Gizmo Warm-up To survive, an organism must be able to maintain stable internal conditions in a changing environment. This process is called homeostasis. The Human Homeostasis Gizmo™ allows you to explore how the human body stays at a nearly constant temperature in different conditions.
Notice the Air temp. and Body temp. thermometers representing the air temperature and body temperature. 1. What is the initial air temperature? _32 degrees F_____ 2. What is the initial body temperature? __99 degrees F__ 3. Next to each factor listed below, write “increase,” “decrease,” or “same” based on how you expect that factor to affect body temperature.
Raising air temperature: __same____Sweating: __decrease___ Lowering air temperature: ___increase___Shivering: __increase___ Adding clothing: __increase_____Exercising: ___increase_____ Activity A: |Get the Gizmo ready: |[pic] | | |If necessary, click Reset ([pic]). | | |Body temperature | | | Question: What factors increase or decrease body temperature? 1. Observe: With the Air temp. at 0 °C (32 °F) and Body temp. at 37 °C (99 °F), click Play ([pic]). After one simulated hour (does not have to be exact), click Pause ([pic]).
What is the body temperature after one hour? ____97 °F ______________________ 2. Gather data: Fill in the first line of the data table below. Then, use the same procedure to test the effect of each of the following factors. Click Reset between each trial. Record the initial and final body temperatures in the table below. (Leave the last column blank. )
• Set the Exercise level to 70%. (All other settings in default position. )
• Set the Sweat level to 70%.
• Under Body position, select Shivering.
• Next to Clothing, click Add four times to add a sweatshirt, hat, pants, and parka.
|Factor |Initial body temp. |Body temp. fter one |Effect of factor on body temperature | | | |hour | | |Standing still |99 |97 |decreased | |
Exercising |99 |102 |increased | |Sweating |99 |93 |decreased | |Shivering |99 |99 |same | |Adding clothing |99 |99 |same | 3. Analyze: To determine the effect of a factor on body temperature, compare the final body temperature with that factor to the final body temperature while standing still. Based on this comparison, fill in the last column of the data table. A. Which factor raised body temperature the most? ___Exercising___________ B. Why do you think this process raises body temperature? __Your body is doing the most movement and it requires several parts of the body C. Which factor lowered body temperature the most? _____Sweating_______ D.
Why do you think this process lowers body temperature? __it lowers body temperature to maintain the body’s equilibrium |Activity B: |Get the Gizmo ready: |[pic] | | |Click Reset. | | |Thermoregulation | | | Introduction: Thermoregulation is the process in which a steady temperature is maintained inside the body. Some responses to temperature changes, such as sweating and shivering, are involuntary—they occur automatically.
Other actions, such as exercising or putting on clothes, are called voluntary responses because they are things we have to think about doing. Question: In the Human Homeostasis Gizmo, you can control both involuntary and voluntary responses to temperature changes. How good are you at thermoregulation? 1. Play the Gizmo: Click Play. After one hour, the air temperature will start to fluctuate. Using what you have learned, try to maintain a steady body temperature by manipulating the Exercise level, Sweat level, Body position, and Clothing. (You may wish to click Pause occasionally to give yourself time to think. ) Click Pause after at least 10 hours have passed, if you can survive that long! Select the GRAPH tab and click the camera ([pic]) to take a snapshot of the graph.
Paste that snapshot here. [pic] What does this graph show? __It shows for the most part, boy temperature was consistent as the air temperature changed. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 2. Investigate: Click Reset. Click Play, and deliberately create a situation in which the body temperature gets so low that the simulation stops. A. How did you do this? Exercised in extremely cold weather without much clothing B. What is the name for this condition? Severe Hypothermia C. At what body temperature is immediate medical treatment required? __88 °F ____ 3. Investigate: Click Reset.
Click Play, and create a situation in which the body temperature gets so high that the simulation stops. A. How did you do this? __ The person continuously exercised for several hours without resting. The person died from moderate dehydration _ B. What is the name for this condition? ____Heat Stroke_____________________ C. At what body temperature is immediate medical treatment required? __106 °F _____ 4. Challenge yourself: Click Reset. Click Play, and see if you can maintain a constant body temperature of 37 °C (99 °F) for 24 simulated hours or more. You will have to click Drink water or Eat food to avoid dehydration (lack of water) and low blood sugar. If the Fatigue level gets too high, you will have to rest. If you succeed, click Pause.
Select the GRAPH tab and click the camera ([pic]) to take a snapshot of the graph. Paste that snapshot here. [pic] 5. Analyze: Select the TABLE tab. The air temperature and body temperature are recorded every hour. Scroll through the table to find the highest and lowest air temperatures. A. What was the highest air temperature you had to deal with? __35 C________ B. How did you respond to this temperature? __Drank lots of fluids, ate good and exercised more, so it could sweat C. What was the lowest air temperature in the simulation? __-12 C_____________ D. How did you maintain a constant body temperature at this time? __I put on a lot of clothing and exercised/ sometimes rested____________ 6.
Think and discuss: Other than the options available in the Human Homeostasis Gizmo, what other methods are used to maintain body temperature? Try to think of both voluntary and involuntary responses. Changes in breathing rates, getting rest, as in sleeping, avoiding drugs and intoxicants