Background of the Study
RA 9003. otherwise known as the “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. ” authorizations that segregation and aggregation of solid waste at beginning shall be conducted at the barangay degree specifically for biodegradable. compostable and reclaimable wastes. and that the several metropoliss and municipalities shall advance enterprises in the community to set about waste segregation and aggregation at beginning pursuant to the spirit of the jurisprudence. Complementing this proviso. the jurisprudence mandates that “collection of non-recyclable stuffs and particular wastes shall be the duty of the municipality or city” ( Section 10. RA 9003 ) . These authorizations are defined in conformity with the Local Government Code ( RA7160 ) .
Recently. the metropolis of Manila enacted City Ordinance No. 7876 which provides steps for the proper segregation of rubbish. Under this regulation. all waste stuffs belong to either one of the undermentioned groups: biodegradable ( nabubulok ) . non-biodegradable ( di-nabubulok ) . and residuary. Each class of refuse is. in bend. collected by the metropolis service at specified yearss of the hebdomad.
Rizal Technological University ( RTU ) for its portion. has taken a figure of stairss toward bettering its ain waste direction system. An Environmental Research Department has been established to research and implement executable systems for refuse aggregation and segregation.
In RTU-Mandaluyong. biodegradable and non-biodegradable refuse are being segregated into separate rubbish bins. Recently. ( 2012 ) Rizal Technological University joined the National Search for the Most Eco-Friendly School. a plan measuring the school environmental plans. energy preservation undertakings. H2O use systems and refuse disposal policies.
In add-on. the University’s Environmental Research Department implemented “No Plastic Policy” . which started last 2010. purely enforcing the ordinance of disposable fictile stuffs among the pupils. module and the university canteen and nutrient shops ( as cited in RTU one-year accomplishment study ) .
However. in malice of these steps. the University is still dawdling behind in making something for direction of solid waste. This survey will give us an mentality of the current position of the university’s Solid Waste Management Program.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Impacts of Rapid Population Growth and Urbanization on Waste Management As human population additions. the rapid depletion of natural resources is go oning in all states and significantly striving the quality of the planet’s H2O. dirt. and air. therefore straight lending to environmental impairment. It is estimated that the Earth’s renewable natural resources has declined by over 30 per centum over the last 30 old ages while the demands on them has increased by 50 per centum. Hence. sustainability is a job. ( Torres. 2010 )
This environmental impairment is made worse by urbanisation and promotions in societies brought approximately by engineering. Whenever something is thrown out or is considered to be waste. resources are lost. This call for the extraction of more natural resources to refill our society’s ne’er stoping demand for more merchandises. Inevitably. these new merchandises are used and finally thrown off as waste and the rhythm continues. As our waste piles up to eternity. the earth’s natural resources merely go more perceptibly finite. ( Baula. 2010 )
A factor that could decline the environmental crisis is the increasing accretion of solid wastes which either have no opposite number in nature or which have non been decently disposed ( Arias. 1998 ) . Solid wastes have been identified as one of the most of import environmental jobs of urbanisation. For an urban centre with rapid urban migration. hapless solid waste direction patterns are considered as black activities. ( Ballados. 2010 )
Based on estimations. waste coevals in Asia has reached 1 million dozenss per twenty-four hours. Solid-waste direction has become an of import issue in the Asia-Pacific part. and it needs to be resolved through an integrated community. private sector. and policy-based attack. ( Asiatic Productivity Organization. 2007 )
In the Philippines. the national population continues to increase in an accelerating rate and it is the “sixteenth most thickly settled. out of more than 190 countries” . ( Magalona and Malayang. 2001 ) . The country’s population exhibited a immense addition from 27 million in the 1960’s to 88. 57 million in 2007. ( Espaldon and Baltazar. 2011 ) .
Aside from increasing population. the rapid urbanisation besides contributes to the country’s job of waste. With the increasing population peculiarly in the urban countries. the sum of solid waste generated per twenty-four hours besides increases. The unit coevals rate of solid waste in the state ranges between 0. 30 to 0. 70kg per capita per twenty-four hours for rural and urban communities severally. ( NSWMC. 2005 )
The deficiency of chances and utmost poorness in the countryside has forced the rural inhabitants to seek better life in the urban countries. Infrastructure in the state is largely focused on the NCR and this hinders the local and regional development. Due to unmanaged urbanisation in Metro Manila and other urban metropoliss. the state is confronting a batch of jobs such as pollution. unequal H2O supply. high unemployment and offense rates. outgrowth of homesteaders. traffic congestion and inefficient waste disposal ( Mangahas. 2006 ) .
There is a farther and more direct effect to the continual accretion of waste. The nonliteral term “buried in garbage” manifested itself literally in the Payatas calamity in Quezon City. Payatas is a 12-hectare garbage dump that is inhabited by around 311. 500 people who make a life from scavenging and selling rubbish. Two typhoons that hit Metro Manila loosened the mountain of refuse and in the forenoon of July 10. 2000. it finally came crashing down on an estimated 300 hovels. killing 224 people. The garbage dump was temporarily closed. Six months after the catastrophe. holding no alternate shit sites. the Payatas garbage dump was reopened ( Bildan. 2003 as cited in Baula. 2005 ) .
Besides the menace to our lives. indiscriminate dumping has led to streets being lined with rubbish and to the implosion therapy of our urban homes. Health is threatened when canals. clogged by refuse. go breeding evidences for insects that bring about diseases like cholera and dandy fever. Respiratory diseases are besides brought approximately by the combustion of refuse in our backyards. Landfills produce methane gas which is a potent nursery gas. ( Baula. 2005 )
Policies on Solid Waste Management
The go oning debasement of the environment has captured the attending of concerned citizens around the Earth. In the past decennaries. the Filipino authorities has implemented several steps to protect the environment and the wellness of the people from the jeopardies caused by improper waste disposal. Even in the earlier ordinances. proper aggregation and disposal of wastes and the proviso of punishments for non-compliance were already emphasized. ( Ocenar 2001 )
The Filipino authorities has recognized the badness of the refuse job and has prioritized the constitution of appropriate steps to turn to it. The most comprehensive piece of statute law is the Republic Act ( RA ) 9003. known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. which assigns the primary undertaking of execution and enforcement to LGUs. It emphasizes the importance of minimising waste by utilizing techniques such as recycling. resource recovery. reuse. and composting ( Guzman. 2013 ) . Under RA 7160. otherwise known as the Local Government Code. the Filipino LGUs shall be chiefly responsible for the execution and enforcement of the commissariats of this Act within their several legal powers.
Segregation and aggregation of solid waste shall be conducted at the barangay degree specifically for biodegradable. compostable and reclaimable wastes provided. that the aggregation of non-recyclable stuffs and particular wastes shall be the duty of the municipality or metropolis ( Section 10 of RA 9003 as cited in Ballados. 2010 ) The barangay shall be responsible for the aggregation. segregation. recycling of biodegradable. reclaimable. compostable and reclaimable wastes. Material Recovery Facilities ( MRFs ) will be established in every barangay or bunch of barangays ( Section 1 of Rule XI of the IRR 9003 ) .
Other policies include PD 825 Garbage Disposal Law. PD 984 Pollution Control Law. PD 1151 Phil. Environmental Policy and other regulative policies and local authorities regulations like the hiwa-hiwalay sodium basura SA barangay under the local authorities codification ( Atienza 2011 ) .
Role of Educational Institutions to Solid Waste Management
Harmonizing to a survey by Hagos in 2008. integrating of environmental instruction in selected curricular plans is really of import particularly for a underdeveloped state like the Philippines. Students must go ?earth-friendly? and commit to environmentally sound life style. They must besides acknowledge mutuality in a planetary village? and be prepared to lend to it.
Former President Fidel V. Ramos signed Executive Order No. 15 that answers the call for planetary action on the province of the environment. He created the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development that adopted the Philippine Agenda 21which takes a balanced and incorporate attack to development issues by integrating sustainable development rules and constructs aligned with the national precedences of the authorities. ( Rabago 2008 )
One of the schemes of Philippine Agenda 21 is the publicity of environmental instruction. information and public consciousness. This scheme reinforces P. D. 1152 or the Filipino Environment Code of 1977 that mandates the integrating of environmental instruction into the nucleus course of study of all academic degrees. ( Dejarme 2009 )
This started the bing plans and activities of schools and higher instruction establishments and the integrating of environmental scientific discipline topics in third instruction degree.
School Based Solid Waste Management is being practiced in changing grades in a figure of schools throughout Metro Manila. Quezon City had launched the “Green School Brigade” plan where pupils from six public simple schools were encouraged to convey reclaimable wastes and take them to their schools in exchange for school supplies or food market points ( Reganit. 2008 as cited in Baula. 2005 ) . Marikina City instituted the “Eco Savers” plan in 2004. necessitating pupils from 18 public simple schools to convey reclaimable refuse from their families to their schools ( Best Practices. 2007 ) . Thirty-six schools in Makati City had besides been chosen to prosecute in waste segregation ( Recycling. 2008 as cited in Baula. 2005 ) .
Private companies. as portion of their societal duty. besides pushed attempts towards waste direction run. Samsung Electronics Philippines Manufacturing Corporation in partnership with Toyota Autoparts Inchad chosen one hundred pupils from five spouse schools were chosen as participants to the preparation plan. The partner-schools include: Emilio Aguinaldo Integrated School. Isaac Lopez Integrated School. Bonifacio Javier National High School. Eulogio Rodriguez Vocational High School. and Rizal Experimental Pilot School for Cottage Industries.
After the preparation. the schools’ waste direction plans were monitored and evaluated for a period of six months. from August 2006 to April 2007. The LGUs in Bulacan. Nueva Vizcaya. and Sorsogon followed suit and had replicated the plan. . Samsung Electronics Philippines Manufacturing Corp. in Calamba. Laguna. and Toyota Autoparts Inc. in Sta. Rosa. Laguna ( Aguinaldo. 2008 as cited in Baula. 2005 ) .
Higher educational establishments ( universities and colleges ) besides started their waste direction undertakings. A good illustration is De LaSalle University. which established their Waste Minimization Campaign last September 2005. They conducted orientation and seminar sing the undertaking with the engagement of the university concessioners. housekeeping section. evidences section. residence hall residents. office secretary/clerks staff. module. pupil leaders and school decision makers. They agreed to make a policy sing the usage of disposable plastic stuffs within the university. DLSU besides designated September as their “Clean-Up Month” ( DLSU Environmental Resource Management Center. 2005 ) .
RTU’s Garbage Disposal Policies
Rizal Technological University. similar to other local and foreign universities. has some kind of waste reduction/prevention plan.
Recently. ( 2012 ) Rizal Technological University joined the National Search for the Most Eco-Friendly School. a plan measuring the school environmental plans. energy preservation undertakings. H2O use systems and refuse disposal policies.
The university highlighted its “No Plastic Policy” . which started last 2010. purely enforcing the ordinance of disposable fictile stuffs among the pupils. module and the university canteen and nutrient shops ( as cited in RTU one-year accomplishment study ) . RTU besides pattern trash segregation. dividing waste as degradable and non-degradable. However. non-compliance to these policies was observed among RTU population.
Significance of the Study
Using document reappraisals and cardinal informant interviews. the study’s end is to pull out strength and failing of the university’s solid waste direction and place the best patterns or possible promotion on how RTU’s SWM could be improved. In add-on. the survey can be used for betterment of bing policies with respects to solid waste direction.
The survey aims to cognize the current position of solid waste direction position in RTU.
Aims of the Study
This instance survey would wish to seek replies to the followers: How long has it been since the plan ( SWM ) started?
Is the plan being sustained over the past few old ages?
What promotion has been made to assist the plan?
How is RTU’s plan compared with others’ ?
The qualitative research method was used in this research survey peculiarly the instance survey type of research probe. The intent of this type of research is to depict objectively the nature of the state of affairs under survey.
Unstructured questionnaire was used as one of the informations aggregation methods. This questionnaire was used to roll up information from the Environmental Research Department through an interview sing waste direction services and patterns for RTU.
Datas are based from our interview with Prof. Marita Geroy. in-charge of the Environmental Research Laboratory. and Dr. Ruth Guzman. president of the Environmental Research Committee.
Solid Waste Management Programs of other universities and municipalities were besides obtained for survey and comparing intents.
Permissions from the Environmental Research Department were sought prior to the behavior of interviews. Interviews would affect Prof. Marita Geroy. in-charge of the Environmental Research Laboratory. and Dr. Ruth Guzman. president of the Environmental Research Committee.
Gathered informations will be presented and will be compared with other school-based solid waste direction plan.
Rizal Technological University started its solid waste direction plan manner back 2004 when Dr. Marivic De Guzman. the Director of Auxiliary services so. created an Ecology Center and funded a composting bioreactor for biodegradable waste. After five old ages. Dr. Ulysses Lim took in charge of the Auxiliary Services ( 2009 ) and implemented the distribution of refuse bags within the university and tarpaulin postings informing the pupils to dispose their rubbish decently. On the same twelvemonth. the RTU disposal decided to fade out the Department of Auxiliary Services and reassign the duties to ( BAO ) Business Affairs Office. BAO continued to administer refuse bags but decided to halt the operation of the university’s bioreactor because of care troubles.
In 2010. under Research and Development Center. an Environmental Research Committee was instituted. It was headed by Dr. Ruth Guzman. Part of the Environmental Research Committee is the constitution of Environmental Research Laboratory with Prof. Marita Geroy to oversee the installation. They decided to segregate rubbish by seting labels on the refuse bags as to “biodegradable” and “non-biodegradable” . With the supervising of Dr. Ruth Guzman. the Chairperson of Environmental Committee. a Proposed Undertaking for Waste Management was presented to the school disposal. However. the said proposal was non given that much attending and is still non approved by the school functionaries.
A survey conducted by Geroy and Meneses in 2010 showed that pupils are cognizant of waste direction but they do non follow the bing policies because segregation was non purely reinforced within the university.
Last 2012. RTU joined the National Search for the Most Eco-Friendly School foregrounding its “No Plastic Policy” which was besides imposed n the same twelvemonth. The policy includes the ordinance on the usage of plastic ( fictile cups ) within the promenade. university canteen and nutrient booth. It besides banned the usage of Styrofoam stuffs inside the campus.
Harmonizing to the Environmental Committee. waste coevals decrease has been observed through the bing policies. However. comparing it with other schools. they are still non satisfied with the RTU’s waste direction.
RTU’s SWM: Strength
Since 2004. the university has been consistent in forcing waste direction policies within the university. The constitution of the university’s Environmental Research Committee strengthened the bing waste direction policies. Information airing has been done through the usage of enlightening tarpaulins and rubbish bags labeling.
RTU’s SWM: Failing
Proposed undertakings are available. but fiscal resources are non. Compliance depends on execution. Segregation is non purely implemented. The university is cognizant of bing waste segregation. Polotical will is missing among the pupils.
Compared with DLSU ( LaSalle ) system. RTU is dawdling behind solid waste direction. DLSU implemented its Entire Waste Segregation through its Solid Waste Management Task Force. They observed important consequences on the decrease of their waste direction ( cited in DLSU Solid Waste Management Report ) . They besides designated 100 janitors and 15 nurserymans working for the cleanliness and beautification of the campus.
An one-year forum. comprising of the school decision makers. deans of different colleges and sections. pupils faculty member and spearheaded by the Buildings and Grounds Maintenance Department and the Solid Waste Management Task Force. is being held to show studies and proposals sing solid waste direction. This sort of plans can besides be adopted by RTU for the betterment of the bing policies. Information are based from our interview with Prof. Marita Geroy. in-charge of the Environmental Research Laboratory. and Dr. Ruth Guzman. president of the Environmental Research Committee.
From the consequences. we concluded the followers:
The university’s present waste direction is focused on segregation. Awareness among the pupils sing segregation is noted. But non-compliance is observed.
RTU should look into other schools plan and do them guidelines for better policy devising and plan execution. The university can follow other schools’ system sing waste direction. The university should hold separate Solid Waste Management Department for better monitoring of solid waste
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