The term “albedo” refers to the absorption of radiation
False
Without an atmosphere, the earth’s temperature would be a frigid -100 degrees Celsius
False
Over the past 400,000 years, CO2 abundances in Earth’s atmosphere have varied in correlation with Earth’s temperature
True
Molecules are called ‘greenhouse gases’ if they
Absorb infrared radiation, but are transparent to visible light.
Global warming and anthropogenic climate change are terms that refer to the same environmental issue, specifically the alteration of Earth’s surface temperature and climate due to release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by human activities.

T or F?

True
Greenhouse gases are important because they absorb visible radiation in the earth’s atmosphere
False
CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas in the earth’s atmosphere
False
As the temperature of a blackbody object increases, radiation from that object
shifts to shorter wavelengths and becomes more intense
Climate scientists believe that due to human activities earth is changing faster now than it has in the past.

True
The most abundant gas in the earth’s atmosphere is
Nitrogen
The ozone hole is a good example of a change in Earth’s atmosphere that is due mainly to natural causes.
True
The energy flux emitted by a blackbody object goes as
The temperature raised to the fourth power
Based on the inverse square law an object that is twice as far from the sun as the earth recieves______ as much solar flux that the earth.
1/4
The sun’s emission consists of
primarily of infrared light, with some ultraviolet
Latent heat refers to energy gained or lost when a substance such as water changes phases
True
The earths temperature has increase by about ___ over the last century
.8 degrees C
The region of the infrared spectrum between 8 microns and 13 microns is referred to as the “window region” because at these wavelengths
CO2 and H2O are poor absorbers, so light can escape more readily to space
There is a radiation deficit in the polar regions(that is less incoming solar radiation that outgoing thermal radiation) because ____?
Heat is transfered poleward by circulations of the atmosphere and oceans
The effect of clouds on earth’s radiation budget is easy to calculate quantitatively because all clouds reflect light to space, increasing the albedo
False
The increase in ice coverage at high latitudes with decreasing global temperatures is an example of positive feedback
True
233k = ____ *C
-40*C
The magnitude of Earth’s greenhouse effect is about
33* Celsius

Which of the following gases is not an important greenshouse gas?

– N2O – Nitrous Oxide

– CC13F – Freon 11

– CH4 – Methane

– Ar – Argon

– H20 – Water Vapor

Ar – Argon
273k = ___*C
0*C
300k =___*C
27*C
0k=___*C
-273*C
373k=___*C
100*C
What are the approximate minimum and maximum temperatures of Earth’s troposphere?
Minimum 215 K
Maximum 285 K
32*F=___*C
0*C
212*F=___*C
100*C
100*F=____*C
37.8*C
High temperatures in the earth’s stratosphere at 50 km are due primarily to what?
absorption of solar UV radiation by ozone
0*F=___*C
-17.8*c
75*F=___*C
23.9*C
“Convection” refers to what?
the transport of heat by motions of a fluid (liquid or gas)
The pressure of Earth’s atmosphere decreses/increases by a factor of what?
decreases by a factor of 10 for every 16 km increase in altitude throughout most of the atmosphere
For every 100 units of solar radiation incident on Earth,
30 units are reflected directly back to space, and 70 units are radiated to space as outgoing infrared radiation
low thick clouds do what?
reflect radiation back to space
What is the actual value of incident radiation to the earths system?
The solar constant at earth = 1370 W/m^2 mulitiplied by the projected are on the earth (R^2)
High, thin clouds do what?
trap infrared radiation near the surface
Because water is a greenhouse gas, the increasing evaporation of water with warmer temperatures is an example of positive feedback on Earth’s surface temperature.
True
Pressure difference in the atmosphere are typically related to the distribution of surface temps? (T/F)
True
At norther mid-latitudes, even though the coriolis effect acts to turn a moving parcel of air to the right of the direction of motion an air parcel will always move directly from a region of high pressure to one of lower pressure in order to equalize the pressure. (T/F)
False
Surface air at the equator is warmer than surface air in the polar regions because the equator is closer to the sun than are the polar regions.  (T/F)
False
An abundance of _________, a “greenhouse gas” have been increasing in the atmosphere for many decades.
Carbon dioxide C02

As ocean warms, sea ice will ____

As sea ice ____s, more _____ is absorbed in the ocean. This causes the warmer water.

 

Is this positive or negative feedback?

melt, melts, sunlight

Positive

What is a blackbody object?
One that can absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths with equal efficiency. 

– Does not prefer some wavelengths over others.

A blackbody radiates a total energy of?
T^4
Energy balance
outgoing radiation = incoming radiation absorbed by earth = outgoing infrared radiation
Effective radiating temperature
the temperature that an object would need to be radiating at in order to be in balance with the incoming absorbed solar radiation

See Fig 3.1

Earth’s atmosphere today

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Argon

Water Vapor

Carbon dioxide

* Give % by volume

Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Argon .9%
Water Vapor .00001%
Carbon Dioxide .037%
Greenhouse gases
Water vapor
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Nitrous oxide
ozone
freon -11
freon -12
What are the most important absorbers in the atmosphere
Water vapor and carbon dioxide
What do low, thick clouds do with radiation?
get warm radiation from the thin clouds and get trapped
What do high, thin clouds do with radiation?
allow radiation to go through them and warms the earth
For an atmosphere that is in radiative balance (incoming = outgoing), how does temperature chance with height?
Add more layers, and the surface gets even warmer because the layer above it is warmed by the layer above it etc…
Water vapor, a greenhouse gas, represents what kind of feedback in the Earth system?
positive
Other than radiation, what forms of heat transfer are important in the atmosphere?
convection, latent heat, and conduction
Differential heating is due to what?
The curvature of the earth. 
-See Fig 4.1
Where does solar energy go? (Earth’s budget)
45 units absorbed by surface25 units absorbed by clouds and gases

25 units reflected by clouds and gases

5 units reflected by the surface

Of 133 energy units absorbed by the earth’s surface, how many units evaporate water and how many units produce convection?
24 units evaporate water and 5 units produce convection
The earth system receives 99% of its heat in the form of _____ from the sun primarily in the visible and ______
radiation, near-IR
Earth’s surface maintains thermal balance by convection of _____ ____ _____, air carrying heat upward, by _________ __________ and by radiating the remainder upward.
warm, less dense
evaporating water (latent heat)
Of the 104 units of energy radiated by the suface, __ units escape to space through windows in the ________ spectrum of the atmosphere
4, infrared
In the tropics there is more ______ solar radiation than _______ solar radiation.
incoming, outgoing = a surplus of solar radiation
In the polar regions, ___ solar radiation is received than ______ radiation is emitted.
less, thermal = deficit of solar radiation
The earths temperature has increased about____ over the last century
.8 Degrees Celcius
Based on the inverse square law, an object that is twice as far from the sun as the earth receives
one-fourth as much solar flux than the earth
Global warming and ______________ climate change refer to the same environmental issue. That the alteration of the earths temperature and climate is due to the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by human activities.
Anthropogenic
An albedo of 1 means what
pure reflection
An albedo of 0 means what
pure absorption (blackbody)
Over the past 400,000 years _____ abundances in earths atmosphere have varied in correlation with the earths temperature
C02
molecules are called “greenhouse gases” if they
absorb infrared radiation, but are transparent to visible light
What is the primary greenhouse gas in the earths atmoshere
water vapor
as the temperature of a blackbody object increases, radiation from that object
shifts to shorter wavelengths and become more intense
what is the most abundant gas in the earths atmosphere
nitrogen
The energy flux emitted by a blackbody object goes as
The temperature raised to the fourth power
Of the 100 units of solar radiation that are incoming at the top of earths atmosphere, ____ units are absorbed by earths surface, ______ units are absorbed by the atmosphere, ____ are reflected by the atmosphere back to space, and ____ are reflected by the surface.
45,25,25,5
Of the ____ units of thermal (infrared) energy radiated by earths surface, ___ units escape directly to space and ___ units are absorbed by the atmosphere
104, 4, 100
The ice coverage at high latitudes with decreasing global temperatures is an example of ______ feedback
positive
The increase of temperature of the earth will cause an increase in water vapor into the earths atmosphere, increasing the albedo, and then decreasing the temperature. This is an example of what kind of feedback
negative
The atmosphere is composed of what
units that come from the heating of the atmosphere by gases and clouds (solar energy absorbed by atmosphere), units that come from the heating of the atmosphere by the greenhouse effect, and units that are from the heating of the atmosphere due to thermals and evaporation.
What are the approximate min and max temperatures of earths troposphere
min 215K max 285K
What would the temperature of the earth be if there wasnt an atmosphere
255K
The magnitude of earths greenhouse effect is about
33* celcius
for every 100 units of solar radiation incident on the earth
30 units are reflected directly back to space, and 70 units are radiated to space as outgoing infrared radiation.
Pressure differences in the earths atmosphere are typically related to the distribution of surface temperatures
True
The region of the infrared spectrum between 8 microns and 13 microns is referred to as the window region because at these wavelengths
C02 and H20 are poor absorber, so light can escape more readily to space
The suns emission consists of
primarily of visible and infrared light, with some ultra violet
There is less incoming solar radiation than outgoing thermal radion in the polar region, causing a radiation deficit because
heat is transferred poleward by circulations of the atmosphere and oceans
What is the actual value of “100 units” of incident radiation
The solar constant at earth multiplied by the projected area of earth
high temperatures in the earths stratosphere at 50 km are due primarily to absorption of solar UV radiation by ozone
True
How many units of thermal energy come from the greenhouse effect
88 units (note – larger than the units of solar radiation that the earth absorbs from the sun)
Are there more units of latent heat or convection in earths budget?
latent heat (evaporation)
the pressure of earths atmosphere
decreases by a factor of 10 for every 16 km increase in altitude
reflection
albedo
absorption
warms object
Objects that are _____ absorb better than other objects
black
Why is it colder at the poles?
Because at the equator, it is receiving direct sunlight whereas at the poles, it is receiving indirect sunlight
What does Wein’s law tell us about BB wavelengths

Max Wavelenth = 2898/T

– The maximum flux that a BB can reach at a certain wavelength

 

Area beneath the curve = sigmaT^4 = total flux

Magnetic spectrum and wavelengths

____________________________

             UV                Visible             IR

 

UV has small, high energy wavelengths

IR was large, low energy wavelengths

Greenhouse gases absorb
IR radiation
Anthropogenic
Human induced changes in the atmosphere
atmosphere
thin envelope of gases that surround the earth 
hydrosphere
composed of various reservoirs of water including ice
chlorofluorocarbon
CFC’s, Synthetic compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon. Caused the ozone hole
Stratosphere
Absorbs UV rays and is warmer that the atmosphere below it because of it. (Ozone)
negative feedback loop
diminish the effects of disturbances
Positive feedback loops;
amplify the effects of disturbances
wavelength
the distance between two adjacent crests
frequency
the number of crests that pass a fixed point in a second.
electromagnetic spectrum

wavelength:(SM—LG)

UV<—–>Visible<—–>IR

 

Energy:(H–L)

UV<—>Vis.<—>IR

flux
the amount of energy in an electromagnetic wave that passes perpendicularly through a unit surface area per unit time
inverse square law
the rate at which the solar flux decreases with increasing distance (1/r^2)
Blackbody 
something that emits (or absorbs) electromagnetic radiation with 100% efficiency at all wave lengths
wiens law
the flux of radiation emitted by a blackbody reaches its peak wavelength at delta max. or (2898/T) (Sun @visible wavelength, earth @ IR)
Stefan-Boltzmann Law
the energy flux emitted by a blackbody (T^4)
3 most abundant gases in the atmosphere
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon
4 most abundant greenhouse gases
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, are nitrous oxide
convection
a process in which heat energy is transported by the motions of a fluid (boiling water)
conduction
the transfer of heat energy by direct contact between molecules
Latent Heat
the heat energy released or absorbed during the transition from one phase to another
Cirrus Clouds
High level clouds that trap in heat 
Stratus clouds
low level thick clouds that reflect incoming radiation back out into space
Of 100 units of incoming solar radiation approx. how many are absorbed by earths surface?
45 or about half
Air moves over earths surfaces because there are ___________ differences in pressure. Air also moves __________ because it is either forced to move mechanically or because there are changes in _________.
horizontally, vertically, buoyancy
Warmer air has a lower/higher density than cooler air
lower
Air tends to move from an area of ____ pressure, to an area of _____ pressure, until the two pressures are equalized.
higher, lower
If an air mass is heated until its density is lower than that of its surrounds, the lower-density air will rise. This phenomenon is a form of _________
Convection
If an air mass is cooled until its density is higher than that of the underlying air, it will sink. This is referred to as ________
subsidence
The incoming solar energy varies with _____ and with ______ whereas the outgoing terrestrial radiation depends on the temperature of the surface an atmosphere at each location.
latitude, season
The maximum solar absorption is found in the ____ and the available solar energy decreases rapidly as we move toward the _____
tropics, poles
The tropic air near the surface rises, creating a ___-pressure region
low
The merging of air masses that are moving inward toward a low-pressure region is called _____. The air masses that meet at the tropics and rise make up the _________________
convergence, Intertropical convergence zone
The air that rises in the ITCZ is forced to diverge _________
poleward
divergence
refers to the movement of air outward from a region in the atmosphere
The poleward moving air subsides at about ___ N and ____ S, replacing air that is moving equatorward at the surface
30,30
At 30* N and 30* S, the air warms as it sinks, which prevents ______ and _____ from forming.
condensation, clouds

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ATOC 1060. (2017, Dec 20). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-atoc-1060/

ATOC 1060
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