A. rapidly grew, in part, due to improved public health.
Between 1820 and 1840, the population of the United States
A. rapidly grew, in part, due to improved public health.
B. saw the proportion of enslaved blacks to free whites increase.
C. increased at a slower rate than in Europe.
D. remained relatively constant.
E. grew in spite of a very low birth rate in America.
E. was not a significant contributor to the national population.
Between 1800 and 1830, immigration to the United States
A. was the most significant factor in the nation’s population growth.
B. consisted mostly of people from southern Europe.
C. was at its peak for the century.
D. consisted mostly of people from Germany and Russia.
E. was not a significant contributor to the national population.
C. twenty-six percent
In 1860, the percentage of the population in free states living in towns (2,500+ people) was
A. seven percent.
B. thirteen percent.
C. twenty-six percent.
D. thirty-nine percent.
E. forty-two percent.
B. ten percent
In 1860, the percentage of the population in the South living in towns (2,500+ people) was
A. five percent.
B. ten percent.
C. fifteen percent.
D. twenty percent.
E. thirty-three percent.
D. Cincinnati
Which city did NOT owe its growth to the Great Lakes?
A. Milwaukee
B. Chicago
C. Cleveland
D. Cincinnati
E. Buffalo
B. Ireland and Germany
Between 1840 and 1860, the overwhelming majority of immigrants who arrived in the United States came from
A. Italy and Russia.
B. Ireland and Germany.
C. England and Russia.
D. England and Ireland.
E. Ireland and Italy.
E. young, single women
Before 1860, the largest single group of arriving Irish immigrants was
A. young, single men.
B. families.
C. children.
D. skilled laborers.
E. young, single women.
A. generally arrived with more money.
Before 1860, compared to Irish immigrants to the United States, German immigrants
A. generally arrived with more money.
B. were less likely to migrate as entire families.
C. were more likely to remain in Eastern cities.
D. came in greater numbers.
E. generally moved on to the Southeast.
B. fears of political radicalism
Prior to 1860, hostility among native-born Americans toward immigrants was spurred, in part, by
A. the refusal by immigrants to adopt to American culture.
B. fears of political radicalism.
C. the ability of immigrants to command high wages.
D. concerns that immigrants generally did not participate in politics.
E. the effect they had on the falling price of African slaves.
A. Catholics
The “Know-Nothing” movement was partially directed at reducing the influence of
A. Catholics.
B. abolitionists.
C. Democrats.
D. Jews.
E. free blacks.
E. American Party
After 1852, the “Know-Nothings” created a new political organization called the
A. Copperheads.
B. Republican Party.
C. Nativist Party.
D. Libertarian Party.
E. American Party.
C. canal boats could haul vastly larger loads than could road transports.
In comparing turnpike transportation to canal transportation,
A. canal transportation was generally developed before turnpike transportation.
B. canal construction was less expensive than turnpike construction.
C. canal boats could haul vastly larger loads than could road transports.
D. state governments gave little financial support to canal transportation.
E. New York was the first to finance turnpike construction.
D. a tremendous financial success.
The Erie Canal was
A. limited to flat land.
B. built entirely by private investors.
C. built without either locks or gates.
D. a tremendous financial success.
E. a great boon to the growth of Philadelphia.
A. played a relatively small role in the nation’s transportation system.
In the 1820s and 1830s, railroads
A. played a relatively small role in the nation’s transportation system.
B. standardized both the gauge of tracks and timetables.
C. saw its greatest development in the southern slave states.
D. became the dominant form of transportation in the nation.
E. had not yet been constructed in America.
E. Private investors provided nearly all the capital for rail development.
Which of the following statements regarding American railroads in the 1850s is FALSE?
A. Railroads helped weaken the connection between the Northwest and the South.
B. Most railroad “trunk lines” were reduced or eliminated.
C. Long distance rail lines weakened the dependence of the West on the Mississippi River.
D. Chicago was the railroad center of the West.
E. Private investors provided nearly all the capital for rail development.
A. a series of alternating electrical bursts which represented individual letters.
The Morse code used electrical current to create
A. a series of alternating electrical bursts which represented individual letters.
B. a numerical code in which each number represented a word on a list.
C. the first electrical reproduction of the human voice.
D. the first practical electric engine.
E. a series of alternating electrical bursts which represented words on a list.
A. existed between the United States and Europe
By 1866, telegraphic communication
A. existed between the United States and Europe.
B. had become a popular device in many American households.
C. was controlled by companies that operated within each time zone.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. the technological means to reproduce photographs in newsprint
During the 1840s, advances in journalism included all of the following EXCEPT
A. the creation of a national cooperative news-gathering organization.
B. the technological means to reproduce photographs in newsprint.
C. the invention of the steam cylinder rotary press.
D. the introduction of the telegraph system.
E. the dramatic growth of mass-circulation newspapers.
C. state legislatures
Before the 1830s, American corporations could be chartered only by
A. an act of Congress.
B. presidential executive order.
C. state legislatures.
D. a public vote.
E. a state governor.
E.meant stockholders could not be charged with losses greater than their investment.
In the 1830s, limited liability laws were developed in the United States that
A. protected the stockholders’ full investment in a company.
B. restricted the amount of capital a corporation could possess.
C. prevented a corporation from being dominated by a small group of stockholders.
D. protected corporations from liability lawsuits.
E. meant stockholders could not be charged with losses greater than their investment.
A. were concentrated in the Northeast
By 1860, factories in the United States
A. were concentrated in the Northeast.
B. produced goods whose total value greatly exceeded the nation’s agricultural output.
C. employed one-third of the nation’s manufacturing labor force.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. All the answers are correct
Before 1860, the development of machine tools by the United States government resulted in the
A. turret lathe.
B. universal milling machine.
C. precision grinder.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. coal
By 1860, the energy for industrialization in the United States increasingly came from
A. water.
B. kerosene.
C. coal.
D. gasoline.
E. wood.
B. were shifting from trade to manufacturing
By the middle of the nineteenth century, merchant capitalists in the United States
A. were an increasingly important economic force.
B. were shifting from trade to manufacturing.
C. had combined with British competitors.
D. were shifting their operations to the Western states.
E. had put most of their British competitors out of business.
E. None of the answers are correct
In the 1820s and 1830s, the labor force for factory work in the United States
A. saw many skilled urban artisans move into factory jobs.
B. consisted mostly of European immigrants.
C. was reduced by dramatic improvements in agricultural production.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. families and rural, single women.
American factory workers in early nineteenth-century textile mills largely consisted of
A. families and rural, single women.
B. single men.
C. unskilled urban workers.
D. young immigrants.
E. slaves.
B. workers were fairly well paid and lived in supervised dormitories.
When the Lowell factory system began
A. craftsmen were part of the production system.
B. workers were fairly well paid and lived in supervised dormitories.
C. workers had few benefits outside of a set wage scale.
D. the work day ended when production quotas were met.
E. workers rarely stopped working in the mills until retirement.
C. the owners increasingly used immigrants as their labor force
As the Lowell factory system progressed into the 1840s,
A. wages rose while working hours increased to ten hours.
B. female workers staged a successful strike for better living conditions.
C. the owners increasingly used immigrants as their labor force.
D. a paternalist management system was developed.
E. many mill girls moved into management roles in the factory system.
A. Irish
In the 1840s, the dominant immigrant group in New England textile mills was the
A. Irish.
B. Germans.
C. English.
D. Italians.
E. Chinese.
B. payment by piece rate replaced a daily wage
As the immigrant labor force in New England textile mills grew in the 1840s,
A. the workday grew shorter and wages declined.
B. payment by piece rate replaced a daily wage.
C. women and children were more likely to earn more than men.
D. safety conditions began to improve.
E. the workday grew longer and wages increased.
D.the skilled artisan and the yeoman farmer.
The republican tradition in the United States included the tradition of
A. the skilled artisan.
B. the yeoman farmer.
C. the industrial entrepreneur.
D. the skilled artisan and the yeoman farmer.
E. the yeoman farmer and the industrial entrepreneur.
E. led to the creation of skilled workingmen’s craft societies.
The rise of the American factory system
A. complemented the nation’s traditional republican ideals.
B. resulted in a rise in the status of skilled artisans among consumers.
C. saw the government act to maintain the trade of skilled artisans.
D. led some Northerners to advocate repealing abolition.
E. led to the creation of skilled workingmen’s craft societies.
A. was weakened by the Panic of 1837
The early union movement among skilled artisans
A. was weakened by the Panic of 1837.
B. was generally supported by state governments.
C. attempted to create one collective national trade union.
D. welcomed working women as members.
E. was strengthened by the influx of immigrant laborers.
A. labor unions were lawful organizations
The Massachusetts court case of Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) declared that
A. labor unions were lawful organizations.
B. labor strikes were illegal.
C. child labor laws were unconstitutional.
D. minimum wage laws were a restraint on trade.
E. unions must admit working women as members.
D. the question of whether to include women members.
All of the following factors inhibited the growth of labor unions EXCEPT
A. the large number of immigrant workers.
B. the political strength of industrial capitalists.
C. ethnic divisions among workers.
D. the question of whether to include women members.
E. hostile laws and hostile courts.
A. increasing disparities in income between the rich and poor
The commercial and industrial growth in the United States prior to 1860 resulted in
A. increasing disparities in income between the rich and poor.
B. a significant rise in income for nearly all Americans.
C. decreasing disparities in income between the rich and poor.
D. a significant decrease in income for nearly all Americans.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. included a substantial number of destitute poor who starved to death.
Prior to 1860, American urban society
A. considered the conspicuous display of wealth to be poor social behavior.
B. saw the wealthy people move toward the outer edges of cities.
C. included a substantial number of destitute poor who starved to death.
D. saw the Irish immigrants have less rights than free blacks.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. Compete for menial jobs
In most parts of the North, before the Civil War, free blacks could
A. vote.
B. attend public schools.
C. use public services available to whites.
D. compete for menial jobs.
E. All the answers are correct.
C. was limited by a high degree of mobility within the working class.
Prior to 1860, class conflict in the United States
A. increased as most of the working class dropped down the economic ladder.
B. increased as the gap between the wealthy and the poor widened.
C. was limited by a high degree of mobility within the working class.
D. decreased as immigration diversified society.
E. increased as a result of geographical mobility.
C. middle class
Prior to 1860, the fastest-growing segment in American society was the
A. slaves.
B. very poor.
C. middle class.
D. well-to-do.
E. very rich
C. capital
The growth of commerce and industry allowed more Americans the chance to become prosperous without
A. a professional education.
B. producing a product or service.
C. owning land.
D. capital.
E. marrying.
D. became the most influential cultural form of urban American.
Before 1860, American middle-class families
A. were typically renters.
B. rarely employed servants.
C. usually saw women holding part-time employment outside of the home.
D. became the most influential cultural form of urban America.
E. had to cook their meals over an open hearth.
A. cast-iron stove.
Prior to 1860, the most significant invention for middle-class American homes was the
A. cast-iron stove.
B. air conditioner.
C. icebox.
D. electric iron.
E. telegraph.
B. dark colors and rooms crowded with heavy furniture..
Early American Victorian homes were characterized by
A. spare and simple designs which emphasized natural light.
B. dark colors and rooms crowded with heavy furniture.
C. small rooms and a reduction in total living space.
D. all members of a family sharing one bedroom.
E. a lack of parlors and dining rooms.
D. All the answers are correct.
Compared to 1800, in 1860 urban American families
A. had a declining birth rate.
B. were more likely to see their children leave home in search of work.
C. were more likely to see income earners work outside the home.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. women became increasingly isolated from the public world.
By 1860, as a result of the social expectations expressed in the “cult of domesticity,”
A. unmarried women were generally excluded from all income-earning activities.
B. women became increasingly isolated from the public world.
C. middle-class wives were given no special role in the family.
D. women who read books or magazines were likely to be criticized.
E. women increasingly became seen as contributors to the family economy
E. unpaid vacations were becoming common among the middle class.
All of the following statements regarding American leisure activities prior to 1860 are true EXCEPT
A. Shakespeare was the nation’s most popular playwright.
B. reading was a principle leisure activity among affluent Americans.
C. minstrel shows were increasingly popular.
D. popular tastes in public spectacle tended toward the bizarre and fantastic.
E. unpaid vacations were becoming common among the middle class.
C. human oddities
In the 1840s, P.T. Barnum’s American Museum in New York showcased
A. nature and natural history.
B. American artists.
C. human oddities.
D. past American leaders and heroes.
E. European artists.
A. the owner of a family farm
In 1860, the typical white male American of the Old Northwest (today’s Midwest) was
A. the owner of a family farm.
B. a marginal farmer.
C. a farmhand who did not own his own land.
D. an industrial worker.
E. an urban artisan.
B. rising prosperity due to increased world demand for farm products.
For most American farmers, the 1840s and 1850s was a period of
A. economic decline as more people moved to urban centers.
B. rising prosperity due to increased world demand for farm products.
C. extreme economic highs and lows brought on by volatile changes in demand.
D. economic growth in the West but decline in the East.
E. increasing economic connection between the North and South.
D. wheat
The main staple crop of the Old Northwest (today’s Midwest) was
A. barley.
B. soy.
C. corn.
D. wheat.
E. cotton.
E. plow
In the 1840s, John Deere introduced significant improvements to the
A. tractor.
B. thresher.
C. cotton gin.
D. reaper.
E. plow.
D. reaper
In the 1830s, Cyrus McCormick improved grain farming when he patented his
A. tractor.
B. thresher.
C. plow.
D. reaper.
E. mower.
A. church
Prior to 1860, the social institution which most bound together rural Americans was the
A. church.
B. tavern.
C. town hall.
D. grocery store.
E. schoolhouse.
C. the South had failed to move from an agrarian to an industrial economy.
The historian who wrote “The South grew, but did not develop” prior to the Civil War meant
A. the Southern population increased but new technology had bypassed the region.
B. agriculture remained the leading industry of the south but the plantation system was declining.
C. the South had failed to move from an agrarian to an industrial economy.
D. the South had expanded as a geographic region but had developed little prosperity.
E. the South had created a prosperous plantation system but had not expanded its borders.
E. shifted from the upper South to the lower South
Prior to 1860, the center of economic power in the South
A. was in Charleston, S.C.
B. remained as it had been primarily within the upper South.
C. remained as it had been primarily within the lower South.
D. shifted from the lower South to the upper South.
E. shifted from the upper South to the lower South.
B. was gradually moving westward
Tobacco cultivation in the antebellum South
A. was easy on the soil.
B. was gradually moving westward.
C. enjoyed a stable market.
D. was centered in the lower South.
E. never made a profit.
B. were concentrated in a relatively small geographic area.
Rice and sugar production in the antebellum South
A. had short growing seasons.
B. were concentrated in a relatively small geographic area.
C. had difficulty sustaining profits for growers.
D. was in considerable decline by the 1850s.
E. threatened to overwhelm cotton production in the lower South.
A. helped to keep the South a predominantly agricultural region.
Short-staple cotton
A. helped to keep the South a predominantly agricultural region.
B. was less coarse than long-staple cotton.
C. was easier to process than long-staple cotton.
D. was more susceptible to disease than long-grain cotton.
E. was only grown in the coastal regions of the upper South.
D. was the dominant source of income of the lower South.
During the first half of the nineteenth century, the “Cotton Kingdom”
A. was already losing ground to other staples, such as rice and tobacco.
B. saw wealthy planters outnumber small planters.
C. did not rely on large numbers of slaves imported directly from Africa.
D. was the dominant source of income of the lower South.
E. still had not adopted the cotton gin, despite the time and resources it saved.
C. dramatically shifted into the Southwest
Between 1840 and 1860, the American Southern slave population
A. could not meet the labor needs.
B. changed little.
C. dramatically shifted into the Southwest.
D. declined in overall numbers.
E. became concentrated in the upper South.
E. the Second Middle Passage
The massive and traumatic relocation of African Americans in the antebellum period has been called
A. the Great Migration.
B. the Second Great Awakening.
C. the Trail of Tears.
D. the Road to Canaan.
E. the Second Middle Passage.
B. had increased threefold in value over the previous twenty years.
By 1860, the textile manufacturing sector of the American South
A. was nonexistent.
B. had increased threefold in value over the previous twenty years.
C. had declined in value throughout the 1840s and 1850s.
D. was equal to one-third of the value of cotton exported that year.
E. had come to dominate the Southern economy.
C. closer economic ties with the North.
The New Orleans magazine publisher, James B. D. De Bow, championed
A. Southern economic independence from the North.
B. Southern commercial and agricultural growth.
C. closer economic ties with the North.
D. Southern economic independence from the North and Southern commercial and agricultural growth.
E. closer economic ties with the North and Southern commercial and agricultural growth.
E. a shortage of labor
The South failed to develop a large industrial economy for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A. the humid climate.
B. little access to liquid capital.
C. the profitability of cotton.
D. the cultural values.
E. a shortage of labor
A. no slaves.
Most white Southerners owned
A. no slaves.
B. one slave.
C. two slaves.
D. three to five slaves.
E. six to ten slaves.
A. still first-generation settlers.
In the late 1850s, many of the great landholders of the lower South were
A. still first-generation settlers.
B. part of a wealthy leisure class.
C. from longstanding aristocratic families.
D. rooted to one plantation for many generations.
E. former Old World aristocrats emigrated from Europe.
C. wealthy Southern whites prided themselves on their egalitarianism.
Which of the following statements about the Southern aristocratic ideal is FALSE?
A. wealthy Southern whites adopted an elaborate code of “chivalry.”
B. dueling became a prominent facet of southern planter life.
C. wealthy Southern whites prided themselves on their egalitarianism.
D. wealthy Southern whites pretended to avoid such “coarse” occupations as trade and commerce.
E. wealthy Southern whites often gravitated toward the military.
E. centered their lives in the home.
Prior to 1860, affluent Southern white women
A. had created the most significant challenge to slavery in the South.
B. occupied a significantly different role from their Northern counterparts.
C. commonly held income-producing jobs.
D. typically played an important role in public activities.
E. centered their lives in the home.
B. were expected to be more subordinate to men.
Prior to 1860, Southern women differed from Northern women in that they
A. tended to have more formal education.
B. were expected to be more subordinate to men.
C. had fewer children.
D. generally had a lesser engagement in the economic life of the family.
E. were more likely to take a role in public activities.
D. All the answers are correct.
In the 1850s, the Southern social theorist George Fitzhugh wrote that women
A. had an obligation to obey.
B. were like children.
C. had the single right to be protected.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. generally lived lives that were isolated from the wider world.
Prior to 1860, Southern white women
A. had about the same access to education as Northern white women.
B. were not expected to engage in manual labor whatever their social standing.
C. generally lived lives that were isolated from the wider world.
D. had a birth rate that was lower than the national average.
E. were more likely to see their children grow to adulthood than Northern white women.
C. encouraged by proponents of slavery such as George Fitzhugh.
Sexual relationships between white Southern men and female slaves was
A. virtually unheard of.
B. against the law in all slave states.
C. encouraged by proponents of slavery such as George Fitzhugh.
D. an accepted cause for divorce in the Southern court system.
E. a common practice.
B. were subsistence farmers.
Most “plain folk” of the Old South
A. owned at least one slave.
B. were subsistence farmers.
C. were passionately anti-slavery.
D. were subsistence farmers who owned at least one slave.
E. were subsistence farmers who were passionately anti-slavery.
D. the mountain regions.
Southern white lower-class resentment of the aristocratic system was most likely to be found in
A. the cities.
B. river and ocean port towns.
C. the upper South.
D. the mountain regions.
E. the Deep South.
E. were largely dependent on the plantation economy.
Southern whites who did not own slaves
A. rarely married into the families living on large slave plantations.
B. openly opposed the planter elite.
C. were forced to move west to maintain a livelihood.
D. generally opposed the institution of slavery.
E. were largely dependent on the plantation economy.
C. perception of white racial superiority.
Perhaps the single strongest unifying factor of pre-Civil War Southern whites was their
A. kinship relationships.
B. contempt of Northern capitalism.
C. perception of white racial superiority.
D. fear of federal authority.
E. intense national pride.
A. They often felt affinity with slaves as members of another oppressed class.
Which of the following statements about the poorest class of white Southerners is FALSE?
A. They often felt affinity with slaves as members of another oppressed class.
B. They were known variously as “crackers” or “sand hillers.”
C. They supported themselves by foraging or hunting.
D. They suffered from pellagra, hookworm, and malaria.
E. They were forced to resort at times to eating clay.
D. slavery.
The “peculiar institution” was a Southern reference to
A. the plantation.
B. manufacturing.
C. capitalism.
D. slavery.
E. democracy.
B. Brazil.
In 1850, outside of the United States, slavery in the Western Hemisphere existed in
A. Colombia.
B. Brazil.
C. the Virgin Islands.
D. Haiti.
E. no other country.
D. All the answers are correct.
Within the American South, the institution of slavery
A. isolated blacks and whites from each other.
B. created a unique bond between masters and slaves.
C. encouraged blacks to develop a society and culture of their own.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. defined anyone with a trace of African ancestry as black.
The slave codes of the American South
A. defined anyone with a trace of African ancestry as black.
B. legalized slave marriages.
C. were rigidly enforced.
D. considered it a crime for an owner to kill a slave.
E. banned blacks from attending church.
A. depended in part on the size of the plantation.
The conditions of a slave’s life
A. depended in part on the size of the plantation.
B. were generally the same throughout the slave states.
C. were explicitly determined by the slave codes.
D. were defined by the largest plantation owner within a region.
E. were generally more restricted in large cities.
A. on large plantations.
In general, slaves had more privacy and a social realm of their own
A. on large plantations.
B. on small plantations.
C. as household workers as opposed to field workers.
D. in rural areas as opposed to urban areas.
E. in the western territories.
B. on medium- to large-size plantations.
Most enslaved blacks lived
A. on small farms.
B. on medium- to large-size plantations.
C. in urban areas.
D. in rigidly controlled circumstances.
E. in Virginia and the Carolinas.
E. After 1808, the proportion of blacks to whites in the nation steadily declined.
Which of the following statements regarding slave life is TRUE?
A. Slaves had to grow all of their own food.
B. Slaves were not given medical care except by their own efforts.
C. Slave children did no work until they turned twelve years old.
D. It was uncommon to divide slave families for long periods of time.
E. After 1808, the proportion of blacks to whites in the nation steadily declined.
B. Urban slaves were prohibited from having contact with free blacks.
Which of the following statements regarding urban slavery is FALSE?
A. Some urban slaves were skilled trade workers.
B. Urban slaves were prohibited from having contact with free blacks.
C. Urban slaves were less supervised than rural slaves.
D. Urban slaves had little working competition from European immigrants.
E. The line between slavery and freedom in cities was less distinct.
D. occasionally attained wealth and prominence and owned slaves themselves.
Prior to 1860, free blacks in the South
A. were concentrated in the Deep South.
B. were required by law to leave the South.
C. increased in number in the 1850s as laws encouraged owners to free “surplus” slaves.
D. occasionally attained wealth and prominence and owned slaves themselves.
E. avoided urban centers such as New Orleans or Natchez where they might attract attention.
E. free
To “manumit” means to
A. purchase.
B. punish.
C. work by hand.
D. deny.
E. free.
D. subtle defiance.
From the selections below, the most common form of resistance to slavery was
A. group rebellions.
B. arson.
C. running away.
D. subtle defiance.
E. poisoning.
A. Nat Turner.
One actual slave revolt in the nineteenth-century South was led by
A. Nat Turner.
B. Denmark Vesey.
C. Gabriel Prosser.
D. Frederick Douglass.
E. Harriet Tubman.
B. underground railroad.
The name given to the effort by whites and blacks to help runaway slaves escape was the
A. Frederick Douglass road.
B. underground railroad.
C. Fugitive Slave Act.
D. Cumberland passage.
E. Second Middle Passage.
D. highly unlikely.
The chance of a runaway slave making a successful escape from the American South was
A. highly likely.
B. likely.
C. unlikely.
D. highly unlikely.
E. impossible.
E. often incorporated African features into their Christianity.
Among the features of their religion, American slaves
A. were expected to worship in black churches separate from whites.
B. had mostly converted to Islam by the early nineteenth century.
C. were usually not allowed to attend a church at all.
D. shunned Christianity in favor of the polytheistic traditions of Africa.
E. often incorporated African features into their Christianity.
B. were often more emotional.
As compared to nineteenth-century white practices, religious services for American slaves
A. were not allowed by law to mention freedom.
B. were often more emotional.
C. were generally more despondent and melancholy than white services.
D. denied all references to their African heritage.
E. emphasized subservience and submission to God.
A. singing songs and playing musical instruments such as the banjo.
Ways in which slaves expressed elements of their African heritage included
A. singing songs and playing musical instruments such as the banjo.
B. keeping family diaries and other written personal records.
C. wearing clothing which incorporated traditional African designs or colors.
D. speaking in their native African languages when out of the presence of whites.
E. celebrating traditional African feasts and rites of passage, in defiance of white law.
D. extended kinship networks were strong and important.
In the American slave family
A. most couples did not formally marry.
B. black women typically began bearing children later than white women.
C. premarital pregnancy was uncommon.
D. extended kinship networks were strong and important.
E. premarital cohabitation was frowned upon.
C. up to one-third of families were broken apart by the sale of family members.
Which of the following is TRUE of American slave families in the antebellum South?
A. a child of a slave could not be sold after he or she had reached three years of age.
B. blacks typically had weaker family ties than did whites, due to the uncertainties of their lives.
C. up to one-third of families were broken apart by the sale of family members.
D. most slaves who ran away did so to avoid punishment.
E. newly arrived slaves to a plantation were often shunned by the black community.
C. paternalism.
The central ideology of slavery, and the vital instrument of white control, was
A. fraternity.
B. maternalism.
C. paternalism.
D. sorority.
E. egalitarianism.
B. desire for social stability and discipline in the face of change.
Reform movements emerged in America in the mid-nineteenth century in part because of a
A. pessimistic assumption in the natural weakness of individuals.
B. desire for social stability and discipline in the face of change.
C. belief that society needed to break free from its old traditions.
D. fear that civil war was going to engulf the nation.
E. declining importance placed on religious piety.
E. None of the answers are correct.
In the mid-nineteenth century, romanticism
A. was consistent with traditional Calvinist assumptions.
B. considered instincts to be sinful and needed to be repressed.
C. had its origins in the American Midwest.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. was that American artists had little to offer Europe.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the general European attitude toward American art and literature
A. was one of growing respect and admiration.
B. was that American artists had little to offer Europe.
C. included praise for American artists for defining a new set of national virtues.
D. included criticism of American artists for ignoring romanticism.
E. was that it had been hopelessly corrupted by the ideology of unfettered capitalism.
C. natural beauty.
The Hudson River School of painters emphasized in their work the importance of
A. democratic ideals.
B. the yeoman farmer.
C. natural beauty.
D. realism.
E. the Founding Fathers.
A. James Whistler.
All of the following painters were associated with the Hudson River School EXCEPT
A. James Whistler.
B. Thomas Cole.
C. Frederic Church.
D. Albert Bierstadt.
E. Asher Durand.
C. a belief that democracy was the best source of wisdom and spiritual fulfillment
Which of the following features was NOT a characteristic of the Hudson River School?
A. canvases that tended to be very large in size
B. an assumption that America was a land of greater promise than Europe
C. a belief that democracy was the best source of wisdom and spiritual fulfillment
D. the exceptional popularity many of its artists enjoyed with the American public
E. portraits of some of the nation’s most spectacular and undeveloped areas
E. Sydney Smith.
All of the following people helped create a distinct American literature EXCEPT
A. Walt Whitman.
B. Herman Melville.
C. James Fenimore Cooper.
D. Edgar Allan Poe.
E. Sydney Smith.
A. America’s westward expansion.
Through novels such as The Last of the Mohicans, James Fenimore Cooper examined the significance of
A. America’s westward expansion.
B. the American free-enterprise system.
C. religious spiritualism in America.
D. racism in America.
E. slavery on the democratic mind.
C. celebrated the liberation of the individual.
Walt Whitman
A. intensely disagreed with the American transcendentalists.
B. rejected much of romanticism.
C. celebrated the liberation of the individual.
D. was a strong critic of American democracy.
E. became a strong defender of Southern institutions, especially slavery.
B. Moby Dick.
Herman Melville’s most important literary work was
A. Leaves of Grass.
B. Moby Dick.
C. The Deerslayer.
D. “The Raven.”
E. Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
A. primarily sad and macabre.
The writings of Edgar Allan Poe were
A. primarily sad and macabre.
B. mostly ignored during his lifetime.
C. largely focused on Southern society.
D. acclaimed by many American writers in his time.
E. completely ignored in Europe after his death.
D. All the answers are correct.
Prior to the Civil War, Southern writers
A. developed a realist tradition that focused on the lives of ordinary people.
B. romanticized the institution of slavery.
C. brought a robust, vulgar humor to American literature.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. regarded reason to be the most important human faculty.
Transcendentalists
A. rejected European intellectuals.
B. regarded reason to be the most important human faculty.
C. argued that emotional responses inhibited the internal development of individuals.
D. believed all individuals should develop their intellectualism.
E. argued for the liberating potential of “understanding.”
B. asserted that through nature, individuals could find personal fulfillment.
The transcendentalist writer Ralph Waldo Emerson
A. believed American thinkers should be allied with European intellectuals.
B. asserted that through nature, individuals could find personal fulfillment.
C. was a leading critic of the American political system.
D. asserted that organized religion served no useful purpose in society.
E. remained a deeply religious clergyman throughout his life.
E. argued Americans had a moral right to disobey the laws of the United States.
The transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau
A. was more conventional in his thinking than Ralph Waldo Emerson.
B. felt every individual should balance society’s expectations with one’s own instincts.
C. argued that being part of society helped individuals to transcend their egotism.
D. established a college for transcendentalism at Walden Pond.
E. argued Americans had a moral right to disobey the laws of the United States.
A. anticipated the environmental protection movement of the twentieth century.
The transcendentalist movement
A. anticipated the environmental protection movement of the twentieth century.
B. understood the interconnectedness of species.
C. made the first scientific studies on behalf of preserving the natural environment.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
D. to permit all members to realize their full potential as individual beings.
The primary goal of the 1840s community experiment known as Brook Farm was
A. to create a society where individuals did not have to work.
B. to allow individuals to live without any social limits on their behavior.
C. to eliminate social sexual discrimination through a practice of celibacy.
D. to permit all members to realize their full potential as individual beings.
E. to show that communal living was more efficient and productive than family life.
B. Walt Whitman
Who among the following was NOT a participant in American communal living?
A. Nathaniel Hawthorne
B. Walt Whitman
C. George Ripley
D. John Humphrey Noyes
E. Robert Owen
A. Oneida.
One of the most enduring of the pre-Civil War utopian colonies was
A. Oneida.
B. New Harmony.
C. Brook Farm.
D. Walden.
E. Nauvoo.
D. carefully monitored sexual behavior to protect women.
In redefining gender roles, the experimental 1840s Oneida community
A. put women in charge of all major aspects of the community.
B. was a controversial experiment in “free love.”
C. demanded celibacy from all its participants.
D. carefully monitored sexual behavior to protect women.
E. put fathers in charge of child-rearing and taking care of the home.
E. complete celibacy
Which of the following was arguably the most distinctive feature of Shakerism?
A. the admittance of women only
B. communal raising of children
C. polygamy
D. free love
E. complete celibacy
C. saw women exercise more power than men.
Shaker societies
A. asserted that God was a female.
B. established most of its communities in the South.
C. saw women exercise more power than men.
D. first began in the United States in the 1840s.
E. were eventually forced to move to Utah.
A. believed in human perfectibility
Mormonism
A. believed in human perfectibility.
B. emphasized individual liberty.
C. was founded by Brigham Young.
D. began in the Midwest.
E. always rejected polygamy.
B. It advocated sexual equality.
Which statement about Mormonism is FALSE?
A. Its founder was murdered.
B. It advocated sexual equality.
C. Early Mormons practiced polygamy.
D. The first Mormons were generally marginally poor.
E. Early Mormons met with much persecution from their neighbors.
D. formed a crusade against personal immorality.
Nineteenth-century Protestant revivalists such as the New Light evangelicals
A. sought to revive the ideals of Calvinism.
B. believed that no individual could control his or her personal salvation.
C. took the lead in the cause to end slavery.
D. formed a crusade against personal immorality.
E. believed temperance was detracting from other, loftier reform movements.
A. linked alcohol to crime and poverty.
In the 1840s, the organized movement against drunkenness in the United States
A. linked alcohol to crime and poverty.
B. grew largely out of immigrant communities.
C. was actively opposed by a large majority of Americans.
D. remained a minor social movement.
E. spent much of its time and resources battling evangelical Protestants.
D. typically killed more than half of those who contracted the disease.
In the 1830s and 1840s, cholera epidemics in the United States
A. were transmitted to humans by fleas living on rats.
B. led many cities to build water treatment facilities.
C. were diminished as physicians gained a basic understanding of bacteria.
D. typically killed more than half of those who contracted the disease.
E. None of the answers are correct.
E. her character and intelligence
According to the nineteenth-century “science” of phrenology, what could be discerned from the shape of an individual’s skull?
A. her life expectancy
B. her likelihood of succumbing to infectious diseases
C. her future earning potential
D. her chances of having children
E. her character and intelligence
B. the absence of basic knowledge about disease.
During the nineteenth century, the largest obstacle to improved medical care in America was
A. the absence of regulations in the medical profession.
B. the absence of basic knowledge about disease.
C. the low social status of medical professionals.
D. the difficulty in medical experimentation.
E. the apathy of the general population towards preventative health.
C. Oliver Wendell Holmes.
In the 1840s in the United States, an initial understanding of germ theory was made by
A. Edward Jenner.
B. William Morton.
C. Oliver Wendell Holmes.
D. James Warren.
E. Ignaz Semmelweis.
B. gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.
Prior to 1860, public education in the United States
A. did not exist.
B. gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.
C. was legally denied for all non-whites.
D. was funded by the federal government.
E. emphasized independence and creativity.
B. democracy.
The nineteenth-century reformer Horace Mann believed that education should promote
A. capitalism.
B. democracy.
C. racial equality.
D. economic equality.
E. Christianity.
E. Dorothea Dix.
The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the criminally ill was
A. Susan B. Anthony.
B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
C. Lucretia Mott.
D. Angelina Grimke.
E. Dorothea Dix.
A. included the practice of solitary confinement.
Prior to 1860, prison reform in the United States
A. included the practice of solitary confinement.
B. led to widespread calls to end capital punishment.
C. focused on punishment, not on rehabilitation.
D. began largely in the West and spread to the East.
E. decried the racial bias of the judicial system.
D. All the answers are correct.
The nineteenth-century practice of placing American Indians on reservations was partially designed to
A. isolate and protect Indians from white society.
B. help “regenerate” the Indian.
C. allow Indians to develop to a point where they could assimilate into white society.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. abolition.
In 1840, a catalyst for an American feminist movement was a London convention that dealt with
A. woman suffrage.
B. prostitution.
C. abolition.
D. temperance.
E. prison reform.
A. issued a manifesto patterned after the Declaration of Independence.
The 1848 Seneca Falls, New York convention on women’s rights
A. issued a manifesto patterned after the Declaration of Independence.
B. asserted that women should have a place in society distinctly different from men.
C. refused to allow men to attend.
D. called on the government to treat both genders and all races with equality.
E. shied away from demanding female suffrage as too radical.
B. Quakers.
Prior to the Civil War, the religious denomination most active in feminism was the
A. Baptists.
B. Quakers.
C. Presbyterians.
D. Unitarians.
E. Methodists.
E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Which of the following nineteenth-century leaders is primarily known for her pioneering work in the American feminist movement?
A. “Mother” Ann Lee
B. Harriet Tubman
C. Sojourner Truth
D. Rachel Eaton
E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A. was founded by white Virginians opposed to slavery.
In the early nineteenth century, the American Colonization Society
A. was founded by white Virginians opposed to slavery.
B. called for an immediate end to slavery.
C. opposed the idea of compensation for owners who freed their slaves.
D. carried out a large-scale resettlement of freed slaves.
E. was strongly supported by American blacks.
B. Liberia.
The American Colonization Society helped to transport blacks from the United States to
A. the Caribbean.
B. Liberia.
C. Angola.
D. England.
E. Canada.
A. stress the damage that slavery did to blacks rather than to whites.
William Lloyd Garrison believed the abolitionist movement should
A. stress the damage that slavery did to blacks rather than to whites.
B. seek the gradual elimination of slavery.
C. demand freedom for slaves, but deny them citizenship.
D. organize slave rebellions throughout the American South.
E. join forces with the more established American Colonization Society.
E. strongly opposed to Southern slavery.
Prior to the Civil War, free blacks in the North tended to be
A. deeply antagonistic to William Lloyd Garrison.
B. indifferent to slavery in the South.
C. anxious to leave the United States.
D. in favor of the “back to Africa” movements.
E. strongly opposed to Southern slavery.
E. David Walker.
The black abolitionist who called for uncompromising opposition to and a violent overthrow of slavery in his 1829 Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World was
A. William Lloyd Garrison.
B. Frederick Douglass.
C. Elijah Lovejoy.
D. Benjamin Lundy.
E. David Walker.
C. spent years lecturing in England against slavery.
Frederick Douglass
A. was born free but was sold into slavery as a youth.
B. wrote for William Lloyd Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper.
C. spent years lecturing in England against slavery.
D. was an ordained minister.
E. argued that blacks wanted only an end to slavery, and not full social equality
A. a small percentage of the national population.
In the 1840s, abolitionists in the United States constituted
A. a small percentage of the national population.
B. approximately one-quarter of the national population.
C. the majority of the population in the North.
D. the largest reform movement in the nation.
E. approximately one-third of the national population.
E. Elijah Lovejoy.
One leading abolitionist who was murdered for his activism was
A. William Lloyd Garrison.
B. Frederick Douglass.
C. Sojourner Truth.
D. Benjamin Lundy.
E. Elijah Lovejoy.
E. All the answers are correct.
In the 1830s and 1840s, abolitionists were divided
A. by radicals and moderates within their ranks.
B. over whether or not to use violence.
C. by calls for Northern and Southern separation.
D. over the question of female equality.
E. All the answers are correct.
B. defensive wars.
In the 1840s, William Lloyd Garrison spoke against
A. equality for women.
B. defensive wars.
C. ending the asylum system.
D. Northern disunion from the South.
E. extreme pacifism.
B. led to the passage of “personal liberty laws.”
The Supreme Court ruling in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)
A. prohibited the interstate slave trade.
B. led to the passage of “personal liberty laws.”
C. angered abolitionists.
D. abolished slavery in the District of Columbia.
E. forced state officials to assist in the capture of runaways.
C. promoted “free soil.”
Prior to the Civil War, the Liberty Party
A. supported the rights of slaveowners.
B. opposed the admission of California into the union in 1850.
C. promoted “free soil.”
D. focused on strengthening the fugitive slave laws.
E. campaigned for outright abolition.
A. spread the message of abolitionism to an enormous new audience.
The effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the nation was to
A. spread the message of abolitionism to an enormous new audience.
B. reveal the ugly extent of the vicious slave trade to America.
C. ignite such anger in the South that several states soon seceded from the Union.
D. offer the first written history of American slavery.
E. help humanize Southern slaveholders in the minds of Northern readers.
C. United States expansion was acceptable so long as it stayed out of Mexico and Canada.
Within the ideology of Manifest Destiny were all the following beliefs EXCEPT
A. the United States was destined by God and history to expand in size.
B. the United States should create a vast new “empire of liberty.”
C. United States expansion was acceptable so long as it stayed out of Mexico and Canada.
D. the growth of the United States was not selfish but altruistic.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. warned it would increase the controversy over slavery.
In the 1840s, critics of territorial expansion by the United States
A. enjoyed considerable political support.
B. found their greatest support in the “penny press.”
C. warned it would increase the controversy over slavery.
D. warned that further expansion would cause rifts with Indian tribes.
E. All the answers are correct.
B. saw the United States unsuccessfully attempt to purchase it.
By 1830, Texas
A. was an independent republic.
B. saw the United States unsuccessfully attempt to purchase it.
C. barred slavery within its borders.
D. had a population with more people from Mexico than from the United States.
E. still had no legal American settlements in its borders.
A. white Southerners and their slaves.
In the 1820s, most of the settlers from the United States who migrated to Texas were
A. white Southerners and their slaves.
B. white Northerners.
C. free blacks.
D. Far West whites.
E. recently arrived European immigrants.
E. moved from favoring to opposing American immigration into Texas.
In the 1820s and 1830s, the government of Mexico
A. consistently opposed American immigration into Texas.
B. consistently favored American immigration into Texas.
C. remained noncommittal about American immigration into Texas.
D. moved from opposing to favoring American immigration into Texas.
E. moved from favoring to opposing American immigration into Texas.
B. saw the death of Davy Crockett.
In 1836, the Battle of the Alamo
A. saw the American garrison executed after it had surrendered.
B. saw the death of Davy Crockett.
C. began the Mexican War.
D. led Americans in Texas to proclaim their independence from Mexico.
E. was a surprising victory for American forces in Texas
D. led to independence for Texas.
In 1836, the Battle of San Jacinto
A. was a victory for General Santa Anna.
B. saw British troops fight alongside Mexican troops.
C. resulted in victory for forces led by Stephen Austin.
D. led to independence for Texas.
E. saw Sam Houston briefly taken prisoner.
C. President Andrew Jackson thought that action would add to sectional tensions.
In 1836, Texas did not immediately join the United States because
A. Congress feared that giving statehood to Texas might lead to war with Mexico.
B. the American leadership in Texas delayed in applying for statehood.
C. President Andrew Jackson thought that action would add to sectional tensions.
D. England had forged its own political ties to Texas.
E. Texas settlers overwhelmingly did not want to be part of the United States.
E. included an Indian population that had been devastated by disease.
In the mid-1840s, the Oregon country in the Pacific Northwest
A. remained the center of the French fur-trading empire.
B. was primarily occupied by Great Britain.
C. contained many more English settlers than Americans.
D. was of little interest to the American government.
E. included an Indian population that had been devastated by disease.
A. relatively young people who traveled in family groups.
Before the early 1850s, Americans who traveled west on the overland trails were generally
A. relatively young people who traveled in family groups.
B. over the age of thirty.
C. from the eastern seaboard states.
D. wealthy.
E. domestic servants and prostitutes.
A. Independence, Missouri.
Which of the following towns served as a major departure point for migrants traveling west on the overland trails?
A. Independence, Missouri.
B. Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
C. Ames, Iowa.
D. St. Louis, Missouri.
E. Kansas City, Missouri.
D. found the journey to be a very communal experience.
Between 1840 and 1860, most migrants traveling west on the overland trails
A. experienced frequent Indian attacks that were a leading cause of death.
B. usually faced trips that lasted between two to three months.
C. rode in wagons much more than they walked on foot.
D. found the journey to be a very communal experience.
E. saw men generally working harder during the trip than women.
C. was won by a Democrat.
The presidential election of 1844
A. was a contest between Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren.
B. was a contest between two solidly pro-expansionists.
C. was won by a Democrat.
D. saw a Northerner win the presidency.
E. was primarily a referendum on the leadership of John Tyler.
D. Oregon and Texas.
In 1844, President James K. Polk supported the acquisition of
A. Oregon.
B. Texas.
C. Cuba.
D. Oregon and Texas.
E. Cuba and Texas.
E. None of the answers are correct.
As president, James K. Polk
A. sought war with Britain to resolve the Oregon dispute.
B. won Congressional approval for the annexation of Texas.
C. convinced the British government to divide Oregon at the 54°40′ parallel.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. a border dispute.
In 1845, the immediate cause of war with Mexico was
A. a border dispute.
B. tariffs.
C. Mexico’s debt to the United States.
D. the issue of slavery.
E. the Alamo.
A. the United States provoking Mexico to fight.
The Mexican War resulted from
A. the United States provoking Mexico to fight.
B. Mexico provoking the United States to fight.
C. Texas citizens attacking Mexican forces.
D. Mexican forces attacking Americans in California.
E. Texas citizens staging an attack by Mexican forces.
B. President Polk personally plotted military strategy for the United States.
During the Mexican War,
A. President Polk considered Zachary Taylor to be his closest ally in Mexico.
B. President Polk personally plotted military strategy for the United States.
C. victory came more easily than President Polk had anticipated.
D. the actual fighting was confined to Texas and Mexico.
E. President Polk tried to placate Whigs by minimizing military offensives.
D. Winfield Scott’s seizure of Mexico City.
The key to victory for the United States in the Mexican War was
A. Zachary Taylor’s taking of Monterrey.
B. the Bear Flag revolution in California.
C. Stephen Kearny’s capture of Santa Fe.
D. Winfield Scott’s seizure of Mexico City.
E. Nicholas Trist’s diplomatic maneuvering.
E. agreed to pay millions to Mexico.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States
A. officially acquired only Texas.
B. gave up rights to California (for a time) in exchange for New Mexico and Texas.
C. established an open border with Mexico.
D. established an American protectorate over Mexico.
E. agreed to pay millions to Mexico.
C. angrily claimed that Trist had violated his instructions.
When President Polk received the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, he
A. readily accepted the treaty.
B. faced criticism for failing to acquire all of Mexico.
C. angrily claimed that Trist had violated his instructions.
D. made plans for a military occupation of Mexico City.
E. became concerned about the expansion of slavery into the new territories.
B. the South.
In the 1840s, regional critics of President James K. Polk claimed his policies favored
A. the North.
B. the South.
C. the East.
D. the West.
E. the Northwest.
E. prohibited slavery in any land acquired from Mexico.
The Wilmot Proviso
A. banned all slavery west of the Mississippi River.
B. passed in the House and was signed into law.
C. overturned the Missouri Compromise.
D. was an appropriation to pay for peace with Mexico.
E. prohibited slavery in any land acquired from Mexico.
A. the Missouri Compromise.
When it came to the issue of the extension of slavery, President James K. Polk favored
A. the Missouri Compromise.
B. popular sovereignty.
C. free soil.
D. abolitionism.
E. the Wilmot Proviso.
C. Free-Soil Party.
In the 1848 elections, the new party that emerged as a political force was the
A. Liberty Party.
B. Know-Nothing Party.
C. Free-Soil Party.
D. Republican Party.
E. Whig Party.
C. upwards of ninety-five percent of the participants were white men
In the California gold rush,
A. most of the participants were seasoned miners.
B. a majority of the participants found some quantities of gold.
C. upwards of ninety-five percent of the participants were white men.
D. few of the participants ended up staying in California.
E. Chinese immigrants who arrived were unable to find work.
D. had similar aspirations as the American participants.
The Chinese who came to California during the gold rush
A. typically planned to remain permanently in the state.
B. usually came with their families.
C. more often worked as merchants than miners.
D. had similar aspirations as the American participants.
E. found themselves banned from working in the mines.
C. had a very diverse population.
As a result of the gold rush, by 1850, California
A. Indians saw their social conditions improve.
B. had a large surplus of labor.
C. had a very diverse population.
D. had a population larger than any state in the Union.
E. became virulently anti-slavery.
A. as a free state.
In 1849, President Zachary Taylor favored admitting California
A. as a free state.
B. as a slave state.
C. with no determination on the issue of slavery.
D. as a territory.
E. as two separate states, one slave and one free.
B. California’s entry would upset the nation’s numerical balance of free and slave states.
The admission of California into the United States was a divisive national issue because
A. Westerners in other territories believed they deserved statehood before California.
B. California’s entry would upset the nation’s numerical balance of free and slave states.
C. most Californians opposed entry into the United States.
D. California adopted a constitution that allowed slavery.
E. lawmakers believed California gold would upset the currency and cause inflation.
E. President Zachary Taylor suddenly died.
During the debate on the Compromise of 1850,
A. Daniel Webster managed to forge a successful compromise.
B. John C. Calhoun called for Southern secession if California were admitted as a free state.
C. Stephen A. Douglas stepped down as secretary of state.
D. Jefferson Davis resigned from the Senate.
E. President Zachary Taylor suddenly died.
B. along with a strengthened Fugitive Slave Act.
The Compromise of 1850 allowed for the admission of California
A. as a slave state.
B. along with a strengthened Fugitive Slave Act.
C. along with an agreement to construct a transcontinental railroad.
D. with the agreement that there would be no additional states added for ten years.
E. as a free state, along with Utah and New Mexico as slave states.
A. intensified the debate over slavery.
The passage of the Fugitive Slave Act
A. intensified the debate over slavery.
B. upset Southerners as much as Northerners.
C. was readily accepted by Northerners in the spirit of compromise.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
B. the Free-Soil Party gained strength.
In the election of 1852,
A. neither party endorsed the Compromise of 1850.
B. the Free-Soil Party gained strength.
C. the Democrats selected a war hero as their candidate.
D. the Whigs were united.
E. the Free-Soil Party endorsed the Compromise of 1850.
C. passed laws preventing the deportation of fugitive slaves.
In the 1850s, in an effort to undercut the Fugitive Slave Act, some Northern states
A. called for secession from the South.
B. proposed a national referendum on the slave issue.
C. passed laws preventing the deportation of fugitive slaves.
D. forbid fugitive slave hunters from traveling in their state.
E. began actively funding the underground railroad.
B. supported the expansion of American democracy throughout the world.
In the 1850s, the “Young America” movement
A. called for a national resolution of the slave controversy.
B. supported the expansion of American democracy throughout the world.
C. was promoted by Whigs.
D. called for a constitutional ban on slavery.
E. believed America should avoid the slavery controversy by limiting future expansion.
C. was part of an attempt by the United States to acquire Cuba.
The 1854 Ostend Manifesto
A. enraged Southern slave-owners.
B. was directed at limiting England’s influence in the Caribbean.
C. was part of an attempt by the United States to acquire Cuba.
D. saw several European powers denounce American slavery.
E. prohibited slavery in the Hawaiian Islands.
B. non-slave-owning Northerners and slave-owning Southerners could not agree on a route.
In the 1850s, the issue of slavery complicated the proposal to build a transcontinental railroad as
A. it raised the question of whether or not slaves would be used as railroad labor.
B. non-slave-owning Northerners and slave-owning Southerners could not agree on a route.
C. British banks refused to help fund the project as long as slavery existed in the United States.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
C. advanced the interests of Southern railroads.
The 1853 Gadsden Purchase
A. temporarily calmed the rivalry between North and South.
B. was made with England.
C. advanced the interests of Southern railroads.
D. fulfilled the treaty ending the Mexican War.
D. cost the United States government $25 million.
E. It was sponsored by Henry Clay
Which of the following statements regarding the Kansas-Nebraska Act is FALSE?
A. It divided and destroyed the Whig Party.
B. It led to the creation of the Republican Party.
C. It created two new territories.
D. It explicitly repealed the Missouri Compromise.
E. It was sponsored by Henry Clay
A. the Republican Party.
The political party that came into being largely in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act was
A. the Republican Party.
B. the Know-Nothings.
C. the Populist Party.
the Abolitionist Party.
the Jayhawk Party.
B. John Brown murder several pro-slavery settlers.
In the mid-1850s, the struggle over Kansas saw
A. President Franklin Pierce oppose pro-slavery settlers in the territory.
B. John Brown murder several pro-slavery settlers.
C. the Missouri legislature ban its own citizens from entering Kansas.
D. federal troops take military control of the region.
E. a large antislavery posse sack the proslavery town of Lawrence, Kansas.
B. was a vicious assault carried out by a member of Congress.
The 1856 beating of Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate
A. was in response to a pro-slavery speech he gave.
B. was a vicious assault carried out by a member of Congress.
C. was strongly condemned in the South.
D. resulted in Sumner’s death from his injuries weeks later.
E. All the answers are correct.
A. opposition to the expansion of slavery.
The ideology of Free-Soil included
A. opposition to the expansion of slavery.
B. a call to end slavery in the United States as soon as possible.
C. the use of military force to suppress slavery.
D. the argument that slavery was tremendously harmful to American blacks.
E. an argument for black male suffrage.
D. black codes protected slaves from abuse.
Southern defenders of slavery made all of the following arguments EXCEPT
A. Southern slaves enjoyed better conditions than Northern industrial workers.
B. blacks were inherently unfit to take care of themselves.
C. slavery allowed whites and blacks to live together peacefully.
D. black codes protected slaves from abuse.
E. the Southern way of life was superior to any other in the world.
C. a “positive good.”
In The Pro-Slavery Argument (1837), John C. Calhoun stated that slavery was
A. likely to be adopted by non-slave states within fifty years.
B. a “necessary evil.”
C. a “positive good.”
D. likely to end in the United States within fifty years.
E. the “American way of life.”
E. John C. Fremont.
The first Republican candidate for president was
A. James Buchanan.
B. Stephen Douglas.
C. Abraham Lincoln.
D. Millard Fillmore.
E. John C. Fremont.
D. former president Millard Fillmore in the running.
The election of 1856 saw
A. no significant third party in the field.
B. the Whig Party make a strong comeback.
C. the Democrats elect a young and forceful pro-slavery leader.
D. former president Millard Fillmore in the running.
E. the Republicans run against the idea of internal improvements.
E. the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court held in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
A. that Scott must be freed under federal law.
B. slaves were property unless they moved to a free state.
C. states were not allowed to abolish slavery within their borders.
D. the freedom of a slave could not be purchased by a black person.
E. the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
D. All the answers are correct.
James Buchanan
A. weakly endorsed the Dred Scott decision.
B. supported the admission of Kansas as a slave state.
C. pressured Congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton constitution.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. twice rejected by a majority of Kansas voters.
The 1857 Lecompton (Kansas) constitution was
A. twice rejected by a majority of Kansas voters.
B. rejected, then approved by Kansas voters.
C. antislavery.
D. written by Stephen Douglas.
D. approved and later reaffirmed by Kansas voters.
A. after several Southern states had left the Union.
Kansas entered the United States
A. after several Southern states had left the Union.
B. as a slave state.
C. well after the Civil War ended.
D. during the administration of Abraham Lincoln.
E. at the same time the former Confederate states rejoined the Union.
E. Lincoln argued slavery was a threat to the growth of white free labor.
In the 1858 Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas debates,
A. Lincoln called for a full and immediate abolition of slavery.
B. Lincoln made his case so strongly that he was elected to the Senate.
C. the two men agreed that a civil war over slavery was inevitable.
D. Douglas asserted that slavery was legal but not immoral.
E. Lincoln argued slavery was a threat to the growth of white free labor.
D. All the answers are correct.
During the 1858 Abraham Lincoln-Stephen Douglas debates, it became clear that
A. Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong.
B. Lincoln was an abolitionist.
C. Lincoln did not believe racial equality was feasible at the time.
D. All the answers are correct.
E. None of the answers are correct.
A. gained many new supporters outside of Illinois.
As a result of his 1858 debates with Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln
A. gained many new supporters outside of Illinois.
B. won election to the United States Senate.
C. came to be regarded by Southerners as an antislavery fanatic.
D. was appointed to the leadership of the Republican Party
E. was appointed to an open House seat by the Republican governor of Illinois.
B. the North was dominated by people intent on destroying the South.
Following John Brown’s 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry, many Southerners assumed
A. the raid was the isolated act of an antislavery fanatic.
B. the North was dominated by people intent on destroying the South.
C. Northern politicians would use the raid as an excuse to further restrict slavery.
D. the abolitionist movement would shortly fall into disgrace.
E. his execution would put a stop to Northern agitation over slavery once and for all.
E. the Democratic Party.
In the 1860 elections, the political party most deeply divided over slavery was
A. the Republican Party.
B. the Whig Party.
C. the Know-Nothing Party.
D. the Constitutional Union Party.
E. the Democratic Party.
A. Abraham Lincoln was elected with much less than half of the popular vote.
In the election of 1860,
A. Abraham Lincoln was elected with much less than half of the popular vote.
B. the Republican political platform called for an end to slavery.
C. Abraham Lincoln’s relative obscurity proved to be a drawback.
D. Stephen Douglas narrowly lost in the electoral vote.
E. disenchanted Northern Democrats nominated John Bell for president.
E. white Southerners concluded their position in the Union was hopeless.
In the election of 1860,
A. the Republicans called for a suspension of plans for a transcontinental railroad.
B. Stephen Douglas received a larger popular vote than Abraham Lincoln.
C. John Bell and J.C. Breckinridge, taken together, bested Lincoln in the popular vote.
D. the Republicans won a narrow majority in Congress.
E. white Southerners concluded their position in the Union was hopeless.

Cite this page

US History Test Questions and Answers APUSH 10-13. (2018, Feb 15). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-apush-10-13/

US History Test Questions and Answers APUSH 10-13
Let’s chat?  We're online 24/7