The Desire to Prevent the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons

Topics: United Nations

The works of Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be traced back to classical philosophers, who attemptingattempted to discover human thinking about machines. Their work cultivated the ideas needed for the invention of the first programmable computer in the 1940s. At the time, computers weren’t cheap, and hard to come by if not funded by a university. Years of development lead to a mathematical reasoniTheirng device, used originally to solve proofs. Influencing the idea and possibility of building an electronic conscious. Five years later, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell presented the Logic Theorist at Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence (DARPA).

Attempting human problem-solving skills was considered to be the first (AI) program. Researchers at the Dartmouth conference pioneered (AI) to the complexity it entails today. From 1957 to 1974, (AI) blossomed. Independent researchers like Newell and Simon received millions of dollars in funds for their projects.

Around the same time, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began funding (AI) institutions. In 1982 (AI) computers became more complex and began implementing logical programming.

A task that has never been done before, begins to show its complexities. This led to minimal developments and a depleting interest in (AI). It wasn’t until the 1990s that (AI) came back into the spotlight when IBM’s Deep Blue beat Gary Kasparov in a match of chess. Since Deep Blue, (AI) investment programs went up six times since 1992. Global (AI) revenue hit 1.62 billion dollars in 2018, expecting to grow to 31.2 billion by 2025. One Massachusetts Institute of Technology research study found that eighty-five percent of investing (AI) companies believe artificial intelligence will grant them a competitive advantage.

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Of those eighty-five percent, seventy-five percent believe (AI) will open up new business. (AI) has also seen a climatic change in agricultural uses. Robots and technologies have been used to link farmers to online databases as well as create an efficient way of farming. (AI) handles repetitive and dull tasks, allTheirowing the farmer to focus on improving production and yields. (AI) harvests pick and use pesticides and weed control. In healthcare, (AI) has been used for algorithms, software for human cognition, and analyzing medical data. Weighing medical treatment and prevention with patient results. In turn, (AI) has been held under pressure with the creation of drones and other “killing devices”. Created by companies following the rules or not, in 2018 the UN has expressed concern for an ethical discussion to be held. The developments of artificial intelligence have drastically improved since the 1940s, and its further development is imperative for a more advanced future. UN involvement: With the dTheirevelopment of autonomous weapons moving into the gray area, (AI) is no stranger to the United Nations (UN). October of 2015, the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly held a talk on “Rising to the challenges of International Security and the Emergence of Artificial Intelligence”.

Ultimately leading to a joint (ECOSOC) 2nd committee to address (AI) role in sustainable development. This led to conventional weapons conventions concerning address to (AI) as well as International Telecommunication Union (ITU) increased involvement. In 2018, the AI for Good Global Summit occurred improving the trusted and safe development of AI inclusive for all countries. The use of AI by the (UN) can be seen in Haiti, UAV missions provided situational awareness for peacekeeping operations after an earthquake. In Northern Africa, (AI) helped a UN mapping program with geographical data as well as identify natural hazards. Providing up to date data using computer software systems and unmanned aerial drones. Since a 2packing013 (UN) Security Council meeting, they have had an increased involvement with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. As well as m, monitoring the future development of UAVs. The United Nations is persistent in keeping safe and inclusive development of (A) technologies for the future. Country Policy/Solutions: Senegal actively uses (AI) to help the efficiency of our farmers as well as healthcare. Funded by non-profits as well as the private sector, we develop strong and efficient uses for (AI) in the farming industry. Specifically, rice and corn account for over fifteen percent of our agricultural exports. (AI) also allows our healthcare system to have large databases and store patient information. Primarily, Senegal proposes the use of harvest CROO robots to aid developing farmers pick and packing small labor-intensive fruits and vegetables.

CROO robots are able tocan harvest 8 acres a day and can replace 30 human laborers. The robots are used for high labor-intensive plants such as strawberries and peas, and each robot carries 16 individual picking robots. Seeing that forty percent, of average farm costs, go into wages, labor contracts, and salaries, the CROO robot helps eliminate some of those financial burdens for the farm owner. Senegal also recommends using PEAT to monitor degrading soil conditions and identifies failing nutrients in the soil composition. USDA reports nearly forty-five million dollars worth of soil has eroded or degraded in 2018. PEAT uses software known as Plantix and is algorithm-driven, analyzing and correlating eroding and degrading soil over time. Plantix can also identify pests and plant diseases, providing tips and techniques to restore the health of the soil. Compatible with its app, small farmers can run diagnostics tests anywhere through an app, proven to be ninety-five percent effective with over one hundAnywherered thousand users. The predictive analysis also allows satellites for weather and crop predictions. Anywhere provides constantly updating predictive analysis using satellites that are personal to the farmer’s needs. Whether daily or yearly weather patterns, crop sustainability, or possible pest control Anywhere will detect it. Anywhere provides farmers with billions of data points used to see temperature, wind, solar radiation as well as humidity. It can be operated in a multitude of conditions and can be personalized and paid for every month. Finally, Senegal wants to formalize meetings addressing all UN member states on (AI) with IBM (AI) to evaluate national development plans program. To come to a clear understanding of the uses of (AI) across developed and underdeveloped nations. IBM partners with the UN as a non-profit partner to help spread knowledge of (AI) to lesser developed nations as well as other members of the international community. Raising awareness and sharing useful information can help create a better and stronger understanding of the uses of (AI) across the globe Senegal, Topic B Mira Costa Background: Weapons of mass destruction, (WMD) can be seen as early as World War II.

The term was used to describe high-flying aircraft delivering bombshells and incendiary devices onto the cities of Hamburg and Tokyo. Killing hundreds of thousands, the international community saw the beginning of new warfare. This came to a chilling realization when the United States dropped the world’s first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Instantly killing sixty-thousand civilians, and one-hundred thousand through radiation. The development of nuclear WMD developed shortly after the cold war in 1947. Both the United States and the former Soviet Union acquired strong nuclear weapons and warheads. Both held their ground in a diplomatic standoff, known as the “period of terror”. This nuclear standoff some say influenced the rise of chemical WMD, seen as early as World War I. Used to poison, choke, irritate and kill its victims, chemical WMD is often used against a state’s plays people and often plays a deadly role in genocides. They are feared by many and are excruciatingly painful, as seen during the Italian mustard bombs in Ethiopia from 1935-to 1936. Today chemical weapons have been seen in the Iraq war 1980-1988, and the Syrian conflict. Both used chlorine bombs to poison civilians and enemies. Biological weapons are one of the oldest and lesser-used WMDs WMD. Containing infectious toxins, biological WMD often uses bacteria and viruses to kill a mass amount of people. Biological WMD can date back to the when early Venezuelan Inquisition when Europeans spread disease to kill and weaken South American states. More famously, in 1710 Russian armies threw plague-infested bodies at the Swedish enemy. Biological weapons pose a danger to animals, plants, and large populations of people. Although they pose no risk to infrastructure, their morbid use in warfare was outlined in 1972. Since then 180 states joined and signed the Biological Weapons Conference (BWC) prohibiting the use in wartime. Currently, there is a growing threat of terrorist groups acquiring them.

Due to there easily packaged and transported. Aspirations to constrain the web of WMD have been seen in the Biological Weapons convenConventiontion of 1972, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty in 1968, Nations’into and Chemical Weapons Convention in 1993. UN Involvement: United Nations’ involvement has been mainly seen in the development and cooperation of the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), conducting over 2,000 nuclear tests. The creation of the WMDsNuclear-Weapons-Free-Zone (NWFZ), was one of their early developments to help strengthen international nuclear disarmament. The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) banned the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere as well as space, and sea. 191 states met in London and Moscow to dictate and restrict future lethal developments for these WMDs. This later became known as the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996, outlining similar objectives. To combat the widespread use of chemical weapons, the United Nations enforced the arms control treaty known as the Chemical Weapons Convention 1997. This sought to limit and eradicate large stockpiles of chemical weapons that states may have. It also largely limits the development of chemical technology to strictly monitored fields for medicinal and pharmaceutical use.

It currently has 193 signed member states and destroyed 96% of the world’s chemical weapon stock in January 2018. The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) was a multilateral disarmament treaty that destroyed stockpiles and production of this WMD in 1972. It was entered later in 1975 and has proven effective in ensuring they don’t get into the hands of a terrorist. The (BWC) has also limited the development of biological weapons with review conferences and implementation support units. Solutions/Country policy: Currently, Senegal has signed and ratified all the weapon conventions above. Senegal is recognized as a non-nuclear state and is a member of the NPT. Senegal is also a member of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. Signed in 1996 and implemented in 2009, the NWFZA limits to research, production, stockpiling, testing, and possession of any WMD specifically nuclear ones. To improve the language of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Senegal encourages using aspects of the Partial Test Ban Treaty. Specifically building trust and confidence in states with overarching policy. Specifically setting a moratorium on testing all forms of WMD recognized by the UNODA if violated. The CTBT with the help of its powerful member states has reduced WMD in the international community by ⅓ since its start in 1963. Due to its success, it speaks as an incentive for other nations to cooperate with it. Senegal also promotes further implementation of OECD policy to create a strong, internationally recognized definition for Chemical WMD, and humanitarian efforts in response. This includes using the Nuclear Drop Association NDA which improves response to chemical and biological warfare with physical aid as well as proper disarmament of harmful WMD materials. As a civil defense against the exploited use of chemical and biological WMD, Senegal recommends the Strategic National Stockpile program. They provide 50-ton “Push Packages” armed with vaccines, medical agents, and garments to protect against chemical exposure to the skin and mouth. These packages can be placed around cities in a collective protection shelter used to host victims. Allowing easy access to medical responses to treat victims promptly that are in one location.

These packages can be used in a city or state response plan to such an attack. The best defense against monitoring the use of chemical and biological weapons is the protection of the skin and mouth with filtered mamonitoringsks and protective garments. An against read-to-ready-to-monitoring monitoring package can provide citizens with easy access to them in the case of an emergency. Finally, Senegal wants to use agent sensors to detect the presence of biological and chemical threats on surfaces, water, or in the air. They do not give advanced warnings, however, provide citizens with alerts and sirens on speakers to give ample response time to prepare. The goal is to detect and inform citizens of an agent, giving them time to apply masks and protective clothing.

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The Desire to Prevent the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons. (2022, May 13). Retrieved from

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