This survey deals with the public-service corporation of human development theory in understanding practical societal work issues. It takes up the instance of the Murray household ( provided in the appendix to this essay ) and utilizing the household as a base, efforts to use different facets of human development theory in a practical existent life scenario.
The survey is divided into five specific subdivisions. The first subdivision briefly describes the fortunes of the Murray household. This is followed by the application of two theories of human development, ( a ) Erik Erikson ‘s psychosocial development theory and Bronfenbrenner ‘s Ecological Model of Human Development, to understand kid and grownup development, ( B ) the ways in which political and societal procedures influence human development, ( degree Celsius ) the function of inequalities in human development, and ( vitamin D ) the ways in which theories of human development underpin societal work cognition and values.
The Murray household scenario is elaborated in item in the appendix to this survey and is therefore being taken up briefly here.
Jack ( 43 ) and Evelyn ( 36 ) Murray stay with their girl Lora ( 6 ) and Evelyn ‘s female parent Doris ( 71 ) . Jack has two other boies, Seb ( 17 ) and David ( 15 ) , who live individually. Jack Murray was an adoptive kid. He was brought up by parents who were unfastened about his adoptive position and has ne’er shown any disposition to follow his biological parents.
Jack has alcohol related jobs and is prone towards domestic force. Evelyn has been hurt and that excessively severely, in the recent yesteryear. Lora is making good in school and is cared for by Doris, who is nevertheless going frail.
She had to be placed in an exigency Foster attention environment during her summer vacations, even as her female parent made usage of a adult females ‘s shelter to get away the troubles of her place. Doris worries about being separated from her granddaughter and household if she were to travel to a attention place. All household members have expressed their willingness to work with a societal worker.
Erik Erikson ‘s theory of human development was foremost advanced in 1950 and has been significantly augmented in ulterior old ages ( Brenman-Gibson, 1997, p 329 ) . Erikson ‘s psychosocial theory provinces that life can be segregated into 8 phases from birth to decease, which comprise of ( a ) babyhood ( birth to 18 months ) , ( B ) early childhood ( 18 months to 3 old ages ) , ( degree Celsius ) drama age ( 3 to 5 old ages ) , ( vitamin D ) school age ( 5 to 12 old ages ) , ( vitamin E ) adolescence ( 12 to 18 old ages ) , ( degree Fahrenheit ) immature maturity ( 18 to 35 old ages ) , ( g ) middle maturity ( 35 to 55 or 65 old ages ) and ( H ) tardily maturity ( 55 or 65 to decease ) ( Brenman-Gibson, 1997, p 329 ) .
Each of Erikson ‘s 8 phases involves a crisis that is characterised by two opposing emotional forces. Infancy, for case, involves trust V misgiving and is characterised by the attention of the female parent for a kid with an accent on touch and ocular contact ( Christiansen & A ; Palkovitz, 1998, p 133 ) . Successful passage through this period consequences in persons larning to swear in life and to hold assurance in the hereafter, even as jobs during this period can take to feelings of ineptitude and misgiving ( Christiansen & A ; Palkovitz, 1998, p 133 ) .
The school age of 6 to 12 old ages is likewise characterised by the opposing forces of industry and lower status ( Brenman-Gibson, 1997, p 331 ) . Persons are capable of acquisition, edifice and accomplishing legion accomplishments and cognition during this period, thereby developing feelings of industry. This phase of development can besides take to the experiencing of feelings of lower status and insufficiency with equals and consequence in jobs of ego regard and competency ( Brenman-Gibson, 1997, p 331 ) .
Erikson ‘s doctrine remainders on two of import subjects, viz. ( a ) that the universe enlarges as people go along, and ( B ) that failure is cumulative ( Douvan, 1997, p 16 ) . The first subject is incontestable. Whilst the second is problematic, it is true that kids who have to perforce trade with hard fortunes find it disputing to negociate ulterior phases in their lives in comparing with others ( Douvan, 1997, p 16 ) . Assorted surveies have revealed that kids who were non stroked as babies find it hard to link with others in their maturity. Erikson ‘s theory of human development has gained broad credence and is frequently used as a model for understanding the nature of issues that lead to current behavior and to fix for the coming phases ( Douvan, 1997, p 16 ) .
The analysis of the Murray household members reveal that Jack Murray could hold suffered from deficiency of stroking in his babyhood, particularly up to his acceptance at the age of 6 months. This could hold resulted in entrenched feelings of ineptitude and inclinations to distrust the universe. Such feelings, along with his experience of turning up as an adoptive kid, may hold inculcated feelings of low ego regard and be causal in his current imbibing jobs. Whilst Lora has grown up in the presence of fond parents and a loving grandma, she is now come ining the school age and the coming 6 old ages will enlarge her contact with the universe, where parents whilst still of import will non be the complete governments they have been until decease.
The application of Erikson ‘s theory of human development helps societal workers in understanding the assorted influences that persons experience in the class of their lives and the functions of such influences in steering their current behavior and their emotional and societal attitudes ( Raeff & A ; Benson, 2003, p 61 ) .
Bronfenbrenner ‘s ecological theoretical account was foremost introduced in the early 1970s. His general ecological theoretical account is defined by 2 propositions ( Brendtro, 2006, p 162 ) . The first proposition provinces that human development, specifically in the early stages but besides throughout life, occurs through procedures that increasingly become more complex and affect mutual interaction between active and germinating worlds, who are bio-psychological in their attack, and the people, objects, and symbols in their immediate environment ( Brendtro, 2006, p 162 ) . Such interaction, when it occurs over drawn-out clip periods, on a regular footing are termed as proximal procedures and can be found in activities between parent and kids, kids and kids, and lone or group drama, every bit good as in reading, acquiring to cognize new accomplishments and executing complex and hard undertakings ( Brendtro, 2006, p 162 ) .
The 2nd proposition provinces that the power, content, signifier and way of these proximal procedures influence development in a varying mode on history of the features of developing persons ( Brendtro, 2006, p 162 ) . Such development is besides influenced by the environment in which such procedures take topographic point and the nature of development results that are under survey. The female parent infant interaction, ( an of import proximal procedure ) emerges as an of import forecaster of developmental results ( Brendtro, 2006, p 162 ) .
Bronfenbrenner ‘s theory defines 4 different types of systems, viz. the Micro system, the Meso system, the Exo system and the Macro system, which shape human development ( Austrian, 2002, p 43 ) . The Micro system comprises of the household, schoolrooms and schools, and other systems in the proximal environment in which people operate. The Meso system represents the interaction of two micro systems, like the connexion between the place and the school of a kid ( Austrian, 2002, p 43 ) . The Exo system represents the environment that is external to the experience of an person and in which his or her engagement is indirect, but which effects development, all the same. The workplace of the parents of a kid is a relevant illustration of an Exo system. The Macro system represents the larger cultural context ( Austrian, 2002, p 43 ) .
Bronfenbrenner ‘s theory perceives the environment of a kid in footings of quality and context and efforts to explicate differences between the cognition, development and accomplishments of persons through the construction, support and counsel of the societies in which they exist ( Ahuja, 2006, p 3 ) . He states that interaction between over lapping eco systems affect people significantly. Applying Bronfenbrenner ‘s theory to the Murray household, it can be seen that Lora ‘s household and schoolrooms can be called the micro systems, which straight influence her working and development ( Ahuja, 2006, p 3 ) . When these two micro systems start working together to educate Lora, such instruction occurs through the Meso system. The society and civilization in which Lora is being raised provides the underlying influence to these systems and is termed the Macro system. The comprehension of interaction of these systems helps in understanding the manner in which kids develop and the factors that influence failure and success ( Ahuja, 2006, p 3 ) .
Analysis of assorted micro and macro systems can assist societal workers significantly in understanding the assorted influences that shape the development of kids. Research workers have in fact specifically found the significance of macro systems to be causal to general depression and feelings of low ego regard in persons ( Ahuja, 2006, p 3 ) .
The application of Bronfenbrenner ‘s theory in the Murray household scenario enables the development of greater apprehension on the influences of different micro and Macro systems on the development of Lora in her school age and can assist societal workers to follow appropriate intercession methods.
Whilst there is small uncertainty that the development of persons is mostly shaped by their place and school environments, sociological theory besides places important emphasis on the influence of larger society on such development ( Grusec & A ; Hastings, 2008, p 42 ) . All persons grow up in specific political, cultural and societal environments that shape their attitudes and behaviors and act upon their development in specific ways. The peculiar societies in which people live are place to different types of spiritual, cultural and societal attitudes, prejudices and beliefs ( Grusec & A ; Hastings, 2008, p 42 ) . Such political and societal procedures provide persons with the agencies to take part within their ain society, which itself contains shared imposts, norms, traditions, values and societal functions ( Grusec & A ; Hastings, 2008, p 42 ) . These procedures are basically life long, get downing in childhood and go oning till decease. Both Erikson and Bronfenbrenner ‘s theories deal with the procedure of socialization but through different positions
Such socialization occurs through the influence of the household, faith, schools and equal groups, workplaces and the larger community ( Berns, 2009, p 131 ) . These procedures are besides influenced by local media and political idea. Children and immature grownups are significantly influenced by their equals. Such influences can frequently be negative and consequence in substance maltreatment, premature sexual activity and the demand to populate up to incorrect outlooks ( Berns, 2009, p 131 ) . Mass media plays an huge function in act uponing human development. The changeless exposure of kids to hex, sexual satisfaction and force can act upon the development of kids and immature grownups in assorted ways ( Berns, 2009, p 131 ) .
With respect to the Murray household, it can good be understood that the personal development of all concerned persons is likely to be influenced by different political and societal procedures. The continuation of domestic force at place can take to feelings of hurt in Lora, particularly when she compares her domestic environment to that of her friends, and do her to wish to switch to a more peaceable environment. Such socialization procedures can furthermore leads to feelings of shame about her background and low ego regard, take her to eschew her household and take consolation in her equals and flicker of hooky player and delinquent behavior.
Social work theory and knowledge chiefly aims to decrease and extinguish the impact of inequalities on the lives of persons ( Neckerman, 2004, p 189 ) . Inequalities can originate on history of assorted factors like income, instruction, gender and cultural position. Such inequalities basically serve to cut down surplus of affected people to assorted installations and cut down the chances of their life results and their opportunities to take normal and enriching lives, inequalities in income can for illustration deprive the kids of such households from assorted educational and other installations and badly decrease their life results ( Neckerman, 2004, p 189 ) . Such inequalities can besides bring forth feelings of low regard and consequence in suboptimal public presentation in and out of school during childhood and in the workplace in big life. Numerous surveies have revealed that kids with ill educated parents receive significantly lesser educational nutriment and support at place, which in bend affects their cognitive development and adversely influences their public presentation at school ( Marger, 2004, p 86 ) . Lora the 6 twelvemonth old Murray kid has until now done really good in school. The disturbed domestic state of affairs in her house, particularly the gender inequality between her parents and the domestic force faced by her female parent can good ensue in poorer educational support at place, particularly when she is traveling into the acquisition phase and needs it the most. Gender inequality has been widely accepted to be an of import factor in the unequal life opportunities offered to work forces and adult females of societies across the universe and has resulted in unequal development and life opportunities of the two sexes ( Marger, 2004, p 86 ) .
Theories of human development aid in determining the thoughts of readers on the kernel of human behavior ( Austrian, 2002, p 56 ) . It expands the apprehension of persons of the range, the possible and complexness of human map. Whilst bookmans of human development do non hold on or back a individual theory, many of these theories provide new positions for the observation and reading of human behavior ( Austrian, 2002, p 56 ) . Piaget ‘s theory of cognitive development has resulted in a new grasp for the ways in which kids construct sense and intending out of their experiences ( Raeff & A ; Benson, 2003, p 81 ) . Erikson ‘s psychosocial theory high spots the construct of individuality, even as the societal acquisition theory of Bandura has resulted in the widespread usage of patterning to imitate conditions under which kids increase their acquisition by detecting and copying the behavior of others ( Raeff & A ; Benson, 2003, p 81 ) . The societal work profession draws extensively on theories of human development for understanding the behavior of persons, with specific respect to the causal influences of such behavior. An apprehension of such theories non merely enables societal workers to understand the causes for human behavior but besides helps them to be after appropriate intercessions to better the societal, emotional and economic conditions of people ( Raeff & A ; Benson, 2003, p 81 ) . It helps societal workers to understand the dynamic interaction that takes topographic point among human existences and the impact of societal systems upon the lives of people. A greater apprehension of such theories besides helps societal workers in appreciating human diverseness, every bit good as the impact of different actions in assisting human existences to entree chances and services that foster realization of societal and economic justness ( Austrian, 2002, p 56 ) .