The topic being scientific n nature also made me to contact experts in the field and interview them. Engineer Hussein Madam, President Pakistan Engineering Congress, presently serving as Director General Research, Senate of Pakistan, Islamabad extended great help and provided me with the knowledge which helped me to complete the research paper in a scientific manner. The Library of National Institute of Management, Appeaser, provided me with the books which turned out to be very beneficial tort completing the task. The Directing Start in general and Mr..
Mira Khalid’s Main, in specific, was a great help, without whose continuous audience and encouragement, this would never have been realized. Also thank the Administration of the Faculty of National Institute of Management, Appeaser and the worthy Director General for maintaining such a conducive and friendly environment at MIM which enabled me to complete my paper while at the same time, broadening our mental horizon through involving the trainees in stimulating and challenging task for achieving the goal Of experiential learning.
It is no hidden fact that the intellect and knowledge of Mr.. Intimate Allah Abide Director General MIM Appeaser has no comparison With anyone. His arduous ointment and tenacity of purpose towards National Institute of Management, Appeaser and a stimulating paternal bond extended to the participants Of I Tit Mid Career Management Course (MAC) has left a permanent and pleasant impression on my mind. I am grateful to Mira Khalid’s Main who being my Faculty Advisor for the paper guided me so well that have been able to compile the study in limited time.
Always on hand when needed, he constantly encouraged and appreciated my humble efforts towards my assignment, I acknowledge his commitment towards his duties and valuable support extended during the implosion of this Research Paper. I can safely regard him as a future intellectual in the making; his efforts are bound to impart guidance to the future generation of students to come and shall prove an asset to MIM, Appeaser. Also owe my gratitude to Dry.
Faustian Raman in his capacity as our Chief Instructor, whose unbound able knowledge and experience, in nearly every field of management proved a guiding beacon for me. I also owe to Dry. Sneakier Hyatt Directing Staff (Research ) MIM Lahore, for delivering a guided lecture on Research Methodology and his Research Methods Manual which will be my guiding icon on conducting NY research work in future besides Kafka Zamia, a member of the Faculty and Mr.. Shaded of computer lab MIM for their cooperation. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Water Crisis is a global phenomenon Which needs special attention.
This form of crisis is increasingly spreading and the main targeted nations are the developing countries. Pakistan being a developing country is already enshrouded with this problem. The desert of Tear, the length and breadth of Balloonists, the dry lands of Kinds are already facing water crisis which is being added to by the areas comprising Southern Punjab, some parts of Kinds and KIP through Appleton of ground water, water logging and salinity besides other factors including climatic changes occurring globally at a very high pace.
The World’s Glaciers are melting at a very high pace and the global temperature is rising at an alarming level due to accumulation of Carbon dioxide which is a heat absorbent. This green house effect which entraps heat from the Sun and depletion to Ozone layers at the poles has resulted in the entrapment of Sun Heat, This state of Affair has created a situation which is getting out to hand it appropriate measures are not taken in the near future, The study of water crisis in this research paper has costly been limited to Pakistan as per requirement of the topic at hand.
A critical review of the water crisis in the country has been given along with the available resources of water. The per capita decrease in water resources since 1947 mostly due to population growth and wastage, clearly indicates that efforts on war footing are mandatory to curb this dangerous trend in the continuous increase in shortage of water available to the masses in general otherwise Water Resources will become yet another thorn in the development of the country which has already infested many a projects in the field turning them into political issues.
All efforts have been made to recommend the methods to avoid water wastage through efficient water management; a portion has also been dedicated to give plausible reasons to increase awareness that the objections to new dams by the provinces are mostly unfounded and misguiding. This Research paper shall be a guiding factor for the future managers of the country to deal the water crisis problem in the most appropriate way depending on the severity Of the problem in the future which is already gaining momentum and is expected to be one of the main problems of the country in the near future.
TABLE OF CONTENTS p REFACE i i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iv INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the problem 1 Research Questions 2 Scope of the Study: 2 Review of Literature: 3 Methodology 3 Organization of paper: 3 SECTION 1 5 WATER CRISIS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE 5 1. 1 UN Report 2006 on Global Water Crisis 6 1. 2 World Climatic Changes effects on Water Crisis. 6 SECTION 2 8 WATER CRISIS IN PAKISTAN 8 2. 1 Seminar on Water Crisis and its solutions on 17th Maharajahs 2. 2 World Bank and Asian Development Bank Reports 9 2. Reasons for Water Crisis in Pakistan 9 2. 4 Flooding due to Non Controlling of River Indus through Dams. 10 2. 41 Drought in Pakistan 11 . 42 Water Crisis has resulted in Energy Crisis. 11 2. 5 Indus Water Treaty in the Historical Perspective. 12 2. 51 Salient Features of Indus Water Treaty: 13 SECTION 3 16 WATER RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN 16 3. 1 Surface Water Resources of Pakistan. 16 3. 2 Ground water 17 3. 3 V-true Plans for Dams: 19 3. 4 Water Utilization. 0 AS Clarification of Misconception by Experts of Water Management 21 CONCLUSIONS 23 RECOMMENDATIONS 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY 28 INTRODUCTION The Government of Islamic Republic of Pakistan is fully conscious of working standard of its organs as to meet the international standardized requirements ND of effective methodology to combat the requisites for achieving the intended goals Of public policy; and feels that on job and off job training is the sole tool to polish the skills of its functionaries and enhancing their capabilities for comprehending the ever changing requirements Of public demands and for extending the services delivery therefore the National Institutes of Management in the major cities Of the Country have been entrusted With gigantic task of training Civil Servants in field of Modern Management and Public Policy procedures.
The Mid Career Management Course is one of the leading steps n this direction being taken up by the National Institutes of Management in Appeaser and Major Cities of Pakistan in general. This impartation of training at the mid career level shall enable the Government of Pakistan to achieve its goals for enhancing the method and techniques of comprehensive, complete, concise, coherent and collaborative writings; The Faculty has been gracious enough to allow me an opportunity to write a Research Paper on the topic,” Water Crisis visa-;-vii Water Resources of Pakistan and Suggestions for Workable Solutions. ” which is a comprehensive study of the depletion fatter resources in
Pakistan resulting in water Crisis in the Country and the need arising to deal with the problem in a scientific and methodological manner with empirical means and high grade data availability to stop the problem in the making before it overwhelms engulfs our country with unmanageable consequences. Statement of the problem The intent of this study is to discuss the water crisis being faced by Pakistan and explore the sustainability Of water management projects by checking the adaptability and accountability of the people and Government of Pakistan With reference to mismanagement of water resource use on the one hand and ending out the elements of construction of the dams,’ Reservoirs on various rivers Of Pakistan through water resource management.
This Will be done by discussing the various resources and dams constructed or are planned to be constructed and plausible solutions of increasing water resources to meet the severe shortfall of this resource which is becoming a matter of Life and death for the People of Pakistan, This research paper is expected to bring out awareness among the masses regarding the continuous drain on this resource whose future seems to be quite bleak if nothing is done when there is time to curb the gelignite’s being meted out by both the Government of Pakistan as well as the general masses who are creating barriers to progress in the field for the sake of petty politics and negative propaganda by the vested interest groups who have their own small axe to grind neglecting the essentialist to water availability for Agricultural use, the back bone of our national GAP but also fresh water for usage of the general population of Pakistan Research Questions * Extent of Water crisis existing in Pakistan in the Global and Historical perspective? ;k How is the decision taken to build such infrastructures? What are the different water resources available to exploit to overcome the crisis which is expected to be increased with the growth in population and development of Pakistan? k What are plausible workable solutions to Water crisis in view of the various dangers arising from gee-strategic location of Pakistan and the continuous threat being imposed by our Eastern neighbor India as well as mismanagement Of Water resources Scope Of the Study: The study of this topic is not only extremely desirable and important but also the need Of the hour Which cannot be ignored or set aside as another robber plaguing the country like prevailing energy crisis or political instability in the country as it shall have deep consequences if left unattended as it shall lead to severe conflicts within the boundaries of the country as well with the neighboring countries. Pakistan has already fought a war with India and had to suffer through the stoppages of the 3 important tributaries of River Indus the backbone of water resource available in the Country. From the study conducted it is clear that Pakistan solo efforts may not be fruitful and the cooperation of developed countries and neighboring countries like Afghanistan, China and India is very essential under the emerging scenario therefore requiring the nation tort enhancing cooperation on this terrible. Ins development of global and internal water crisis which is a monster in the waiting for the survival of future generations. Review of Literature: A number of experts have been consulted directly and have gone their various research papers. The research papers of Engineer Hussein Madam President Pakistan Engineering Congress and Engineer Abdul Wabash member of the Pakistan Engineering Council Think Tank subcommittee on Water Crisis as well as Energy crisis mounted a great help in the formulation of this research paper An International Journal of Water Resources,” Towards Power Alleviation: The Water Sector Perspectives,” also proved quite informative besides material found on the internet web sites relating to water crisis.
Commissioner on Indus Water Treaty Seed Jams All Shah views In a seminar held at Pearl Continental Hotel Lahore on March 17, 2010 Organized by the ‘Insane Welfare Society of Pakistan” also gave me enough food to ponder on to compile the Research Paper however the personal interview with some of the experts in the field were great help in the clarifications of some negative ideas spread by miscreants against the instruction of various dams in the country. Methodology This paper does not employ one research method but a combination of descriptive, analytical, qualitative and quantitative methods i. E i) Data collection from various sources. Ii) Visits & discussions with experts iii) Internet surfing iv) Review of relevant literature in MIM library. ) Analytical approach Organization of paper: This paper comprises of 3 sections, the first section discusses water crisis in general on level including the regions comprising Pakistan, the second section discusses the water crisis in Pakistan and its various reasons including the Indus Water Treaty due to Pakistanis geographical location with respect to India from where 3 of the main rivers enter Pakistanis territory. The third Section deals with the available Water resources in Pakistan including various dam reservoirs, regional water capacity, water utilization and existing misconceptions which has become the main reason for erecting hurdles in the building of large dams and addressing the issues of water crisis in Pakistan.
SECTION 1 WATER CRISIS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Water crisis is a term used for shortage of water resources in global perspective. The term is used for worldwide water scarcity by the United Nations and Other world organizations like Food and Agriculture Organization. The major aspects of the water crisis are the overall scarcity of water worldwide and increase of water pollution due to man created cast atrophic environment like industrial waste, chemical wastes, nuclear and biological pollutants etc. Which are dump in the oceans, rivers and on the surface or underground thus directly polluting the fresh water natural reservoirs. The developing world, as a whole, faces water scarcity more than the developed world (World Water Commission, 2000),
Lawrence Smith, the president of the population institute, asserts that although an overwhelming majority of the planet is composed of water, of this water is constituted to saltwater; with only as thwarter used to sustain humans. Therefore, Smith believes that the competition for water in an overpopulated world would pose a major threat to human stability; world wars may be fought over the control of water resources, It has been estimated that some AS per cent of the world’s population live in regions facing water-stress: by 2025 it will increase to AS per cent (Henries et al. I egg cited in Bib, 2004). The Earth as a limited supply of fresh avatar, stored in aquifers, surface waters and the atmosphere.
About 884 million people access to safe drinking water and water for sanitation and waste disposal for 2. 5 billion people is not enough. Pollution and overuse Of water resources is is bound to harm biodiversity. Waterborne diseases and non-availability of clean domestic water are one of the leading causes Of death worldwide. Drought increases the problem Of safe water supply, but it is the imprudent actions of humans that have rendered the human population vulnerable to the devastation of major droughts. Water is the only source that cannot be generated, it can only be preserved. Farsighted nations are conserving water because of the awareness that if this commodity is not prudently preserved, the human survival itself would be jeopardized. 1. UN Report 2006 on Global water Crisis A 2006 united Nations report focuses on the issue of water crisis stating is enough water for everyone,” and “Water insufficiency is often due to corruption, mismanagement, lack of appropriate institutions, bureaucratic inertia and a shortage to investment in both human capacity and physical infrastructure”, Official data also shows a clear correlation between access to fee water and GAP per capita. Water shortages, are already causing heavy grain imports in many smaller and third world countries.. The water tables are falling in scores of countries due to widespread over pumping and droughts. The affected countries include Pakistan, Iran, and Mexico. This state of affairs will eventually lead to water scarcity and decrease in grain harvest. If the population growth is not slowed down quickly it is feared that there may not be a practical solution to the emerging world water shortage.
According to CINE report on world climate, the Himalayan glaciers that produces and are the sources of Sais’s biggest rivers Ganges, Indus, Apparatus, Yanking, Mekong, Salesmen and Yellow – could disappear by 2350. Approximately 2. 4 billion people who live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan Rivers which include people living in Pakistan India, China, Nepal, Manner and Bangladesh can suffer from floods followed by droughts in the coming decades. 1. 2 World Climatic Changes effects on Water Crisis. Climatic Changes has a major role in water crisis Pakistan is facing. Global warming is leading to the melting of the Himalayan glaciers and as a result depleting the flow of water into the Indus River system.
This trend is Will continue with the rising temperature which is going to further aggravate the present water crisis in the future, This shortage of water resources is going to severely affect the regions of Appalachians Province, Kinds and Cyber Pupation Chaw Province where there is already a water shortage and simple drinking water is hard to find, This state to affairs will not only damage the agriculture sector but also further aggravate the already short power-generation output from the hydroelectric plants, having a dangerous impact on the country’s industries as well. SECTION 2 WATER CRISIS IN PAKISTAN Pakistan a country of abundant water resources is now facing a severe avatar crisis due to unbridled increase in population and wasteful technique of farming combine to reduce the availability of water.
According to a study done last year by the U. S. -based Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars one third Of Pakistanis 1 75 million population lack safe drinking water and approximately 630 children reportedly die each day from diarrhea and Other waterborne diseases, Engineer Hussein Madam, President Pakistan Engineering Congress, presently working as Director General Research, Senate Of Pakistan, Islamabad, Whose Research works have been duly published and recognized, states, “Nature blessed Pakistan abundantly with the most important resource of water but we failed to take care of it, the most feared water shortage event has at last hit Pakistan. Which is nothing unexpected. The manner in which we have handled our natural resources and national affairs, this catastrophic occurrence was bound to come. Due to the nature’s gift of water blessings upon Pakistan has always been envied by the world at large, When Pakistan attained its independence in 1947 approximately 5000 cue/m of water was available for each tizzy, Which has now been come Devon to I OHO cue/m because of fast population groom and no planning. ” 2. 1 Seminar on Water Crisis and its solutions on 1 7th Monarchic In a seminar held at pearl Continental Hotel Lahore on March 1 7, 2010 organized by the ‘Insane Welfare Society of Pakistan. Commissioner on Indus Water Treaty Seed Jams All Shah pressed on the need for construction of maximum dams and reservoirs in the country in order to save water and resolve water issues, which is essential for increasing the meager 30 days contingency reserves which puts us at the mercy of India in case India decides to stop our eater resources for any catastrophic reasons, Mm All stated that due to unavailability of sufficient number of dams and reservoirs not less than 26 map of water is being wasted every year where as the Indus delta needs only 4. 32 map per annum. The capacity of present reservoirs and dams is insufficient as well because silt was decreasing their storage capacity and it was the main Obligation of the Government to construct maximum number of dams in order to save water not only for the sake Of producing energy but also saving agriculture sector of the country. 2. 2 World Bank and Asian Development Bank Reports
The World Bank (WEB) and Asian Development Bank (DAB) has declared Pakistan as one of the most ‘Water stressed” countries in the world and has predicted that it shall face an acute water shortage over the next S years due to shortage of water availability for irrigation, industry and human use. The WEB report further states that water supply in Pakistan has fallen from 5,000 cubic meters per capita to 11000 cubic meters in 2010, and is likely to further go down to 800 cubic meters per capita by 2020. The factors which are contributing to the shortage are increase in population, Climate change, No solid vision to construct water services, use of Shells and Chance rivers by India under the Indus Water Treaty (TWIT) of 1960 which has reduced the flow of water in Pakistan. 2. Reasons tort Water Crisis in Pakistan The water crisis in Pakistan exists due to the following reasons: a) The leadership of Pakistan could not develop a consensus on the construction of large water reservoir, particularly the Calabash dam that would have dealt with water crisis which we are facing today. B) The Pakistani nation is divided and nearly every province is in dispute over the share of beater under the TWIT especially over the utilizing the water for Karri and Rabbi seasons through ink canals managed by the Indus River System Authority (IRIS). C) Kinds Government has demanded the abandonment of the hydrophone project on Schumacher link canal, a project Which is very essential for the future of Punjab Province due to the wrong perception among the Government of Kinds that this project would constrict flow Of water and hurt the agriculture Of Kinds Province. ) Punjab was accused of cutting down 16000 cusses of water between Taunts and GUID by the Government of Kinds where as Government of Punjab blames the system losses for the water that disappeared. E) Due to eater slit, stony debris, rain water flowing from and through the mountains, flash floods carry along slit mostly due to deforestation thus choking our dams. Water wastage and land destruction caused due to seepage of canals, water courses, rivers etc, g) Old antiquated and traditional techniques of irrigation lead to excessive loss of water. H) The Water Treaty between India and Pakistan know as “Indus Water Treaty’ has contributed a lot to the water crisis in the Country. 2. 4 Flooding due to Non Controlling to River Indus through Dams. The absence of policies of conserving and storing water has resulted in keeping the
Indus open to flooding. Ala Khan an expert in water management has described the recent flooding in Pakistan as follows. *The worst monsoon-related floods in recent memory” are the words used by LINE for the recent historical floods in Pakistan The River Indus or also known as Kinds River, once gave life to the cradle of history earliest civilizations, devastated the same land to which it gave birth. The force of the floods has washed away some of the ancient remains that reminded us the history of the Indus basin dating back to thousands of years. The heavy toll of life both in terms of human, animals and wild life was another catastrophic disaster.
Approximately 12 percent of the entire population which is more than 12 million people suffered and are still suffering from the historical floods. Some 160,000 square kilometers which is 20 % of Pakistanis total landmass, has inundated. More than 10 hundred homes have been destroyed or badly damaged. Some 50 million acres of the agriculture land had standing crops out Of Which, more than 10 million acres Of the standing crops, mainly sugarcane and cotton the cash crops of the country, have been destroyed or severely damage. Mr.. Ala Khan further states that apart from global warning, the woo main factors for this unmitigated disaster were the fragile infrastructure and drastic deforestation.
Due to unplanned cutting of forests it has reduced from 28 percent of Pakistan territory in 1947 to 2. 3 percent today. After the worst flood (2010) in Pakistan, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Wausau Razz Gillian, confessed that the devastation of flood would be less if Calabash dam was built. 2. 4. 1 Drought in Pakistan There was a severe drought which hit Pakistan from 1997 to 2002 due to a phenomenon also known as the Liana effect which resulted in stoppage of rains ND drought thus exposing our country to its wrath due to reduced storage capacity of water reservoirs. Water supplies are falling globally whereas the demand for water is increasing continuously at an unsustainable rate.
This increasing in demand of water resources shows that the average supply fatter worldwide per person is expected to drop by a third over the next 20 years, At Present, many countries are already in a state of crises. As Pakistan is also the part of the world and unfortunately a developing country, is facing the same problems of water deficiency, like the rest of the world. The developed countries, contrary to Pakistan, are continuously putting in action short-term and long-term water development policies and implementing various techniques, to overcome these crises. Pakistan could only built 2 big reservoirs over the last 60 years Which is an unfortunate for the country in the short and long run. 2. 4. 2 Water Crisis has resulted in Energy Crisis.
Due to shortage of water and bad planning besides a number of other reasons the Government has resorted to other methods of getting energy which has created a severe shortage of energy coupled with expensive electricity which as literally destroyed our industry and has send the country into a spiral of economical turmoil which may take years to recover from plunging our country into the dark ages to backwardness whereas on the other hand nearly all our neighbors minus Afghanistan which has been torn why decades of insurgencies and wars have crossed into the 21st century whereas we are lagging behind waiting for some miracle, Conversion from a cheap source of hydro electricity i. E dams to an expensive source of thermal power has caused the country great economic problems. The figure below shall give a complete picture of the ramification of Pakistan electricity requirement from a cheap source to a very expensive source thus heavily burdening our already fragile economy. 2. Indus Water Treaty in the Historical Perspective. With creation of Pakistan India controlled 3 of the 5 Rivers of Punjab which stopped the water supply to our canals feeding the eastern districts of the United Punjab and the Plural State. This arbitrary action ruined our part of Punjabi cultivated land. This adversely affected the economy Of Pakistan and famine loomed over the country this forced us to mobile our resources. The search or alternate arrangements to sustain our mainly agrarian economy started. The construction of small dams on our rivers like Warsaw on Kabul and Aortas on Shells were taken up With the help Of Commonwealth nations.
In pursuance of Pakistanis manipulation of water resources policy in 1960 a treaty between Pakistan and India was signed which was mediated with help of World Bank. This treaty is widely known as the “Indus Basin Treaty”. 2. 5. 1 Salient Features of Indus Water Treaty: 1. Three eastern rivers, Rave, Settle and Baas to given over to India with some minor rights to Pakistan. 2. Three of the western rivers namely Indus, Chance and Shells remained with Pakistan. 3. Under the treaty allowed to use water trot the western rivers tort irrigation purpose. India was already irrigating 642,000 acres of land from these rivers however it was given entitlement to irrigate another 701 ,OHO acres of agriculture land. 4.
Entitlement for some storage for the purpose of power and flood controls was also given to India, S, Pakistanis requirement was to be fulfilled through construction of replacement works from the western rivers to replacing the canals from eastern rivers, 6, The treaty provided for regular exchange flow data of rivers, canals and streams in each other territory. 7 _ An Indus Water Commission, with one Commissioner from each side, was to be set up to resolve issues. 8. Set procedures were spelt out to settle “Questions” “Differences” and “Disputes” between the two countries through Neutral Experts and International Court of Arbitration. 9. As Pakistan needed time to build the required infrastructure India was to allow the “Historic Withdrawals” during the transitory period. 0. For the two large multipurpose dams on Indus and Jelled Pakistan proposed sites at Calabash and Aortas Mangle),later the Dam site was changed to Travel instead of Calabash. It also decided to make barrages like Sideman on River Rave, Moral and Quadrant on River Chance, Chasm on River Indus, Ursula on River Shells, and Mails on River Settle. A Siphon and 7 link canals (Ursula. Quadrant on Rivers Shells and Chance, Quadrant–Balloon on Rivers Chance and Rave, Balloon-Salesman’s II and Sideman-Mails on Rivers Rave and Settle, Chasm-Shells on Rivers Indus and Shells, Tritium-Sideman on Rivers Indus and Rave to be constructed in Pakistan.