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Food color additives are dyes, pigments or substances that impart color when applied to a food, drug, cosmetic, or the human body. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for regulating all color additives used in the United States. All color additives permitted for use in foods are classified as “exempt from certification” or “certifiable”.
Color additives that are exempt from certification include pigments that are derived from natural sources such as vegetables minerals or animals, and man-made counterparts of natural derivatives.
Certifiable color additives are man-made, with each batch being tested by the manufacturer and the FDA. This “approval” process, known as color additive certification, assures the safety, quality, consistency and strength of the color additive. Color additives are available for use in food as either “dyes” or “lakes”.
Dyes dissolve in water, lakes are the water insoluble form of the dye, are more stable than dyes, and are ideal for coloring products containing fats and oils.
Laura Red AC is a red ago dye that goes by several names including: Laura Red, FDA&C Red 40 and disposed 6-hydroxyl-5-((2-methods-5-methyl-4- sullenly)ago)-2-naphthalene-sultanate. It is used as a food dye and has the appearance of a dark red powder. Originally introduced in the United States as a replacement for the use of amaranth as a food coloring, its use has been linked in recent years to increased hyperactivity in children.
In Europe, Laura Red AC is not recommended for consumption by children, and although the European Union approves Laura Red AC as a food coloration, the some of the EX. Countries’ local laws ban it entirely, including Denmark, Belgium, France, Switzerland, and Sweden. In Norway, it was banned between 1978 and 2001 , a period in which ago dyes were only legally used in alcoholic beverages and some fish products. In the United States, Laura Red AC is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in cosmetics, drugs, and food.
It is used in some tattoo inks and is used in many products, such as soft drinks, children’s medications, and cotton candy. There are seven certified colors approved for use in food in the United States. Five can be found in M & M @ candies: Blue 1, Blue 2, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6. Chromatography is an important separation technique that depends on differences in both absorption and solubility. One type of chromatography is Thin Layer Chromatography in which a small amount (dot) of the mixture to be operated is placed close to the edge of a piece of chromatography paper.
The plate is then set in a developing solution (mobile phase), with the level of the solution below the dots. As the developing solution ascends up the plate by capillary action, the components of the sample are carried along at different rates. To prevent evaporation of the developing solution, this process is carried out in a closed container. Each component of the mixture will move a definite distance on the TTL plate in proportion to the distance that the solvent moves.
This ratio, [pica can be calculated for each component, to aid in identification. Retention factor values are dependent upon the TTL plate, developing solution, and sample size. Candies, such as M & M’s, contain FDA (Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) dyes, sugars, and other organic and inorganic substances in their coatings. To extract the dye from the candy, an acidic solution (in this case, 5% acetic acid) can be used. Once the dye is in the acid solution, a piece of 100% wool can be used to extract the dye from the solution.
Then, if the wool is placed in a solution of MM ammonia, the ammonia supplies sufficient to reduce the concentration of the H+ and shift the equilibrium to the left, which releases the dyes. WOOL + DYE + H + ( DYED WOOL* Objectives By preparing for and performing this experiment, you will: Isolate they FDA dyes present in the coating of M candy; Use thin layer chromatography to separate dyes from each other; Investigate the relationship between molecular structure and retention factor; Compare your samples to standards; Identify the dyes present in the various colors of M.
Red 40 and other dyes are listed on the ingredients of M candy. In this experiment, you will study samples of M to determine which dyes are in each colored candy. You will first use acid, wool, and ammonia to extract and isolate the dyes, and then you will run TTL to separate the dyes. If samples containing known FDA dyes are run as standards, it is possible to identify the dyes used in the candy coatings. Purpose: Which food dyes are present in the candy coating of M candies? Note: Each student should be responsible for one color.
Every color needs to be done by at least two students in each section so there is data to compare. Task should collect data on the computer or board, and students must have a full set in their notebooks/computer file before leaving lab. Materials Chemicals (hood/balance bench): 5% acetic acid solution MM ammonia M’s candies Standard solutions Mobile phase solvent (4:4:1:2 mixture of Somali alcohol, ethanol, water, and ammonia) Other Equipment: TTL plates Wool yarn (pre-cut into ”CACM strips) Procedures Extracting the Dyes: 1. Place 5 candy pieces of the same color into a small beaker.
Pour enough acetic acid solution into each tube to just cover all of the candy pieces, around 5 ml. 2. Agitate the beaker carefully for about 30-45 seconds, or until the color comes off of the candy. Be careful to dissolve as little as possible of the white are (sugar) under the colored layer and do not dissolve any of the chocolate. Immediately decant the colored solution into a clean test tube, trying not to transfer any of the sediment. Repeat with the other colors for which you are responsible. 3. Now you need to extract the dye from the solution onto the strips of yarn.
To do this, place one piece of yarn into each test tube of colored solution. Heat the tubes in a boiling water bath for 8-10 minutes. You can remove the tubes from the water when the solution is milky-white and the yarn is the color of the dye, in other words, when all of the dye has been extracted from the solution. . Remove the dyed yarn from the solution and rinse it with distilled water. If you wish you may cut -2 SMS off each piece of yarn as a souvenir. Let these dry on a piece of paper, and you may take them away with you to keep if you’d like. . Now it is necessary to extract the dye from the yarn and get it back into solution. Into a large clean test tube, place a piece of colored yarn and no more than ml of MM ammonia. Make sure that the yarn is immersed and mix with a stirring rod, rinsing the stirring rod before placing it in each tube so as not to mix any of the colors. 6. Heat the tubes containing the yarn and ammonia in the water bath for 10 minutes or until the color of the yarn has faded. Remove the yarn. 7. You now may need to concentrate each color.
To get some feel for just how concentrated each color should be, take a small test tube and using a dropper add 5 drops of water to the test tube. This is the amount of each color that you require. 8. To concentrate your dyes, place the dye in a clean evaporating dish and very carefully heat it on a hotplate. Be careful here, if the dye goes dry then the heat from the burner will decompose the dye. Separating and identifying the dyes: . Once all of your samples have been concentrated, it is now possible to run TTL plates on the dyes and the standards.
You should divide up the work, but all standards and your samples need to be run. 2. To prepare your plates, draw a thin line with a pencil about 1 CM from the bottom of the plate. With a toothpick or capillary tube, place a small dot of standard or sample along the line. After a few seconds, dot the same spot again to make it more concentrated. You can probably do two or three substances per plate. 3. The mobile phase solvent is a 4:4:1:2 mixture of Somali alcohol, ethanol, water, and ammonia. Place about 10 ml or so of this mixture in the bottom of a 1 50 ml beaker.