Chemical compounds are formed by the joining of two or more atoms. A stable compound occurs when the total energy of the combination has lower energy than the separated atoms. The bound state implies a net attractive force between the atoms … a chemical bond. The two extreme cases of chemical bonds are: Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms. Ionic bond: bond in which one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom, resulting in positive and negative ions which attract each other.Other types of bonds include metallic bonds and hydrogen bonding. The attractive forces between molecules in a liquid can be characterized as van der Waals bonds. What is an Ionic Bond? An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed due to the attraction between an atom that has lost one or more electron (known as a cation) and an atom that has gained one or more electrons (known as an anion). Usually, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a non-metal atom.It is important to recognize that pure ionic bonding – in which one atom “steals” an electron from another – cannot exist: all ionic compounds have some degree of covalent bonding, or electron sharing. Thus, the term “ionic bond” is given to a bond in which the ionic character is greater than the covalent character – that is, a bond in which a large electronegativity difference exists between the two atoms, causing the bond to be more polar (ionic) than other forms of covalent bonding where electrons are shared more equally. Bonds with partially ionic and partially covalent character are called polar covalent bonds.Nevertheless, ionic bonding is considered to be a form of no covalent bonding. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in solution, but not as a solid. They generally have a high melting point and tend to be soluble in water. Ionic Bonding is observed because metals have few electrons in its outer-most orbital. By losing those electrons, these metals can achieve noble-gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have close to 8 electrons in its valence shell tend to readily accept electrons to achieve its noble gas configuration.In ionic bonding, more than 1 electron can be donated or received to satisfy the octet rule. The charge on the anion and cation corresponds to the number of electrons donated or recieved. In ionic bonds, the net charge of the compound must be zero. This sodium molecule donates the lone electron in its valence orbital in order to achieve octet configuration. This creates a positively charged cation due to the loss of electron. This Chlorine molecule receives one electron to achieve its octet configuration. This creates a negatively charged anion due to the addition of one electron.The predicted overall energy of the ionic bonding process, which includes the ionization energy of the metal and electron affinity of the non-metal, is usually positive, indicating that the reaction is endothermic and unfavorable. However, this reaction is highly favorable because of their electrostatic attraction. At the most ideal inter-atomic distance, attraction between these particles releases enough energy to facilitate the reaction. Most ionic compounds tend to dissociate in polar solvents because they are often polar. This phenomenon is due to the opposite charges on each ions.Examples: In this example, the Sodium molecule is donating its 1 valence electron to the Chlorine molecule. This creates a Sodium cation and a Chlorine anion. Notice that the net charge of the compound is 0. In this example, the Magnesium molecule is donating both of its valence electrons to Chlorine molecules. Each Chlorine molecule can only accept 1 electron before it can achieve its noble gas configuration; therefore, 2 molecules of Chlorine is required to accept the 2 electrons donated by the Magnesium. Notice that the net charge of the compound is 0. StructureIonic compounds in the solid state form lattice structures. The two principal factors in determining the form of the lattice are the relative charges of the ions and their relative sizes. Some structures are adopted by a number of compounds; for example, the structure of the rock salt sodium chloride is also adopted by many alkali halides, and binary oxides such as MgO. Bond Strength For a solid crystalline ionic compound the enthalpy change in forming the solid from gaseous ions is termed the lattice energy. The experimental value for the lattice energy can be determined using the Born-Haber cycle.It can also be calculated using the Born-Lande equation as the sum of the electrostatic potential energy, calculated by summing interactions between cations and anions, and a short range repulsive potential energy term. The electrostatic potential can be expressed in terms of the inter-ionic separation and a constant (Madelung constant) that takes account of the geometry of the crystal. The Born-Lande equation gives a reasonable fit to the lattice energy of e. g. sodium chloride where the calculated value is ? 756 kJ/mol which compares to ? 87 kJ/mol using the Born-Haber cycle. Polarization Effects Ions in crystal lattices of purely ionic compounds are spherical; however, if the positive ion is small and/or highly charged, it will distort the electron cloud of the negative ion, an effect summarised in Fajans’ rules. This polarization of the negative ion leads to a build-up of extra charge density between the two nuclei, i. e. , to partial covalency. Larger negative ions are more easily polarized, but the effect is usually only important when positive ions with charges of 3+ (e. . , Al3+) are involved. However, 2+ ions (Be2+) or even 1+ (Li+) show some polarizing power because their sizes are so small (e. g. , LiI is ionic but has some covalent bonding present). Note that this is not the ionic polarization effect which refers to displacement of ions in the lattice due to the application of an electric field. Comparison with covalent bonds In an ionic bond, the atoms are bound by attraction of opposite ions, whereas, in a covalent bond, atoms are bound by sharing electrons to attain stable electron configurations.In covalent bonding, the molecular geometry around each atom is determined by Valence shell electron pair repulsion VSEPR rules, whereas, in ionic materials, the geometry follows maximum packing rules. Purely ionic bonds cannot exist, as the proximity of the entities involved in the bond allows some degree of sharing electron density between them. Therefore, all ionic bonds have some covalent character. Thus, an ionic bond is considered a bond where the ionic character is greater than the covalent character. The larger the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms involved in the bond, the more ionic (polar) the bond is.Bonds with partially ionic and partially covalent character are called polar covalent bonds. For example, Na–Cl and Mg–O bonds have a few percent covalency, while Si–O bonds are usually ~50% ionic and ~50% covalent. Electrical Conductivity Ionic compounds, if molten or dissolved, can conduct electricity because the ions in these conditions are free to move and carry electrons between the anode and the cathode. In the solid form, however, they cannot conduct because the electrons are held together too tightly for them to move. However, some ionic compounds can conduct electricity when solid.This is due to migration of the ions themselves under the influence of an electric field. These compounds are known as fast ion conductors. What is a Covalent Bond? Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This type of bonding occurs between two of the same element or elements close to each other in the periodic table. This bonding occurs primarily between non-metals; however, it can also be observed between non-metals and metals as well. When molecules have similar electronegativity, same affinity for electrons, covalent bonds are most likely to occur.Since both atoms have the same affinity for electrons and neither is willing to donate them, they share electrons in order to achieve octet configuration and become more stable. In addition, the ionization energy of the atom is too large and the electron affinity of the atom is too small for ionic bonding to occur. For example: Carbon doesn’t form ionic bonds since it has 4 valence electrons, half of an octet. In order to form ionic bonds, Carbon molecules must either gain or lose 4 electrons. This is highly unfavourable; therefore, Carbon molecules share their 4 valence electrons through single, double, and triple onds so that each atom can achieve noble gas configurations. Covalent bonds can include interactions of the sigma and pi orbitals; therefore covalent bonds lead to formation of single, double, triple, and quadruple bonds. Example: In this example, a Phosphorous molecule is sharing its 3 unpaired electrons with 3 Chlorine atoms. In the end product, all four of these molecules have 8 valence electrons and satisfy the octet rule. A covalent bond is the chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.  For many molecules, the sharing of electrons allows each atom to attain the equivalent of a full outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration. Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interactions, including ? -bonding, ? -bonding, metal-to-metal bonding, agnostic interactions, and three-centre two-electron bonds.  The term covalent bond dates from 1939.  The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc. thus a “co-valent bond”, in essence, means that the atoms share “valence”, such as is discussed in valence bond theory. In the molecule H2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding.  Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativity’s. Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity. Covalent bonding which entails sharing of electrons over more than two atoms is said to be delocalized. Physical properties of covalent compounds (polar and non-polar) Physical properties| Covalent compounds|States (at room temperature)| Solid, liquid, gas| Electrical conductivity| Usually none| Boiling point and Melting point| Varies, but usually lower than ionic compounds| Solubility in water| Varies, but usually lower than ionic compounds| Thermal conductivity| Usually low| Subdivision of covalent bonds There are three types of covalent substances: individual molecules, molecular structures, and macromolecular structures. Individual molecules have strong bonds that hold the atoms together, but there are negligible forces of attraction between molecules.Such covalent substances are gases. For example, HCl, SO2, CO2, and CH4. In molecular structures, there are weak forces of attraction. Such covalent substances are low-boiling-temperature liquids (such as ethanol), and low-melting-temperature solids (such as iodine and solid CO2). Macromolecular structures have large numbers of atoms linked in chains or sheets (such as graphite), or in 3-dimensional structures (such as diamond and quartz). These substances have high melting and boiling points, are frequently brittle, and tend to have high electrical resistivity.Elements that have high electronegativity, and the ability to form three or four electron pair bonds, often form such large macromolecular structures. Only when two atoms of the same element form a covalent bond are the shared electrons actually shared equally between the atoms. When atoms of different elements share electrons through covalent bonding, the electron will be drawn more toward the atom with the higher electronegativity resulting in a polar covalent bond. When compared to ionic compounds, covalent compounds usually have a lower melting and boiling point, and have less of a tendency to dissolve in water.Covalent compounds can be in a gas, liquid, or solid state and do not conduct electricity or heat well. The types of covalent bonds can be distinguished by looking at the Lewis dot structure of the molecule. For each molecule, there are different names for pairs of electrons, depending if it is shared or not. A pair of electrons that is shared between two atoms is called a bond pair. A pair of electrons that is not shared between two atoms is called a lone pair. Octet Rule The Octet Rule requires all atoms in a molecule to have 8 valence electrons–either by sharing, losing or gaining electrons–to become stable.For Covalent bonds, atoms tend to share their electrons with each other to satisfy the Octet Rule. It requires 8 electrons because that is the amount of electrons needed to fill a s- and p- orbital (electron configuration); also known as a noble gas configuration. Each atom wants to become as stable as the noble gases that have their outer valence shell filled because noble gases have a charge of 0. Although it is important to remember the “magic number”, 8, note that there are many Octet rule exceptions. Example: The bonding in carbon dioxide (CO2): all atoms are surrounded by 8 electrons, fulfilling the octet rule.Single Bond A single bond is when two electrons–one pair of electrons–are shared between two atoms. It is depicted by a single line between the two atoms. Although this form of bond is weaker and has a smaller density than a double bond and a triple bond, it is the most stable because it has a lower level of reactivity meaning less vulnerability in losing electrons to atoms that want to steal electrons. Double Bond A Double bond is when two atoms share two pairs of electrons with each other. It is depicted by two horizontal lines between two atoms in a molecule.This type of bond is much stronger than a single bond, but less stable; this is due to its greater amount of reactivity compared to a single bond. Triple Bond A Triple bond is when three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms in a molecule. It is the least stable out of the three general types of covalent bonds. It is very vulnerable to electron thieves! Polar covalent bond A Polar Covalent Bond is created when the shared electrons between atoms are not equally shared. This occurs when one atom has a higher electronegativity than the atom it is sharing with.The atom with the higher electronegativity will have a stronger pull for electrons (Similar to a Tug-O-War game, whoever is stronger usually wins). As a result, the shared electrons will be closer to the atom with the higher electronegativity, making it unequally shared. A polar covalent bond will result in the molecule having a slightly positive side (the side containing the atom with a lower electronegativity) and a slightly negative side (containing the atom with the higher electronegativity) because the shared electrons will be displaced toward the atom with the higher electronegativity.As a result of polar covalent bonds, the covalent compound that forms will have an electrostatic potential. This potential will make the resulting molecule slightly polar, allowing it to form weak bonds with other polar molecules. One example of molecules forming weak bonds with each other as a result of an unbalanced electrostatic potential is hydrogen bonding, where a hydrogen atom will interact with an electronegative hydrogen, fluorine, or oxygen atom from another molecule or chemical group.Non polar covalent bond A Nonpolar Covalent Bond is created when atoms share their electrons equally. This usually occurs when two atoms have similar or the same electron affinity. The closer the values of their electron affinity, the stronger the attraction. This occurs in gas molecules; also known as diatomic elements. Nonpolar covalent bonds have a similar concept as polar covalent bonds; the atom with the higher electronegativity will draw away the electron from the weaker one.Since this statement is true–if we apply this to our diatomic molecules–all the atoms will have the same electronegativity since they are the same kind of element; thus, the electronegativity will cancel each other out and will have a charge of 0(A. K. A. Nonpolar covalent bond). Bonding in Organic Chemistry Ionic and Covalent bonds are the two extremes of bonding. Polar covalent is the intermediate type of bonding between the two extremes. Some ionic bonds contain covalent characteristics and some covalent bonds are partially ionic. For example, most Carbon-based compounds are covalently bonded but can also be partially ionic.Polarity is a measure of the separation of charge in a compound. A compound’s polarity is dependent on the symmetry of the compound as well as differences in electronegativity between atoms. Polarity occurs when the electron pushing elements, left side of the periodic table, exchanges electrons with the electron pulling elements, right side of the period table. This creates a spectrum of polarity, with ionic(polar) at one extreme, covalent(nonpolar) at another, and polar covalent in the middle. Both of these bonds are important in Organic Chemistry.Ionic bonds are important because they allow the synthesis of specific organic compounds. Scientists can manipulate ionic properties and these interactions in order to form products they desire. Covalent bonds are especially important since most carbon molecules interact primarily through covalent bonding. Covalent bonding allows molecules to share electrons with other molecules, creating long chains of compounds and allowing more complexity in life. ASSIGNMENT IN CHEM LEC 1 * Ionic bond * Covalent bond Submitted to: Dr. Juliet Salgados Submitted by: Russhel Aira Dolauta
Chemical Bonding Paper
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