Today many people like to consume smoked foods. However, the traditional fumigation process with direct contact with smoke can trigger the presence of carcinogenic compounds because traditional smoking can cause air pollution because during the combustion process it produces emissions of poly-hydrocarbons which we know are very dangerous and can causing cancer. Therefore, now with technological advances new alternatives have emerged for processing fishery products using liquid smoke that is safer for health. Tuna fish is popular with the community because it has a good nutrient content for health.
Liquid smoke is a product of product diversification. fisheries that have many devotees. The use of coconut shell as liquid smoke in tuna is very good because in the coconut shell there are phenol compounds that are useful in the process of preserving tuna and adding liquid smoke Coconut shell can also add sensory to fish so that it can increase the level of people’s preference for liquid smoke products.
As we know that the country of Indonesia has a considerable potential for fisheries.
Indonesia was blessed with a vast sea with various fish resources in it. Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world because it has a large sea area and a large number of islands. The coastline of Indonesia reaches 95,181 km with a sea area of 5.4 million km2, dominating the total territorial area of Indonesia at 7.1 million km2. This potential places Indonesia as a country blessed with large marine resources including the largest marine biodiversity and non-biodiversity.
Opportunities for developing Indonesian fisheries still have good prospects. Fisheries business development can be used to encourage economic recovery. Currently diversification of fishery products is growing rapidly, because many people like to consume diversified fisheries products. Like smoked fish. However, the use of smoked fish in traditional ways is not good because it is traditional or direct fogging exposed to smoke is carcinogenic which can cause cancer because the results of wood smoke or coconut shell produce PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hiidrocarbon) compounds that are carcinogenic. Therefore, fumigation of fish in a better way is by using liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is a mixture of solution and colloidal disperse from wood smoke in water which can be obtained from the results of wood pyrolysis.
Liquid smoke is a mixture of solutions from wood smoke dispersion by condensing liquid smoke from wood pyrolysis which is a decomposition process of wood constituent components such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose due to heat without the presence of oxygen (Akbar et.al 2013). Preservation with liquid smoke has several advantages, among others, which are more friendly to the environment because it does not cause air pollution, can be applied quickly and easily, does not require a smoke installation, the equipment used is simpler and easier to clean, the concentration of liquid smoke used can be adjusted to the desired, volatile important compounds are easily controlled (Riyadi et.al 2009).
Coconut shell is a material used in making liquid smoke from fishery products. This material is used because it has many benefits. The main composition found in coconut shell is hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Hemisellulose is a type of polysaccharide with a small molecular weight of short chains compared to cellulose and is often found in softwood. Coconut shell smoke has the ability to preserve food ingredients due to the presence of acidic compounds, phenolics and carbonyl. Liquid shell smoke contains more than 400 components and has a function as an inhibitor of the development of bacteria which is quite safe as a natural preservative, including acids, phenolics and carbonyl.
Tuna is one of the marine fish that has red meat. Tuna fish have amino acids that the body needs. Whatever type of tuna is consumed, it can provide large amounts of protein, which is around 24-30 grams of protein per 85 grams. This complete protein from fish will keep the body’s tissues functioning properly. Starting from the formation of hormones, enzymes, collagen, antibodies, to maintain muscle tissue in the body can be obtained from the consumption of protein in tuna. In addition to the complete protein content, the types of protein present in these fish are also low in fat, therefore tuna is very suitable for consumption for diet programs. Currently smoked tuna has become a fishery product that is favored by many people because it has a distinctive taste with smoke processing.
BENEFITS OF RESEARCH
1. Finding alternative liquid smoke as a preservation of fishery products
2. provide scientific information that is useful for the development of science and technology in the field of food, especially regarding the potential of coconut shell liquid smoke.
3. increase people’s knowledge about nutrition in tuna.
Smoking is one way of cooking, giving aroma, or preserving food, especially meat and fish. Food is smoked with heat and smoke produced from burning wood, and is not placed close to the fire so it is not baked or burned. Fumigation has been carried out for a long time by fish farmers or fishermen in our country (Suryanto, 2009). There are two ways of fumigation, namely traditional and cold ways. In the traditional way, smoke is produced from burning wood or lanilla biomass (eg coconut belt, acacia powder, and mango powder). In cold ways, the ingredients are soaked in smoke that has been melted. After the smoke compound sticks to the fish, then the fish is dried. Although the quality is not good compared to cold fumigation, traditional fumigation is most easily applied by small industries. Liquid smoke is a method used in the preservation process of fishery products. Materials used in making liquid smoke are carried out using coconut shells. beneficial in the process of preserving fish.
2.2 Material coverage
1. Chemical content of coconut shell liquid smoke
Liquid smoke from coconut shell has a phenol content which has a role to maintain the durability of tuna fish and acts as an addition to the aroma of smoke in fish. Aldehyde and ketone compounds have a major influence in smoked fish coloring (maillard reaction) according to Tranggono et al (1996) also states that liquid smoke contains phenol compounds 2.10-5.13% and it is also said that coconut shell liquid smoke has 7 dominant types of compounds namely phenol, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentadion,2-methoxyphenol,2-methoxy-4-methylphenol,2,6,dimethoxyphenol, 4 ethyl-2- metoxyphenol and 2,5-dimethoxy-benzylalkohol. Neutral fractions from liquid smoke also contain phenols which can also act as antioxidants such as guaikol (2-methoxy phenol) and syringol (1,6-dimethoxy phenol).
2. Chemical content of tuna
Tuna is a fish that is low in fat. It is very suitable for everyone to consume the protein in tuna is very high (more than 20%). The nutritional composition of tuna varies depending on species, type, age, season, metabolic rate, movement activity, and level of gonadal maturity.
Tuna that dies after being captured will experience a series of changes that lead to a process of deterioration caused by three main activities, namely bacteriological, chemical, and physical decline. The whole process of this change can eventually lead to decay. Chemical degradation of fish results in changes caused by oxidative chemical reactions, where the results of the autolysis process will be contaminated with air around it so that the fish is easily damaged. Because the fish themselves have weak connective tissue if the fish has been contaminated with bacteria therefore prevention of tuna decay is needed, one of which is by giving liquid smoke.
2.3 Method of research
The process of preservation of tuna using the method of liquid fumigation, the sample first undergoes a stage of cleaning by washing it clean to obtain clean fish without dirt and mucus then soaked for about 30 minutes at room temperature. According to Riyadi et.al (2009), preservation of tuna, namely tuna fish weeded and washed, 3x3x3 difilet, preserved with liquid smoke preservatives and H2O2 for 15 minutes, drained, and packaged with plastic, then stored in jars at room temperature, to obtain preserved tuna.
According to Riyadi and Atmaka (2010), Determination of the addition of smoke flavor is done by three methods and three concentrations, namely:
a) Mixing The addition of liquid smoke to this method is done by mixing liquid smoke solutions with concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7% in fish. The ratio of adding liquid smoke to the dough is 10: 1 (b / v).
b) Dyeing The addition of liquid smoke to this method is done by dipping fish meatballs in liquid smoke solution concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7% for 1 minute.
c) Spraying Addition of liquid smoke to this method is done by spraying liquid smoke solutions with concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7% in fish. The ratio of spraying liquid smoke to the dough is 2: 1 (b / v).
2.4 Example of research
Examples of research on processing fishery products with liquid smoke were carried out by megawati et.al 2014 entitled Effect Of Application With Liquid Concentration Variations Of Different Coconut Shell Smoke To Asap Quality Of Chanas chanos Forsk. smoked fish. Fumigation is a method of processing or preservation by utilizing a combination of the treatment of drying and giving natural chemical compounds from the combustion of natural fuels (the use of liquid smoke is broader in its application to replace traditional food fumigation which is done manually ie together with the heating process. , giving the aroma of smoke to food will be more practical because by simply dipping the food product in liquid smoke followed by drying.
Thus, fuming can take place easily, quickly and in a controlled manner.The study was carried out by treating different variations of liquid smoke concentrations (0% , 1%, 3% and 5%) Milkfish samples smoked, washed, salted with 5% salt solution then immersed in liquid smoke with 4 variations of concentration.The experimental design used in the study was RAL Data of lysine, phenol, protein dissolves salt, and proximate (moisture content, fat, da n proteins) were analyzed using ANOVA and Advanced Tests, while non-parametric data used the Kruskal Wallis test with Multiple Comparison further tests.
2.5 Advantages in life
Liquid smoke in the use of fishery products is very beneficial for life. Smoke products using liquid smoke are considered safe for health because they do not contain PAH compounds compared to fumigation by traditional means which certainly produces smoke which is harmful to the health of humans. combustion produces poliaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions in the air. PAHs are generally carcinogenic, these carcinogenic compounds cause cancer. Liquid smoke has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that are widely used as food preservatives and preservatives.
Benefits of liquid smoke in processing fishery products:
a) Liquid Smoke as an Antioxidant
Liquid smoke has antioxidative properties and can be classified as a natural antioxidant. Compounds that act as antioxidants are phenol, which is the main antioxidant in liquid smoke. The antioxidant role is shown by high boiling phenol compounds especially 2,6-dimethoxyphenol; 2,6 dimethoxy-4-methylphenol and 2,6-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenol which act as hydrogen donors to free radicals and inhibit chain reactions (Pazzola, 1995). These compounds can inhibit fat oxidation, prevent lipid oxidation by stabilizing free radicals, and effectively prevent loss of taste caused by fat oxidation
b. Liquid smoke gives the taste and color to fish
The content of phenol and acid found in coconut shell liquid smoke can affect the taste of fish, so fish that have been given liquid smoke will have a distinctive smoke taste. Attract consumers to smoked fish products.
c. Liquid Smoke as an Antibacterial
In the process of fumigation, water absorption takes place so that the water content in fish will decrease and fish with a little water content will have a long lasting resistance. Because it can preventbacteriafromentering.
liquid smoke content that is antioxidant and antimicrobial so it is widely used as a food preservative.
2.6 application of liquid smoke in life
The application of liquid smoke in life can be used as:
• Preservation and processing of foods such as meat, sausages, cheese and fish
• Reducing environmental pollution
• Safe to consume (reduce TAR and PAH)
• Is disinfectant, inhibits fungal growth and can kill bacteria
• Processing of sanitation and hygiene
• Save fuel usage
• Traditional smoke flavors can be maintained.
Liquid smoke is one of the preservation processes of fishery products that are still related to the biochemistry of fishery products which is one way to prevent deterioration in the quality of fish by providing liquid smoke as its application. Coconut shells are one of the ingredients for making liquid smoke because they contain hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. These compounds are very useful in the fumigation process. Phenol content in coconut shell liquid smoke acts to naturally preserve food. The use of liquid smoke in handling fisheries products aims to preserve fish products and at the same time add flavor and color. The higher the phenol content contained in liquid smoke, the better the quality is viewed from the chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties.
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