Companies have found that investment in human capital in the form of training and development yields high returns. The ones that recognize the value of their employees and place a new emphasis on education and training are becoming more competitive, successful, and profitable as a result. Training can be broadly divided into 2 categories: Behavioral Training: This training is given to employees to improve their softskills and inculcate managerial qualities in them.
Functional Training: It is job-related training. It focuses on the work to be done.
It systematically uses selected, structured and documented workplace experience, combining theory with practice, and is guided by clearly defined objectives. Functional training is very important in manufacturing industry as it helps employees in ensuring their safety while working on machines, upgrade them with latest manufacturing practices and improve the productivity of company. Training Need Identification: Training need identification is one of the foremost step in designing a training program.
Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organization (long term) and individual employees (short term).
This involves finding answers to questions such as: whether training is needed? If yes, where it is needed? Which training is needed? Etc. Once we identify training gaps within the organization, it becomes easy to design an appropriate training program. It is one of the foremost steps in a training program. 1 Training Methods: Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction.
On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workspace.
Off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at location other than the real work spot. Effectiveness of Training: It is necessary to measure how effective is the training program employees are given. One of the ways of doing this is through Kirkpatrick Model. In this method there are 4 levels at which training is evaluated a) Level 1- Reaction -Feedback about how trainees felt about the training b) Level 2-
Learning- measuring whether trainees learnt what trainers intended to teach c) Level 3- Behavioral -measuring whether the trainees put their learning into effect when back on the job d) Level 4- Results- At this level, you analyse the final results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to benchmark the Functional training process followed in Swaraj with that followed in other leading manufacturing companies.
Some secondary objectives are: ? To study ways of Training Need Identification ? To study various methods of off-job and on-job training. ? To study Effectiveness of training ? To analyze the Training system for further development ? To suggest measures for the improvement of the Training program. 2 METHODOLOGY: 1. Research design The Research Design is Exploratory, as it is undertaken to primarily study the functional training process and discover insights into its better working.. 2. Sample Design Convenience sampling has been used 3.
Data Collection The primary data has been collected with the help of a questionnaire. The secondary data has been collected from various sources like journals, books and websites. 4. Questionnaire Design There are a total of 9 questions that aim to cover all aspects of the functional training process. It includes multiple choice questions. 5. Data Analysis Bar Graphs and Pie Charts have been used to compare data. 3 CHAPTER -1 COMPANY PROFILE History : In the mid-sixties, with the Green Revolution triggering large-scale tractor usage, there was a need for the country to build sufficient indigenous capacity. o. meet. this. growing. demand. In 1965, the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur initiated design and development of Swaraj Tractor based on indigenous knows how. That is how the idea for development of what was to become Swaraj was initiated. The first prototype was ready in May 1967 and by April 1970, field experience of over 1,500 hours had been gained. At that point, it was decided to christen a name for the product – signifying Indian, easy to pronounce and signifying power and grace.
The name `Swaraj’, was approved by the then Prime Minister,. Mrs. Indira. Gandhi. In 1970, the Government of Punjab acquired the Swaraj tractor’s design and established Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL). The tractors were produced and sold under the brand name of Swaraj. In 2007, Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. acquired majority stake in PTL, and in Feb 2009, it was merged into M&M as the Swaraj Division of Mahindra & Mahindra. Outline: Swaraj has been manufacturing tractors that serve the need of their buyers in agricultural as well as commercial operations.
Their product range starting from a 22 HP category tractor to a 72 HP category tractor straddles every HP category requirement of their customers. The brand enjoys a strong equity in the market and commands a market share of close to 12%. The brand is known for producing tractors that are powerful and reliable. Presently, there are more than 7,00,000 satisfied customers of Swaraj in the 4 country. Swaraj tractors are also exported to various countries including Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Ghana, Gambia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania and the USA.
Milestones 1970 1974 1983 1995 Establishment of PTL for making Swaraj Brand of Tractors Commercial production started with 2 models 724 FE & 735 FE Swaraj 855 launched in 50 HP category Establishment of 2nd plant for manufacturing Swaraj Tractors in Chhaparchhedi Cumulative sales of Swaraj Tractors touches 5,00,000 M&M ( leader in domestic tractor industry ) acquires majority stake in PTL Merger of PTL into M&M and subsequent transformation as Swaraj Division of Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
Rated Highest In Industry for Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), Sales Satisfaction Index (SSI) Swaraj Division achieved Stage-5 in MQW Assessment Swaraj becomes the second tractor company in the world to win the prestigious DEMING Prize Rated Highest In Industry for Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) Swaraj Division Plant 1 and Plant 2 Won TPM Excellence Award From JIPM 2002 2007 2009 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 5 DETAILS Company Name Mahindra & Mahindra Swaraj Tractors Ltd Head office Level of Office Phase IV, Industrial Area, S. A. S Nagar Mohali City Punjab State 91-172-2271620 -27 2270820 – 23 www. ahindraswaraj. com Website Automobile Industry Industry Best Company Type Private Sector Sector Number of Employees 2100 91-172- Address Phone Number Product Portfolio Less than 30 HP 724 XM 30-40 HP 834 XM 6 40-50 HP 841 XM More than 50 HP 855 FE 724 XM Orchard 825 XM 735 FE 735 XM 843 XM 734 FE , 744 XM 855 XM 724 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speeds, 2 cylinder Standard Dual Clutch 1000 kgf hydraulic capacity 1824 cc engine Toggle switch – Easy to operate during inter cultivation applications 834 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct injection, Diesel engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speeds, 3 cylinders Standard Single Clutch 1000 Kgf Hydraulic lifting Capacity 2952 cc engine Adjustable P. U sliding seat for operator comfort 8 841 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct Injection, Diesel Engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speed, 4 cylinders Standard Single Clutch 1200 Kgf Hydraulic lifting Capacity 2730 cc engine Compact design with new attractive decals 9 855 XM Specifications:? ? ? ? ? 4 Stroke, Direct injection, Diesel engine 8 Forward, 2 Reverse speeds, 3 cylinders Standard dual clutch 1700 kgf hydraulic capacity 3480 cc engine Isolator valve for auxiliary application 10 TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT MAHINDRA SWARAJ The training Objectives at Mahindra Swaraj are as follows: ? The skills and knowledge of employees are aligned with the latest technology and development. ? To enable them to do the job in more effective way so as to reduce learning time. Types of Training: A wide variety of training programs are used in different organizations, depending on requirements and size of their manpower.
These trainings include both behavioral and functional trainings. Functional Training Need Identification ? Functional Competency Manual has been prepared for Swaraj Division for all the departments. This is the responsibility of the training department. ? Department Head prioritizes 4 Functional Competencies for the respective department out of the basket of functional competencies defined for each job family of the department with reference to the Functional Competency Manual during Annual Appraisal process. Competency grid is prepared (number of years of service Vs. Hierarchal Bands) for prioritized functional competencies wherein minimum required level of each competency is mentioned. This is done in the respective departments and the department head is responsible for this. 11 ? Out of the prioritized 4 competencies, the supervisor identifies and rates the individual in the annual appraisal form on 2 competencies. This is also done in respective departments and the responsibility lies with the line manager. ?
Training Needs are identified in the Appraisal Form considering the Prioritized Competencies by Assessor. This is also done in respective departments but the accountability lies with the PMS team. . Designing the training program Once the training needs are assessed, the H. R. Dept. and the trainers jointly design the training program. The contents are worked out keeping in mind the objective, the target group and the skills required. Other factors like – nature of work performed and existing competencies play a role in the development of the programs.
There are a number of predefined and designed training programs that are organized frequently, for example, personality development programs, communication skills and other technical programs. Conducting training programs The trainers for the program are decided based on the contents of the program. The choice of the faculty depends on the topic to be covered, the grasping power of the trainees and the budget. Evaluation At Mahindra Swaraj Kirkpatrick Model of Training Evaluation is followed. 2 Table with the complete Functional Training Process Activity Functional Training Need Identification for Management Staff Functional Competency Manual has been prepared for Swaraj Division for all the departments Department Head prioritizes 4 Functional Competencies for the respective department out of the basket of functional competencies defined for each job family of the department with reference to the Functional Competency Manual during Annual Appraisal process.
Competency grid is prepared (number of years of service Vs. Hierarchal Bands) for prioritized functional competencies wherein minimum required level of each competency is mentioned. Responsibility Accountabi lity Training Training Executive Respective Department PMS Respective Department Departme nt Head Out of the prioritized 4 competencies, the supervisor identifies and Respective rates the individual in the annual appraisal form on 2 Department competencies. Line Managers
Training Needs are identified in the Appraisal Form considering the Respective PMS Prioritized Competencies by Assessor Department Team Compiled Competency Ratings & Training needs for the management staff are taken from PMS team after the Annual Performance Appraisal completion. Functional Competency Indices for the organization are calculated, which is the competency level percentage. It is derived by dividing the Average Actual competency rating value by highest competency scale level and converting it to percentage value.
The Indices so derived are indicative of the competency level within the organization so as to draw the improvement plans accordingly. Discussion & designing of Annual Training Plan Inputs for Focus area for Training for both behavioral and functional for current Financial Year received from the Business Plan as discussed in SLT Inputs from behavioral TNI, functional TNI and last Financial Year Training Plan are taken and assessed to set Training priorities for the Training Calendar cycle of the Financial year. 13 PMS
PMS Team Training Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training HR Head Training Classification of the Training Programs as Inhouse/ Sponsored programs Discussion of the Tentative Training Plan with Swaraj Leadership Team & Division Heads Freezing of Annual Training Plan & Approval of Training budget in discussion with SLT Development / Identification of training Modules Identifying and Contacting Consultants / External Agency for the In? house Training Program Delivery.
Discussion of the In? house Training Module Objectives and the Deliverables with the Consultants / External Agency for the Training Programs Finalization of the In? house Training Modules & their tentative schedule Identification of the appropriate Sponsored Training Programs Designing of Quarterly Training Calendar Training Calendar is freezed for the quarter based on the inputs from the training plan Quarterly Training calendar sent to Department/ Unit heads Training Training HR Head Training
Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Training Executive Departm ent Head Departm ent Head Training Executive Training Training Training Training Training Identify & finalize participants based on TNI / invite nominations as per calendar Training Conducting Training Programs Administrative arrangements in terms of logistics & stay for faculty and training venue, training material etc. s per checklist Conducting training programs and releasing Management Staff for In? house Training Programs. Releasing Management Staff for external programs as per respective program dates Training Respective Department Respective Department Training Program Evaluation & Effectiveness? Refer to Annexure 1 Training Documentation Competency & Training card spanning 3 years is maintained for Management staff annually. Training 14 CHAPTER – 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Hemalakshmi Raju has written a research paper on functional training.
In this paper she discusses how the employees are less enthusiastic towards functional training as compared to behavioral training. She talks about the myths which employees have regarding functional training. The myths are that employees generally consider functional training useful only for junior level and for line functions only. Also the organisations think that the trainers have to be highly qualified but in this paper she busts these myths and explains how functional training can help every employee and every department.
Reid Bates from Louisiana State University has written a paper ‘A critical Analysis of evaluation practice: the Kirkpatrick model and the principle of beneficence’. In this paper he analyses the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation. He said that Kirkpatrick model over-simplifies the training process and is incomplete. Second limitation cited is that every level is considered more important than the previous and making the level 4 most important. Thirdly, he says that in the Kirkpatrick model there is a causal linkage which means that positive reaction at a previous can only yield success at the next level. Vicente F.
Estrada has written a paper ‘Training in Manufacturing Continues to Evolve’ in which he enumerates the 8 principles which a functional training program should have which are 1) Systematic 2) A total learning experience 3) Conducted as a line function 4) Inclusive 5) Supported by everyone 6)Followed through 7)Relevant 8) Measured ‘A framework for training worke rs in contemporary manufacturing environments’ a research paper published in International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing discusses the need of human resource management and training in the automated manufacturing industry today and gives the general framework of training employees in manufacturing industry. The paper lists the following considerations to be kept in mind: 1) Global Competition which includes user requirement needs, producing quality products, etc. 2) Identifying the best technology 3) Prototype development requirements like skill requirement, automation needs, capital requirement, etc. Identifying Your Organisation’s Training Needs by Capital Wave Inc. discusses the need of assessment and measurement of current skill level, Succession Planning 15 eeds, future anticipated needs and career development in designing of training program. Strategic Training by McGraw- Hill Australia discusses the impact of work role and organizational functions on training. It talks about the impact of different business strategies like concentration, internal growth, external growth and disinvestment on training programs. 16 CHAPTER – 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Research Problem Checking the validity of the functional training process and its optimization. The Research Objective ? Optimization of Functional Training Process at Mahindra Swaraj ? To study ways of Training Need Identification ? To study various methods of off-job and on-job training. To analyze the Training system for further development ? To suggest measures for the improvement of the Training program. Scope of the Study The training and development activities were studied at Mahindra Swaraj and training techniques of other leading companies were analyzed with the help of a questionnaire. Need for the Study 17 Every organization big or small, productive or non-productive, economic or social, old or newly established should provide training to all employees irrespective of their qualification, skill, suitability for the job etc. Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons ? To match the Employee specifications with the Job Requirements. Organizational Viability and the Transformation process ? Technological Advances ? Organizational Complexity ? Human Relations ? Change in the Job Assignment The need for training also arises to: ? Increase productivity ? Improve quality of the product / service. ? Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs. ? Improve organizational climate. ? Improve health and safety. ? Prevent obsolescence. ? Effect the personal growth. ? Minimize the resistance to change. An ideal training process will help the company increase productivity and will also be critical in development of employees. Limitations ? The study covered only 26 respondents 18 ? Time constraint is also one of the limitations. Inspite of taking care some wrong information may have crept in the research. Research Design The Research Design is Exploratory, as it is primarily undertaken to study the functional training process and gain insights into ways of improving it. Sample Design The sample size taken is 26 and the technique used is Convenience Sampling. Data Collection For any statistical enquiry the collection of data or information is done through principle sources identically i. e. , by primary sources and secondary sources of data. PrimaryData:? Primary data are those which are collected a fresh and for the first time. Primary data for the study is collected through questionnaire and indepth interviews.
The interviews were used to establish the parameters to be added in the questionnaire and to establish any special training practices followed in the organisatios.. SecondaryData:? Most of the data used for the study is secondary in nature and has been collected from various journals and books. 19 Questionnaire Design There are a total of 9 questions that aims to cover all aspects of the functional training process It includes multiple choice questions Data Analysis Bar Graphs and Pie Charts have been used to compare data. 20 CHAPTER -4 ABOUT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEFINITIONS OF TRAINING:- ? The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping those correct deficiencies in their performance. —– Luis R. Gomez Mejia, —– David B Balkan. Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals. —– Robert L Mathis, —– John H. Jackson. ? Training is a process to increase an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. —– K. Aswathappa. ? The process of teaching new employees, the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. —– Gary Dazzler. 21 ? Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. —– Flippo. Development Development is mainly considered for the executives or the management.
So the concept is elaborated and described as under executive or management development. Definitions:? Management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage. It is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. —– V S P Rao. ? It is any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. —– Gary Dazzler. Introduction to Training and Development Companies have found that investment in human capital in the form of training and development yields high returns. The ones that recognize the value of their 22 mployees and place a new emphasis on education and training are becoming more competitive, successful, and profitable as a result. According to a study by Knowledge Assessment Management, companies in the top 20 percent of those who spend money on training receive higher returns in the stock market. Some training and development programs teach new hires to perform a specific job, while others update the skills and knowledge of established employees. Some of the money is spent to provide technology-related training that teaches employee to operate, maintain, or repair equipment used in the workplace. Technology training is needed for workers in industries as diverse as construction, manufacturing, health, and transportation.
Technical professionals include scientists, architects, engineers, and health professionals. Blue-collar technical workers include mechanics, repair people, and those in precision production jobs. Technology is constantly changing and therefore job responsibilities are constantly changing, requiring many workers to update their skills on a regular basis. After employees have been selected for various positions in an organization, training them for the specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes greater importance. According to Flippo, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning.
A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Features of training ? ? Increases knowledge and skills for doing a job. Bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behavior. 23 ? ? Job oriented process, vocational in nature. Short term activity designed essentially for operatives. HRM AND TRAINING Recognition of the importance of training in recent years has been heavily influenced by the intensification of overseas competition and the relative success of economies like Japan, Germany and Sweden where investment in employee development is considerably emphasized.
Technological developments and organizational change have gradually led some employers to the realization that success relies on the skills and abilities of their employees, and this means considerable and continuous investment in training and development. This has also been underscored by the rise in human resource management with its emphasis on the importance of people and the skills they possess in enhancing organizational efficiency. Such HRM concepts as ‘commitment’ to the company and the growth in the ‘quality’ movement have led senior management terms to realize the increased importance of training, employee development and long term education. There has also been more recognition of the need to complement the qualities of employees with the needs of the organization.
Such concepts require not only careful planning but a greater emphasis on employee development. HRD programs are continuous and shaped to fit the culture changes in the organization in relation to the needs of the individual. In this way training and HRD become tools for effecting change and the policy ramification can be wide ranging and strategic. As a result training takes on a variety of forms and covers a multitude of subjects. Training Objectives ? To upgrade the skills and prevent obsolescence. 24 ? To develop healthy and constructive attitude. ? To prepare employees for future assignments. ? To minimize operational errors. ? To enhance employee confidence and morale. ? To bring down costs of production. To bring down labor turn over and absenteeism. Training vs Development Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptual or intellectual. Development, in contrast, is considered to be more general than training and more oriented towards individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed toward management people. Usually the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding that will enable people to carry out non technical organizational functions more effectively, such as problem solving, decision making and relating to people. Training Development Distinctions Table Learning Dimension Who Training Non-managers and managers What Technical-Mechanical Operations Why Specific job related information When Short Term Long Term Theoretical-Conceptual ideas General knowledge Development Managers 25 Areas of Training The areas of training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories: ? Knowledge – Here the trainee learns about a set rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes inside and outside the company. ? Technical Skills – The employee is taught a specific skill (e. g. operating a machine, handling computer etc. ) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. Social Skills – The employee is made to learn about him and other, develop a right mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. ? Techniques – This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the –job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at molding employee attitudes: when administered properly Training can be broadly divided into 2 parts: BEHAVIORAL TRAINING: This training is given to employees to improve their soft-skills and inculcate managerial qualities in them. FUNCTIONAL TRAINING: It is job-related training. It focuses on the work to be done.
It systematically uses selected, structured and documented workplace experience, combining theory with practice, and is guided by clearly defined objectives. Functional training is very important in manufacturing industry as it 26 helps employees in ensuring their safety while working on machines, upgrade them with latest manufacturing practices and improve the productivity of company. TRAINING PROCESS Training process can be divided into 3 parts: a) Assessment b) Implementation c)Evaluation A systematic approach to training Table 1. Assessment Determine training needs. Identify training objectives. Conduct training. 2. Implementation Select training methods. 3. Evaluation
Compare training outcomes and criteria. TRAINING ASSESSMENT: Training assessment is a very comprehensiveexamination of what is currently being trained,what knowledge, skills, and abilities should be added to the education program, and what may needs to be added in the future. Areas of assessment and assessment methods can differ from subject to subject within the organization, and most certainly differ between organizations themselves. After assessment the process of Training need identification is carried out. Training Need Identification: It is a process to identify what educational courses or activities should be provided to employees to improve their work productivity.
Here the focus should be placed on needs as opposed to desires of the employees for a constructive outcome. It can be done by the following ways: 27 a) Observation: In this you take your observations of the person doing the job and then break them down into the task areas. For each area, you can determine the individual tasks, such as then determine its frequency. From there, you can determine which tasks have more importance by their frequency as well as which tasks will require more detailed knowledge. Finally, you can determine if adequate training exists on each task and task area. b) Self-Nomination: An employee may feel that he lacks knowledge and skill in areas critical for his job and may request for training in that area.
This method is very important where employees are motivated to perform better. c) Performance Appraisals: They can reveal areas of weakness and potential improvement in your workforce, helping to identify training needs. Continually updating training programs based on performance appraisal feedback can boost your workforce’s productivity and efficiency over time. They are one of the most popular ways of training need identification. d) Depends on Project Requirements: In this the training program is customized according to the need of the project. e) Opinion Survey: It is one of the most common needs assessment tool. Survey can be written or online.
You can administer surveys to employees, managers, customers, and executives, and these surveys can give you an overall view of the needs (and types of needs) that currently exist. f) Critical Incidents: These are the needs which occur because of a catastrophic failure such as a factory explosion, a regulatory infraction, or even a natural disaster. 28 TRAINING METHODS The next part of the training program is to decide the training method. Training Methods: There are two kinds of main training methods. ? On-the-job training methods. ? Off-the-job training methods. Training Methods On-The-Job Methods ? ? Orientation Training Apprenticeship Training Job Rotation Training Internship Training Job Instruction Training(JIT). Coaching and Mentoring Job Rotation Off-The-Job Methods ? ? ? ? ?
Vestibule Testing Case Study Lecture Role Play Programmed Instruction ? ? ? ? ? Selection of training methods Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workplace. Off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at location other than the real work spot. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below: 29 On. the. Job. Trainings. (OJT): When an employee learns the job in actual working site in real life situation, and not simulated environment, it is called OJT. Employee learns while working. This type of training is the most ommonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first-hand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimised as the person learns on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the j