People working in different functional areas have to communicate with each other in order to achieve the same objectives but they also need to communicate with other range of individuals and organisations, including their customer’s, competitors and their suppliers as well as their own employees. Internal communication is communication that takes place within an organisation, while external communication takes place between the organisation and the people outside the business. All large businesses use information communication technology (ICT) to communicate internally and externally.
ICT is any equipment or interconnected system of equipment that support all forms of technology used to create, store, manipulate, manage, move, display, switch, interchange, transmit or receive information in its various forms. This has had a major effect on the way communication takes place in the business because they help to play an important role in the effectiveness of communication. The main methods of ICT Sainsbury uses externally Face to face: Sainsbury sets up a customer service desk which deals with customer’s enquiries and complaints
E-mail: This is used to communicate with the customer’s who enquire about information on Sainsbury and updates on the latest events at Sainsbury’s Telephone: Sainsbury also use this to communicate with the customer’s who also seek for information regarding products, etc Interviews: Sainsbury sometimes interview with someone outside the organisation who may be interested in something Sainsbury has done, e.
g. press, radio or television Business letters: Sainsbury use business letters to make arrangements without the need for parties to meet.
Business letters also provide both parties with a permanent record of such arrangements and also confirm verbal arrangements Faxes: Sainsbury uses fax machines to send both written and visual information electronically over the telephone line Video conferencing: Sainsbury uses this when they need to have face to face meetings with people who are geographically separated Internet: Sainsbury has a website which can be viewed by the customers to find out all about the current developments that are taking place in the fields in which Sainsbury operate.
This is a benefit to the customer’s because it allows the customers to see how well they are doing etc Media: Sainsbury uses the media such as TV, radio, magazines, press etc to advertise and promote their products, created with desk top publisher software. Electronic data interchange: This is a network link that allows Sainsbury to pay suppliers electronically without the need for invoices and cheques, this reduces time, paperwork and costs Electronic funds transfer: Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) provides for electronic payments and collections e.
g. switch or credit cards. EFT is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections. (This also concerns the banks and credit control agencies) The main methods of internal communication Sainsbury uses Face to face: Members of the staff communicate with each other sometimes when they are working together as a team or when they are seeking information E-mail: This is used to forward any attachments to other members of the staff E. g. From finance function to HR function
E-mail is much quicker, especially if sent overseas, and can be sent to more people at one time than regular methods Telephone: This is to pass on information to other staff or enquire about something concerning the company Meetings: This is used with the senior management such as the store, deputy and department managers. Meetings are also held with the staff. Senior management meeting usually takes place monthly and staff meetings held weekly. Meetings can save a lot of time and can get feedback from the people at the meeting immediately. It also saves time on having to discuss things individually.
Agendas and minutes can be written on word processor which then can be sent by e-mail or internet. Electronic point of sale: This is where the customers pay for their goods, the tills are connected to the computer storing the stock database, when an item is sold its barcode is scanned and the product details including price will appear on the screen, after an item is sold the stock level of the item is automatically decreased Paging devices: Sainsbury’s staffs uses a small electronic device which lets a person know when they are in need of contact
Bulletin boards/ office displays: Messages are put out on notice boards to note other members of staff of any recent news or event taking place e. g. Office party Display product development: This is where people can see and comment on the scheme, this gives them the staff the chance to put their views across Electronic data interchange: This is a network link that allows Sainsbury to pay people within the company electronically without the need for invoices and cheques, this reduces time, paperwork and costs so this method can be use internally and externally.