With the development of infrastructural, improved the living standard of people and all other human activities including mining, building office complexes and hydropower development has bought a strong negative impact on our mother earth by disposing the unwanted materials or the part of machine that isnt functioning well in their site. Rapid expansion of urbanization has a strong correlation with a waste. Increase in the urban growth has further resulted in generation of waste from residential site. It is well known that human is the main root cause that causes imbalance in ecological diversity in the environment, because most production facilities lacks environmental control during industrial process, that resulted in producing municipal waste.at the same time, Municipal waste is a mass waste produced in a town (every household, offices, hospital, shops and schools) in a particular town or city, it includes organic like vegetables, papers inorganic including pen, cello tape etc. and other like textile waste.
According to the world bank. Globally about 2.01billion metric tons of municipal waste are produced annually over the world by 2050 the overall waste generation will increase to 3. 40 billion metric tons according to the world bank. Around the globe Kuwait ranked the most waste producing country generating 5.72 kilograms per capita per day of municipal waste, similarly china produces 59.8 million tons of plastics. On the other hand, Bhutan too have a problem of waste. Thimphus solid waste generation is about 4.3 metric tons daily. Garbage has became a most emerging problem, which is noticeable in all the Dzongkhags so, this assignment aims to project out Municipal waste generation and management in Tashigang town.source.BBS.01/27/18 Kinley Yonten.
2. Type of waste produce (generally) in Tashigang town
? Tashigang is the remotest town unlike Thimphu. Nonetheless, with the rapid growth and advancement of urbanization Tashigang town too has developed a waste problem. In Tashigang the type of waste produce are household waste (both inorganic and organic waste) including papers, plastics, vegetables, fruits etc. E- waste (electronic waste produce within the town) includes wire, cello tape, poles, socket, bulbs and cables. Medical waste includes used syringe, expired medicine and charts which is used for advocacy program. Where khangma and yonphula air pot waste consists of the wrappers, fruits waste and metals (ferrous and non-ferrous and other textile waste. Others waste includes wood materials, cements, grease and parts of vehicles which is thrown everywhere.
Negative impact of improper waste management
Here is some major problem which is prominent in Tashigang town.
? Effect on stream
Poorly managed waste is contaminating stream found in and around Tashigang town. In this field the stream is fully contaminated with waste including plastics, papers tins etc. This small act largely contributed to pacific garbage patch. According to UNEP, plastics accounts for ninety percent of all debris floating in the ocean which is ballooned to twice the size of the continental U.S. improper management of municipal waste causes hazards to inhabitants, various studies reveals that about ninety percent of municipal waste is dispose of unscientifically in open dumping and landfills that is mainly because of poor collection of transportation are responsible for the accumulation of municipal waste at every nook and corner in Tashigang town more over its creates problem regarding public health and environments. (Source;Chettiyappha Visvanathan.08/4/2015.)
? Effect on natural environment.
Improper management of rubbish does not beautify the pristine natural environment. Therefore, Bhutan being rich of biodiversity attracts large volume of tourist. For the attraction of tourist rubbish needs to be taken care. Disposing of waste has strong negative impact on the environment and cause serious environmental issue, some waste will rot in due course of time during this process it may give smell or generate methane gas which is explosive in nature and largely contributing to the greenhouse gas
? Effect on soil horizon
On top of that improper management of waste causes soil pollution, how it occurs is that when toxic chemical is higher concentration in soil, it increases the amount of salinity in soil resulting in leaching there by reducing the fertility of soil moreover, it threatens the life of plants, animals and the soil itself.an arable land (cultivable land) turning to infertile which is not suits for human inhabitation because of improper management of waste. According to the land commission of Bhutan, we have only 8 percent of land is suit for cultivation and rest all 92 percent is not fit for human cultivation. In Tashigang town, the most prominent issue found regards to waste is dumping waste in open area. It can be seen in all the footpaths. left and right side of highway, in and around shopping complexes, office premises it includes bottles, plastics. papers and all.
? Air contamination
Waste that contain chemical such acids need proper disposal. paper and plastics which are buried will emits chemicals gas which ultimately affects the ozone layer such chemicals are dangerous and pose health risk when the dissolve or diffuse into oxygen layer which we inhale.at the same time it also increases the amount of greenhouse gas in atmosphere.
Current waste management practices in Tashigang
Courtesy source; BBS. Kinley yonten ,01/27/2018
Upon knowing the negative consequences of disposing the waste in open area. Certain organization and sector came up with the idea of managing the waste in proper manner.
A. Sherubtse college initiatives
an educational sector Sherubtse college peak of learning has came with the innovative idea to combat disposing of waste and managing the waste, college has provided each student and the faculty with a vegetable bag called Green Sherubtse and its main aim and objective is to be part of the solution not the part of pollution. this practices have greatly helped in reducing the use plastics during shopping time, on top of that using this bag has significantly success of the pillar of 3R that is refuse, use of bag have refuse the plastic bags. moreover, Sherubtse observed Zero waste hour to keep college surrounding clean.it is conducted on second day of every month. This program is mainly conducted by lecturers, student leaders, Rovers scout and Democracy members, they also create awareness on zero waste hour. Source; Sherubtse page. Meto seldon. To address the growing issue of waste in Tashigang town, the Tashigang municipal Authority have expanded the landfill which is located about four kilometers away from Medrigang town towards Ranjung and right below the Karuna house dog pond. The Tashigang municipal trucks collect waste from the road points at Pam twice every weeks and college waste management team collect waste from every hostels on every Wednesday and take it to Rongthong land fill, this is mainly because to reduce pressure on the land. Non-biodegradable things like plastics does not decompose easily affects the landfill life. In order to form a three centimeter of good layer of soil needs three to four hundreds of years, that the great reason to take an extra responsible and be accountable for your own waste, that does not end up with the negative effect of throwing rubbish in open area.
With regards to the Waste segregation practice the rubbish were segregated inorganic and organic waste, Organic waste are taken and used in kitchen garden in other hand, inorganic waste is sold for economic benefits in Tashigang town.
B. 3Rs reduce, reuse, and recycle principles
Source: AQA GCSE chemistry
3Rs all ails to cut down the waste amount we throw away in the open area, they conserve natural resources which is land fill energy and moreover 3Rs saves the money and lands too.3R reduce, reuse, and recycle are still practicing in Tashigang town. Use of plastics is reduced or faculty and student of Sherubtse because of green bag. for instance, if family owns a rice cooker and it happens to be out of function then instead of dumping they used it for planting flower as flower pot, such practices is called recycle. Even more the concept and principles of 3R is disseminated among the people, through advocacy and various campaign over the recent years.
C. Government rules and regulation
Use and sale of plastics bags in the country was banned since June 2, 1999. though this initiative aims at reducing the use of plastics in your country but it came to the existence of failure. Use and sale of plastics bags in the country was banned since June 2,1999. Plastics are non-biodegradable things, which ultimately cause environment pollution for a long time and pose health risk as well.in keeping with this, the ban was introduced by Department of Trade and Industry in collaboration with the National Environment Commission rules are put in place. any trader found using or selling plastics will be liable for fine of NU. 500 for the first time. for the next the second offence they will be doubled. If found repeated it will result to cancellation of their trade license. Source; Sheritu Shrestha,2018
Challenges faced by authorities dealing with waste.
Waste management is a vital problem associated in our country and Tashigang Dzongkhag too. due to increase in quantity of waste and its related emission, the main challenges regards to management of waste are,
a) illegal dumping of waste
although the waste management services are available in all the site still garbage seems to be found everywhere, secondly it lacks the cooperation in segregation and disposal of waste. Although, the peoples were aware of 3R (reuse, refuse, recycle and reduce) principles of waste management. intentionally or unintentionally they dispose waste in open places.
According to the Bhutan project scoping-Shritu Shrestha (Wuppertal institute), The initiative to be banned in 1999 grabbed international headlines and garnered global attention and appreciation. Bags bans are not effective in eliminating the use of the plastic bags because they do not recognize the reuse of bags beyond their role as carry device.
b) lack of cooperation in segregation and disposal waste.
Plastic waste grow despites banned in Bhutan, this may because of lack of cooperation in segregation and disposal waste.
With regards to challenges, it was serious while dealing with waste. one of the most challenges face by authorities is to segregate the waste in organic and inorganic form. Despites various advocacy and disseminating about the waste management still garbage is found everywhere in Tashigang society mainly because they lack cooperation and interest in segregation and disposal waste in to proper manner (organic and inorganic waste)
Challenges to waste generation in Tashigang town
One the most global issue is about waste management in this 21st century. all the organization over the world aims at reducing and taking care of the waste globally. Similarly, Tashigang town too face challenges to dealing with the waste. Some of the factor that gives challenges to waste management in Tashigang town are;
A. Development of educational town.
Tashigang Dzongkhag consist of various educational institutions such as Sherubtse college, Jampeling higher secondary school, Pelkhil higher secondary school, kanglung primary school, Yonphula centenary college and monastic body. Due to development of educational town, it attracts large number of people which is significantly increase in population, increase in population has strong positive correlation waste generation. for instance, more the population greater is the waste generation. Development of educational town has largely contributed to the waste generation.
A.1.population trends in Tashigang
Population trends is the factor that increases the amount of the waste generation in society. According to the PHCB (population housing census of Bhutan, Tashigang has total of 8,610 households with population 71,786, with this population has greatly helps in generating the waste per capita.
B. Technological challenges
Bhutan being the underdeveloped country it cannot purchase highly developed technologies and also absence technological know-how. According to the Sheritu Shreshtha, there is not enough effort made on research development for new upcoming waste management practices.
C. Government policy and regularity challenges
The enforcement of present government rules and regulation on waste management is weak. Improper regulated market for selling waste output such as biogas in country. municipalities lack understanding on relationship between waste management and climate change, economic benefits from the management of waste.
D. Other challenges
Lack of capacity to accommodate waste in house, lack of skilled labor to operate and maintain waste management and machineries, it lacks the general awareness amongst people in the country in need of waste management and relevant segregation
In nut shell, municipal waste are materials that are not prime product (that is products produced for the market) for which the initials use has no further use in terms his/her own purpose of production, transformation, or consumption and of which of she/he wants to dispose. Source; (United nation statics division,2001). municipal waste generation levels are expected to double by 2025.higher the rate of urbanization and higher the rate of income, greater the amount of waste generation. municipal waste is greatly influenced by the economic development, degree of industrialization and consumer habits of people on consumption of goods. generally, higher the rate of urbanization and higher the rate of income, greater the generation of the waste. proper measurement of waste generation is very important to improve municipal health and to preserve the natural biodiversity