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Assignment One: Strategic planning, learning theory, and training needs analysis Strayer University ASSIGNMENT ONE Identify the five phases of the training process model (TPM); explain fully the process that goes on in each of the phases. The five phases of the training process model are as follows; 1.
Analysis Phase – In the analysis phase, companies determine where there are performance gaps and how they will address those gaps.
They must determine whether the performance gap is caused by insufficient employee knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA’s) or from non-KSA related issues such as faulty equipment or motivation issues (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010). This process is often referred to as a training needs analysis (TNA). The analysis also serves to attach priorities to training events. Not all training needs identified will be an emergency, while other areas identified may need to be addressed as quickly as possible.
Design Phase – The design phase is the creation of training objectives. Once the training needs are identified through the TNA process the design phase is used to provide specific direction on how and when to provide the training. This phase also takes into consideration the factors needed to complete the training objectives, such as where to get the training (outsourced or internal), how to deliver the training (classroom, distance learning, written materials etc.
), and the organization of the training content (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010). . Development Phase – The development phase is when you formulate an instructional strategy in order to meet the training objectives. It is also when all of the materials that are needed to conduct the training are brought together. Such as training materials (manuals, texts, and training media), and how the content will be delivered (classroom, distance, individual). 4. Implementation Phase – The implementation phase is when all of the other phases are brought together and the training can be conducted.
A dry run of the training is recommended in order to ensure all the training needs are met and the training will be successful. 5. Evaluation Phase – There are two parts to the evaluation phase; the first is the process evaluation which looks at the mechanics of the training. In the second part the outcome evaluation; looks at how well the training objectives were implemented. This evaluates how the training influenced the trainees, job performance, and overall company training goals. Identify three factors that might inhibit HRD managers from developing a strategic planning approach to training.
Recommend how these three factors might be overcome. Since the HRD main focus is on employee’s skills and performance and the book states that many companies leave the HRD out of the strategic planning process completely; it stands to reason that a HRD manager in this scenario would not develop a strategic plan because they know it won’t be supported or included in the company’s overall goals. Aside from that, the other issues managers face are technical design issues, cultural/ideological issues, and political issues.
If the plan is supported by the company, the HRD manager has to realize costs and development of training (especially if new training is needed to introduce new skills to workers). They also have to determine if this can be achieved internally or if they need to bring in outside consultants. They also have to be sensitive to the cultural issues employees face and how all of these tie in with the entire organizational goals. HRD needs to identify and explain the need for change within an organization and present solutions.
For instance if the companies new strategy is to have better customer service, the HRD needs to develop training that improves customer service skills while still fitting into the company’s other strategic goals (like saving money). Since most change in organizations is top-down thinking, the HRD manager needs to be able to present its strategies from the bottom (the employee) up and convince upper levels that certain changes or training is needed in order to meet company goals and that these strategies needs to be implemented for the overall success of the company.
Compare and contrast the behaviorist and the cognitive approaches to learning. Explain which is more relevant to training. Depending on the task being trained, either approach may be best suited for the training. For instance, since the behaviorist approach suggests that the environment controls learning; in other words, the person doing the learning is not setting the objectives. A type of behaviorist learning could be getting struck by lightning. Someone doesn’t go outside in a lightning storm with the intent of being struck, and therefore learning not to go out in lighting storms.
Rather it happens and they learn from the experience. Cognitive learning on the other hand is controlled by the learner. Like taking college courses, the student has an expectation of what they will learn from the course and it is dependent on their actions as a student if they learn the material or not. The instructor can set up the environment for learning, but if the student fails to show up learning will not happen. So in a corporate training environment, either approach to training could be effective.
Training a specific task to be memorized and performed would fall under the behaviorist approach, while going to sexual harassment training would fall under a cognitive approach. Fully explain the purpose of a training needs analysis (TNA). Argue the conditions under which a TNA is always necessary, and offer two examples when a TNA might not be required. The training needs analysis (TNA) is used primarily to determine what training is necessary to eliminate or improve organizational performance gaps (OPG).
When company goals and objectives are not being met, a TNA can and should be done in order to identify what training needs to take place and who needs to take the training in order to eliminate those performance gaps. TNAs are used to determine if the gap is due to employees KSA’s or if there are other barriers in place that are affecting employee performance. A TNA may not be required when the training being conducted is applicable to everyone in the company, such as sexual harassment or loss prevention training.
It is also not necessary if the training is meant for team-building purposes. In this case the training is directed at the team members to develop cohesiveness and effectiveness. A TNA is always necessary when a performance gap has been identified. The TNA in this case ensures that only the employees who need the training receive it, thus reducing training costs. For instance, if the performance gap is identified in how paperwork is being handled, you would not need your manufacturers to attend the training, only the administrative employees would need to attend.
This eliminates sending employees to training that they do not need, which can distract those who do need or want the training. Since relevance is one of the motivators for learning, TNA’s promote training effectiveness by ensuring that only the employees who require the training receive it. References Blanchard, P. N. & Thacker, J. W. (2010). Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, & Practice 2010 custom edition (4th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, N. J. : Prentice Hall.