This sample of an academic paper on Fungal Amylase Optimum Temperature reveals arguments and important aspects of this topic. Read this essay’s introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion below.
Fungal and bacterial amylase are the enzymes that we going to study for their ability to break down starch. In order to determine how temperature affects the activity of amylase enzyme and the optimal temperature for fungal and bacterial amylase, the activity of these enzymes were tested at different temperature and times and iodine was used as indicator of presence of starch.
During the experiment we observed that bacterial amylase had faster enzymatic activity than fungal amylase; bacterial amylase achieved 100% hydrolysis at ICC and ICC at 2 minutes time and fungal amylase achieved partial hydrolysis at ICC at 4 minutes time.
With all of this we can say that the optimal temperature for fungal and bacterial are almost the same, but bacterial have faster amylase activity than fungal and that is possible because bacterial amylase is found in human saliva, were digesting process begins.
Introduction Life is regulated by chemical reactions, but these reactions would take too long to occur without presence of specific proteins that catalyst all biological processes in living organisms transforming one molecule into another, this catalysts are called enzymes (Copeland, Robert 2000).
Enzymes are very specific routines because they contain one active site on their surface that enables the substrate to bind to the enzyme and form the enzyme substrate complex and then release the products. (Figure 1). Because enzymes are so specific, one enzyme catalysts just one reaction, that is why thousands of different enzymes exist in a cell cataloging thousands of different chemical reactions.
All enzymes work together in catabolic (breakdown or digestion of large, complex molecules) and anabolic process (synthesis of large molecules) (Copeland, Robert 2000). The chemical breakdowns of nutrients by digestive enzymes are what make possible the mechanical breakdown of food (Fried& Handsomeness,2001). That is one of the things that make enzymes very important in our life and demonstrate that the main function of enzymes is to increase the rate of the reaction without altering its equilibrium (Fried& Handsomeness,2003).
All enzymes have different conditions at which they work bets, these numbers of conditions are called optimal conditions and these often are the same as the organism habitat conditions. But enzymatic activity is not as easy as it looks because different factors can affect the rate of he reaction, examples are the PH, substrate concentration, salt concentration, inhibitor, activators and temperature (Alberta , Pitter & Caller, 2012). But how can temperature affect the rate of enzymatic activity?
If temperature increase, the rate of chemical reaction increase, but if this temperature increase drastically beyond specific temperature (optimal) the rate of the reaction is reduce because enzymes are protein and at temperatures too high they denature (lose shape), and in this way the substrate is unavailable to bind with the active site; on the other hand when temperatures are too low less intact is achieved between enzyme and substrate because the movement of molecules decrease (Alberta , Pitter & Caller, 2012).
Although enzymes make reactions faster, in order to breakdown big molecules into smaller it is necessary that hydrolysis occur. Hydrolysis is a process in which a chemical bond is broken in the water (split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions) , and the other molecule(split into two simple sections)( Fried& Handsomeness,2003). Fungal Espadrilles rosary and bacterial Bacillus electrophoresis amylase are the two types of enzymes that will be used during this lab to test the ability f amylase to break down starch ,a polysaccharide present in our daily diet, into simpler sugars , maltose (Smith,et al,201 2).
Bacterial amylase is found in different habits for example in human saliva, for this reason is easy to infer that bacterial amylase would break down the starch better and faster than the fungal amylase. According to this information amylase activity going to change higher or lower according to the temperature but it will be faster in bacterial than in fungal, 100% hydrolysis going to occur between ICC to ICC because this is the habitat temperature for these species and this means that is the optimal enrapture, but in bacterial occur in less time than in fungal because are found in human saliva were chemical digestion begins.
Methods The principal objective of this study was to determine how temperature affects the activity of amylase enzyme and the optimal temperature for fungal and bacterial amylase. In order to make this experiment possible we needed fungal Espadrilles rosary amylase and bacterial Bacillus electrophoresis amylase; 5 ml of 1. 5% starch were placed in one test tube for each temperature and ml of amylase in the rest of the tubes for each temperature (amylase bacterial first). The test tubs were placed in their respective temperature of CO, ICC, 600, and ICC.
All tubes were allowed to equilibrate for 5 minutes at their respective temperatures and then 3 drops of iodine were added to each well on the spot plate at the 0 minutes row; then 3 drops of solution from the tubes that contained starch were added to the first row of the spot plate at the O minutes mark; after that the contents of the tube that contained starch were mixed with the one that contain amylase and the time was set for 2 minutes; at this time 3 drops of iodine were added to the second row on the spot plate and 3 drops of amylase mixed with starch were added to the same row of the spot plate (the data was recorded), those steps were repeated until 10 minutes. According to the color change it could be determined whether 100% hydrolysis occurred or not (figure 2). Then the same procedure was repeated using the fungal amylase and the data was also collected.
Result During the experiment we observed that bacterial amylase had faster enzymatic activity than fungal amylase; bacterial amylase achieved 100% hydrolysis at ICC and ICC at 2 minutes time and fungal amylase get partial hydrolysis at ICC at 4 minutes time (table 1 and 2). ISO according to graph 1 and 2 we can observed how hydrolysis of starch can change over time at different temperatures for fungal and bacterial amylase and in this way we corroborated the data. Also in order to determine how accuracy our data was we calculated the variance and standard deviance using the following formula: aver)AN-1 and SD=(x-x aver)AN-1 Discussion Observing the data collecting, we can support the idea that bacterial has faster reaction time than fungal amylase.
Bacterial reached complete hydrolysis of starch faster than fungal and we can support this because urine the experiment it was easy to observe how temperature affected the enzymatic activity. For high temperature amylase activity did not exist (dark black), this means that starch was present because the temperature was too high and denatured the enzyme. In this case the active site lost its shape and was unavailable to bind with the substrate. In the other site low temperature restricted the movement of molecules and in this condition hydrolysis occurred but too slowly; that was why the presence of starch remaining at this temperature appeared after more time .
This information was noted because the use of iodine made it possible to determine the presence of starch because iodine with starch make a dark color . We know this because the first row of the spot plate was only contained starch and iodine (control). When hydrolysis occurs starch becomes glucose and the only color observed is the yellow of iodine. The faster of the dark color disappears the faster the enzyme amylase activity occurs; that is how the experiments showed that bacterial has faster reaction time than fungal although they have the same optimal temperature. In real experiments, limitations can occur and it is very important to consider that fact in order to analyze our data better.
Contamination of the spot plate can produce a different color and can result in error for example, if starch particles are already on the spot plate then this can change the data. Also it is very important that the different temperatures have the correct Co we are working on it because a change in a temperature can affect the data of the experiment either slowing the process with low temperature when is supposed to get hydrolysis or the reverse. During this experiment we collected a lot of data and this made possible to understand why enzymes have an important use in our life but also in industries. The main function of amylase is break down starch to glucose and knowing how fast it occur explain why amylase is very important in the production of syrups and glucose.