrees. In really big organisations, these MIS are besides a combination of many interconnected bomber systems which are sharing the same resources for informations and processing. While discoursing the construct of MIS in an organisation, this activity is considered merely as a portion of all of the other on-going activities.
This MIS activity is of import because it equips the top direction with all of the information about the lower direction and maintains a uninterrupted flow of information throughout the organisation. MIS system besides facilitates the proprietors of the organisations with the general information about the organisation. The chief advantage of MIS system in an organisation is to keep appropriate information flow that can be achieved by spliting organisations in to different sub systems with some integrated and alone maps. This map integrating of the bomber system must be much efficient to do the whole organisation as an affectional MIS system. By following this attack, every bit shortly as all of the demands of the sub systems are achieved, all of the demands of the organisation are achieved.
The revolution in the information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) has greatly influenced the life manner of whole universe. Over the past several old ages, ICT substructure is considered as a symbol for a state ‘s development. In every manner of life, there is a critical function of these Information and Communication Technologies ( ICTs ) by all agencies to better the quality, standardising the different stakeholders ‘ function and leaving the operating processs ( Ed Crowley, 2003 ) .
ICTs has a proved function in the field of medical, concern, industry, amusement, communications but now these engineerings has emerging efficient function in instruction field. In developing states, particularly like Pakistan instruction sector is one of the nucleus countries that require more attending for the state ‘s rapid development. The end of every educational institute is to supply the quality instruction to all of its pupils. In these institutes direction at all degree uninterrupted strives to accomplish this aimed end.
Universities are engaging extremely qualified professors and fiting their scientific research labs with latest equipments, adding new engineerings and books to their libraries. In these educational institutes the construct of digital libraries is besides introduced, in schoolrooms multimedia undertakings are installed. The construct of distant acquisition, different tutorials like web and disc based every bit good as the construct of audio and ocular informations to assistance talks is introduced in these institutes. In short, ICTs have played a major important function for knowledge airing among assorted groups in these educational institutes.
In order to acquire the maximal benefits of the available installations of hardware and package, it is non adequate to merely linking the research labs with the cyberspace installation but there is batch more in to this. This type of human attitude towards the computing machine resources propose that there is ever a demand for some educational intercession to acquire the possible benefits. The better use of information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) can be attained by pedagogic intercessions ( Jorge Ferreira Franco et all, 2006 ) . As the issues raises, it starts making interesting chances for the persons and organisations for bettering the persons ‘ comprehensibility and accomplishments. From the educational point of position, it is believed that when the persons ‘ understanding is challenged and they receive any kind of rational or practical support so their productive and originative endowments are used which can besides be enhanced ( Jorge Ferreira Franco et all, 2006 ) .
In all this competitory ICTs equipped educational institutes there is much more than the quality instruction that is expected by the pupils. Students need choice service in all of the needed information that is required by them. In order to show their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours jobs, pupils needs environment that can ease them in every manner. Different higher educational institutes are continuously endeavoring to accomplish this mark. For illustration when a pupil necessitate his transcripts after classs finalisation so it can take more than a month clip when there is conventional system installed in educational institutes. It can take more clip because of the limited figure of moving staff members that are covering with the consequences and transcripts publishing procedure.
There are many other day-to-day issues that can originate every twenty-four hours and this limited figure of staff will non be able to motivate outright to all of the pupils. In order to manage such feverish modus operandi universities used to employee more employees but as its known that increasing manpower can ne’er work out the job so another solution is required that can get by up with all such issues. There are many activities that can non be handled with simple processing applications and they are besides much clip devouring but these are simple procedures like admittance, enrollment, conductivity of scrutiny, maintaining path of the employees and pupils and pull offing both employees and pupils histories ( Marlon Pierce et all, 2002 ) . In order to pull off 1000s of its pupils and employees the best effectual manner is to utilize the information and communicating engineerings in more efficient manner.
Educational direction system ( EMIS ) is an illustration of such an information system that has been developed over past several old ages to acquire the maximal benefits from the human and machine interaction to bring forth the appropriate information. This construct of EMIS has been imported from the concern universe which represents a system for information processing for educational direction. This system is non developed to replace the statistics based system and this system itself is non a statistical system. This system has been developed to manage all informations types which may be statistical in nature.
An important professional is required to develop this information as dependable, verified, important and professionally trained. This authorization must be professional and independent entity that must be acceptable by all of the other users in an organisation. When an information system is being developed so it is really much necessary to acquire the exact and dependable statistics before this system acquire applied to any kind of direction. Information systems are ever designed to treat valid informations into information non the refuse informations. In educational direction systems, these information systems should turn to both of the direction and statistics in more efficient manner and should bring forth information in an affectional format.
In literature, there are many definitions and descriptions about the EMIS systems as its being developed over the past several old ages ( EPRD, 1997 ) . Educational direction system is a formalistic aggregation of the operational processs, procedures and common understanding that are integrated in such a manner that it can bring forth utile information and information for the educational institutes and all of related entities like instructors, pupils and other direction at all degrees. All of the informations relevant to the concerned entities is aggregated, collected and organized, managed and processed which is so disseminated across the organisation and is used by the concerned governments and direction at all degrees to take the good determinations for the educational institutes ( EPRD, 1997 ) . EMIS contains all of the relevant information that is required by the educational directors at all degrees to back up all of their activities.
EMIS systems ever responds to the consumers for the affectional information and serves the demands of terminal users, therefore it can be said that these information systems are functioning on the footing of demand response methodological analysis. In order to acquire the maximal benefits out of this information system it is really much necessary that the procedure concatenation of information direction and in the dealing between the terminal users ‘ demand of information and the system response of information bringing, all of the statistics must be updated and reviewed decently. If this whole concatenation of information direction is non decently maintained so there will be no meaningful information from the informations collection and processing. The system integrating is besides much of import in EMIS to acquire the best possible result from the system because if there will be any job with the system integrating it will consequences in irrelevant information bringing that will do whole EMIS as an irrelevant system.
In order to work these EMIS systems up to dated, it is necessary to carry on clients ‘ studies. These studies will assist the educational institutes to get by up with all of the freshly raised demands and so it will give up dated response to its consumers. These studies will besides assist to calculate out the demands of manufacturers and will bring forth a user friendly and explainable services and merchandises consequently. Educational institutes should besides make general consciousness among the users about the advantages of these EMIS systems that can supply information for determination devising.
In order to avoid a entire system loss, it is really much of import that these EMIS systems should be self sustainable and they must hold a dorsum up even if maestro system will neglect to carry through the demands of all of its terminal users. At the really earlier phase of system development it is of import to develop the single entities but at the ulterior phase of capacity edifice this preparation is non of much importance.
EMIS systems have been employed in many different states as a large success and there these systems have provided support services and capacity edifice to the distributed every bit good as the decentralised statistical maps. There are many specialised maps needed for the EMIS development such as puting the criterions, development of application package, quality control, supplying proficient aid and preparation services every bit good as organizing one-year statistics production. System integrating is an of import measure in EMIS development because all of the loose parts will be combined expeditiously can develop an affectional system end product. Quality control is besides of much significance because it can guarantee quality cheques at all degrees.
In educational institutes, an effectual and efficient information direction system that should assist direction at all degree for planning, policy devising, and direction can be developed by following common informations aggregation instruments, by developing informations processing package and by following all of the processs for quality control and confidence. Such a developed system can guarantee the effectual public presentation of all of the statistical maps in the institutes. The procedures of informations aggregations its entry and confirmation are all really near to the beginning. This information is so transmitted as an electronic transcript all around the institute. At every degree of direction, this information is analyzed on the footing of the users ‘ demands which guarantee the minimisation of incompatibility and undertaking duplicates. Such a system besides ensures the quality, dependability, informations cogency and effectivity every bit good as the terminal users ‘ satisfaction at all degrees.
In order to standardise the universities much attending is driven to the version of new engineerings every bit good as towards the substructure development and betterment of the operating processs. The standard of HEC for the higher instruction establishments is really rigorous and is based on resource numeration, aggregation of public presentation informations and aggregation of all of the corresponding ratios which are in underside up manners until the concluding studies are generated. This rating standard demands the single appraisal system for each section in the university so that independent and choice information can be elaborated. This whole procedure will ensue in heightening the quality of different operating processs and procedures that are being exercised in the institute and will consequences in heightening the university ranking.
There are many ways by which this feedback cringle can be achieved in the higher educational establishments. It is possible that certain studies and indexs may be widely available all around the campus every bit shortly as they are generated so that effectual information is readily available. At assorted determination devising points, the cardinal forces can take immediate disciplinary action when required by merely maintaining a crisp oculus on these studies. This is important in a manner that it will increase the consciousness in the whole academic community. Whenever disposal decides for any needed alteration so all of the standard steps can be taken. The possible step that can increase the dependability of the feedback cringle is to do certain that all of the relevant elements in the institutional information system are readily available. By following this technique, all of the entities will be for good connected and consulted the information all around the institute.
Other step that can be adopted is that all of the old pattern that are being performed at different sections can be refined. This procedure of polish needs the experience that has already accumulated and it can besides take into history the suggestions by all of its users or the involved entities. The purpose for the development of the EMIS for COMSATS IIT was to polish most of the activities that were being performed at assorted degrees in different sections of the university. This polish will be done by taking in head all of the accrued users ‘ suggestions and from the experience of the all of the involved entities. In this EMIS, a new service bed has been added that corresponds to the extraction of all of the related derived information. This information is peculiarly designed to back up university direction at several degrees.
In order to acquire the advantage of the maximal possible ICT use, COMSATS IIT, Pakistan has developed an automated educational direction system which is normally known as CU-Online ( Iqbal Saadat et all, 2000 ) . This system has been developed to make an integrated educational system. This system aims to keep all of the information related to the pupils, ease the employees to entree all of the resources related to the course of study that can assist them in lesson planning, scrutiny conductivity, consequences describing and pull offing all of the other pupils and instructors histories.
This system has the capableness to describe and analyse different informations and information for the single users and corporate users that can assist them at all degrees to acquire a broader image of the whole educational institute and system. This system has been developed with the purpose to supply user connectivity everyplace all times as a pure web based application. It provides academic, transactional and administrative entree to all its users which consequences in development of the collaborative campus. In CU-Online system there are four chief constituents that constitute its environment ( Iqbal Saadat et all, 2000 ) .
In this EMIS system, there are assorted stakeholders like module, parents and pupils and direction and staff. Faculty needs this system to be after their lessons and course of study, for progress study and category appraisal. This is a tool by which module can communication with parents and pupils. It besides reports the advancement towards pupil ‘s ends. This EMIS enables the parents and pupils to maintain a cheque of the advancement studies, work assignments. They can besides look into their work assignments and advancement towards their graduation demands. Management and staff usage this system to accomplish all of the staff and pupil information ( Iqbal Saadat et all, 2000 ) . This system has faculties for admittance, pupil information system, library, human resource direction, class portal, stock list and hardware monitoring and for fee and histories.
In COMSATS IIT, the debut of ICTs non merely automates all of the sections but besides facilitates all of the involved entities in the university. Students are acquiring quality instruction and they are required many facilitations in different facets. In order to gain good name to university, direction is required to follow quality process and must guarantee quality at all degree of direction. While in a university, pupils can come across many different processs and jobs so this system must ease them in every facet so that they can merely concentrate on their surveies. Similarly staff and module members must avoid all of the cumbersome processs and must merely execute their needed responsibilities ( Iqbal Saadat et all, 2000 ) . All of such installations must make to the users with easiness on their desktops.