This essay provides a critical analysis of a 10-minute AV entering transcript ( appendix 1 ) of an interview with a service user in a fake function drama. This is non a existent interview, but portion of a pupil assignment. All names used in this recording transcript are fabricated and therefore there are no issues refering confidentiality.
The essay comprises two parts. In Part 1, Kolb ‘s Learning Cycle ( Kolb, 1984 ) will be utilised to reflect upon the interview. In Part 2, the ASPIRE Model ( Parker and Bradley, 2003 ) will be utilised to sketch how farther work with this service user would be approached. Kolb ‘s Learning Cycle and the ASPIRE Model will both be briefly outlined within the appropriate subdivision.
Part 1: Contemplation and Critical Analysis
Kolb ‘s Learning Cycle, which will be used to reflect upon and critically analyze the interview, comprises four phases of larning from experience: Concrete Experience ( i.e. active engagement in an experience ) ; Brooding Observation ( i.e. reviewing and reflecting on the experience ) ; Abstract Conceptualisation ( i.e. concluding and acquisition from the experience ) ; and, Active Experimentation ( i.e. planning and seeking what has been learned ) . Each of these phases will be used in this contemplation and review.
A fake function drama interview was conducted with ‘Paul Jones, ‘ a 60-year old who contacted the grownup societal work squad to discourse the possibility of some aid. Paul is the exclusive carer of his 92-year old male parent, James. Paul has been happening it progressively hard to care for James, who spends all twenty-four hours on the couch and does non even travel upstairs to his bed at dark. James became this manner shortly after the decease of his girl 1-month antecedently. She died of malignant neoplastic disease non long after Paul and James lost Paul ‘s female parent and James ‘ married woman to a bosom onslaught, 6-months antecedently. Their lone relation is Paul ‘s boy, who lives up North and is unable to see on a regular basis. The full instance survey can be found in appendix 2.
The intent of the interview was to work collaboratively with Paul in set uping his current demands. With the exclusion of the beginning of the interview when I was nervous and happening background noise distracting, I communicated in a clear and gracious mode. These accomplishments are of import when set uping resonance with a service user, puting the foundations to develop common regard and trust ( Koprowska, 2005 ) . After some debuts and the scene of boundaries sing confidentiality, I placed the interview docket into Paul ‘s control with the appropriate usage of the open-ended inquiry, “ What has bought you here today? ” By recognizing the power instability nowadays between societal workers and service users, I was aware to cut down the oppressive impact of hierarchy ( Dalrymple and Burke, 2000 ) . The inquiry did, nevertheless, seem to faze Paul and he passed the inquiry back by inquiring “ Well, I ‘m non certain how much you know? ” I informed him that “ I do cognize a small spot. . . ” and so gently encouraged him to supply me with some more information. On contemplation, I should hold clarified with Paul why needed the information once more ( i.e. to corroborate truth of inside informations ) . He was clearly uncomfortable with reiterating the information, perchance due to a old opposition to seeking outside aid. I was focused on arousing information from Paul first-hand to forestall any premises being made, but should hold adapted my attack based on Paul ‘s demands.
A cardinal strength within the interview was the effectual usage of empathetic apprehension, which appeared to set Paul at easiness. Statements such as, “ This must hold been a really hard clip for you ” and appropriate usage of oculus contact and organic structure linguistic communication conveyed empathy, congruity ( genuineness ) , and unconditioned positive respect. These are three core conditions required in person-centred guidance ( Rogers, 1980 ) . I feel that by using these accomplishments within the interview, Paul was able to talk openly about his concerns. Indeed, grounds suggests that congruity supports anti-oppressive pattern by easing the development of a partnership ( Miller, 2006 ) .
Paul sought aid under the premiss that it was for James, but with the appropriate usage of open-ended and closed inquiries it was established that he needed aid excessively. The demands of the carer are far excessively frequently overlooked within societal attention ( Herring, 2006 ) , but I ensured I gained a balanced accretion of information on both Paul and James in order to set up both of their demands. Systems Theory ( Bronfenbrenner, 1977 ) purports that in order to understand an person, they need to be assessed in footings of their interactions with their environment and within their relationships.
By the terminal of the interview, a shared apprehension had been reached, every bit good as a program of action in footings of set uping a place visit and reaching Citizen ‘s Advice to discourse fiscal concerns. Therefore, the initial purpose of the interview was met.
When discoursing his jobs, Paul was really unfastened and extroverted, as was facilitated by the usage of non-verbal encouragers such as nodding and tilting somewhat frontward to demo involvement ( Seden, 1999 ) . He was, nevertheless, resistant to foster outside aid such as from his GP or a counselor. I was careful non to judge Paul on this and to remind myself that there are a figure of grounds why he might be immune ( e.g. old negative experiences with wellness professionals ; household belief systems, etc. ) . Interestingly Paul did portion that James would besides be immune to outside aid, bespeaking the possibility that seeking aid is non portion of the household belief system. It was of import that I did non oppress Paul or James by “ sabotaging their duties for the picks they make ” ( Dominelli, 2002, p.47 ) .
On contemplation, I should hold been more understanding of Paul ‘s troubles accepting aid and adjusted my attack consequently. In peculiar, if I was to carry on this interview once more, I would alter the manner I responded to Paul ‘s concerns that, “ I am merely worried that I am traveling to lose it with my pa ” and “ I frequently find things shuting in on me. . . ” I should hold probed these concerns farther, as has been highlighted in my feedback, in order to set up whether Paul was a danger to himself or James. One of the cardinal functions within the National Occupational Standards for Social Work is to “ Manage hazard to persons, households, carers, groups, communities, ego and co-workers ” ( GSCC, 2002, p.12 ) . Paul ‘s feelings of desperation were mentioned on more than one juncture and, on contemplation, I should hold detected this as a possible hazard factor.
I feel I was effectual in my usage of paraphrasing, as used to clear up issues and show active hearing. However, greater usage of summarizing might hold facilitated communicating and ensured that information provided by Paul was being interpreted harmonizing to his ain subjective experiences ( Seden, 1999 ) . I will endeavor to develop these accomplishments throughout my preparation.
Bronfenbrenner, U. , 1977. Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, pp.513-530.
Dalrymple, J. and Burke, B. , 1995. Anti-oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Dominelli, L. , 2002. Anti-Oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
General Social Care Council, 2002. The National Occupational Standards for Social Work. Topss England, April 2004.
Herring, J. , 2006. Where are the carers in health care jurisprudence and moralss? Legal Studies, 27 ( 1 ) , pp. 51-73.
Kolb, D.A. , 1984. ‘Experiential Learning experience as a beginning of larning and development ‘ . New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Koprowska, J. , 2005. Communication and interpersonal accomplishments in societal work. Exeter: Learning Matters
Miller, L. , 2006. Reding Skills for Social Work. London: Sage Publications.
Parker, J. and Bradley, G. , 2003. Social Work Practice: Appraisal, Planning, Intervention, and Review. Exeter: Learning Matters.
Rogers, C.R. , 1980. A manner of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Seden, J. , 1999. Reding accomplishments in societal work pattern. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Part 2 – Further Work with the Jones Family
The acronym ASPIRE represents the societal work procedure of Assess, Plan, Intervene, Review, and Evaluate, which enables the geographic expedition of successfully operationalising a program made with a service user ( Parker and Bradley, 2003 ) . Adopting this model besides encapsulates the 4th phase of Kolb ‘s Learning Cycle: Active Experimentation. Importantly, supervising would be required in any interviews since I am a freshly qualified Social Worker. Furthermore, the part of regular and high quality supervising in the societal work profession has been emphasised ( Crippling, 2009 ) .
If the instance of the Jones household was allocated to me after this initial appraisal, I would take an eclectic attack, utilizing the ASPIRE model to steer intercession bringing. An eclectic attack would be adopted in order to guarantee that Paul and James ‘ single demands were taken into consideration. I would be unable to place the most appropriate attack to utilize without first meeting with James, therefore an eclectic attack would ease flexibleness between service user demands.
Assessment would take topographic point within the place, therefore following a person-in-environment position ( Kemp et al. , 1997 ) . Importantly, supervising would be required in any interviews since I am a freshly qualified Social Worker. Systems Theory posits that in order to understand a service user, their ecological system needs to be taken into consideration ( Bronfenbrenner, 1977 ) . This includes their microsystem ( i.e. immediate relationships ) , mesosystem ( i.e. different parts of the microsystem working together ) , exosystem ( i.e. systems that the person is non straight portion of but that affects them ) , macrosystem ( i.e. the larger societal universe, such as authorities and civilization ) , and their chronosystem ( i.e. a system of alteration ) . The principle for using this theory is that the current jobs experienced by Paul and James appear to be related to recent alterations within his microsystem. This includes the loss of two household members, altering wellness position ( i.e. James has gained weight, has emphysema, and is going less nomadic ) , altering functions ( i.e. Paul is now exclusive carer to James ) , and a alteration in their relationship. Bell ( 2003 ) asserts that it is easier to understand an person ‘s behavior in the scene in which it occurs, which is the attack I feel most appropriate within this scenario. Family relationships are complex and competently described by Dallos ( 1991 ) as, “ The kernel of household life is that it is complex and altering and that alone state of affairss and combinations of demands continually originate ” ( p.7 ) . Therefore, effectual support for single members requires the use of theory and cognition that assesses their demands within the household context.
An apprehension of demands and resources is of import when working from the systems position, an apprehension which the theory itself lacks to underscore ( Coady and Lehman, 2008 ) . For the Jones household, demands within their life include mourning, deteriorating wellness, and fiscal concerns. In footings of resources, they are reasonably stray and, despite originating this interview, they are both immune to outside aid, which besides limits their resources. This provides the principle for using a Task-Centered, job work outing attack in the intervening phase of the ASPIRE model. The grounds suggests that such an attack is appropriate for covering with household jobs, new functions, and unwellness or mourning ( Reid, 1978 ) . Paul mentioned a figure of jobs, both personally and in relation to James, and therefore easing him to place the cause of these jobs would be a utile enterprise in assisting him undertake them. By utilizing a job work outing attack within a collaborative partnership with the household, I would expect that it would heighten their capacity to cover with future jobs if they were to originate ( Germain and Gitterman, 1996, p.139 ) . In bend, educating Paul on the usage of job resolution schemes would move to forestall farther subjugation by supplying him with tools he can use in other countries of his life ( Coulshed and Orne, 1998 ) .
A job I identified during the function drama, but which would necessitate to be confirmed via a shared reading with Paul and James, is that Paul could accidentally be conspiring with James ‘ detachment. For illustration, by go forthing his tiffin next to the couch so that he does non hold to travel, Paul is making dependence. Thompson ( 2001 ) suggests that when working with carers, it is of import non to promote them in a function that could ensue in dependence and therefore farther oppress the individual being cared for. This would necessitate to be attended to sensitively and without doing offense to Paul. One such manner of accomplishing this is via the job work outing attack to assist Paul recognize this for himself. Indeed, “ alteration is easier if the waies that professionals and users wish to follow coincide ” ( Dominelli, 2002, p.25 ) .
In working with Paul and James, great consideration would be needed in footings of mourning. It sounds like James might be sing depression associated with one of the purported phases of mourning ( Kubler-Ross, 1989 ) . In add-on, Paul might be in the choler phase or perchance unable to treat his feelings due to the emphasis of taking attention of his male parent and worrying about fundss. Their current jobs are likely to impede them both making a period of ‘restoration orientation, ‘ where they can concentrate on constructing their hereafter after their loss ( Worden, 2003 ) . In order to ease a move towards Restoration orientation, I would work with the strengths possessed by Paul and James to guarantee anti-oppressive focal point is maintained ( Parker and Bradley, 2003 ) .
There has been some review to Systems Theory, including that it lacks theoretical and empirical support in pattern state of affairss ( Healy, 2005 ) . Overall, nevertheless, the intent of the theory is to work with service users in a manner that enhances and strengthens their abilities to accommodate and work out jobs, which finally provides long-run results instead than short-run solutions. The cardinal function of societal work, as agreed internationally, is the publicity of “ societal alteration, job resolution in human relationships and the authorization and release of people to heighten well-being ” ( GSCC, 2002, p.12 ) , and I anticipate that the theories and attacks outlined supra would ease the authorization and release of the Jones household.
In order to efficaciously run into the demands of the Jones household, it will be indispensable to carry on the reappraisal and rating phase of the ASPIRE theoretical account in order to supply closing, implement any extra intercessions, and develop my ain accomplishments and abilities through contemplation and critical analysis.