This essay sample on Attachment Theory Social Work Essay provides all necessary basic info on this matter, including the most common “for and against” arguments. Below are the introduction, body and conclusion parts of this essay.
Attachment theory derives from psychoanalyic psychological science, nevertheless it is used in societal work to try to understand behavior in babyhood and childhood to demo the manner in which kids develop emotionally ( WALKER 2009 )
This theory centres on the thought that kids need to organize unafraid relationships with other people, such as parents or defenders, as it is a important contributer to their emotional development.
Social bonds and relationships that are made in early childhood are believed to act upon an persons life and can impact upon their wellbeing to find their emotional and societal stableness later in life. Consequently, fond regard is seen as an built-in constituent within babies and immature childrens lives, as these experiences can determine a individuals personality and individuality in future old ages.
( WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010 ) . If these experiences of fond regard are negative, and the kid does non develop equal relationships with their health professionals, so this can hold detremental effects on their psychological and emotional development. ( WALKER, J 2009 ) .
The Attachment theory originates from the thoughts of John Bowlby who believes that worlds are biological predispositioned to seek fond regard from others. He proposes that endurance is closely related to the ability to possess emotional bonds with other persons ( GREEN 2003 ) . This is because by organizing an fond regard with an authorization figure who is seen as the stronger of the species, this reduces the exposure of the person as it provides increased security and protection from injury posed by possible marauders ( BOWLBY 1958, cited in LISHMAN 2007 ) .
The theory looks at the manner that attachment relationships are formed, and the grounds behind their manifestation. Children are seen to organize these relationships for grounds such as safety, comfort and to supply guidence. These attachment behavior, harmonizing to larning theoreticians, are displayed in babyhood through speaking, express joying and shouting. This enables them to persue their basic demands for endurance, such as nutrient for nurishment, by their fond regard to their female parent who is able to back up them in carry throughing their demands ( WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010 ) . This initial fond regard to health professionals besides guides the persons ideas, feelings and outlooks as they become cognizant of peoples responses towards them which help them recognize how to act ( WALKER 2009 ) .
There are four premises of Bowlby ‘s fond regard theory which effort to explicate his beliefs. The first, is that babies and immature kids develop emotional ties with persons early in life, which acts as a biological map and plays an built-in portion to their endurance. The 2nd premise is that the manner a kid is treated early in life has a major lending factor to their future relationships and the manner their personality is formed. The 3rd premise is that attachment behavior can organize an ‘internal working theoretical account ‘ which guide the kid ‘s ideas, feelings and outlooks as a consequence of the reactions of others towards their behavior. The concluding premise of Bowlby ‘s fond regard theory is that although it is hard to change attachment behavior, it is non impossible, thereofre there is the possibility of change at any point in life, both in a positive and negative manner ( GREEN 2003 ) .
Although babies and immature kids are able to hold more than one attachment figure, they are still affected when they are exposed to seperation from their primary attachment figure. This can go on for many grounds, such as a kid being removed from a household place and placed into attention, or possibly decease. This can be a really distressful and confusing clip for a kid as they are diffident of who to turn to for security and protection. This is apparent in societal work pattern in cases where an abused kid wants to stay with its parents, even though it is non a stable or supportive fond regard ( LISHMAN 2006 ) . Bowlby proposed that kids who have experienced seperation from their chief attachment figure will endure in a procedure affecting protest, dispair and withdrawal, in an effort to get the better of their loss ( BOWLBY 1958, cited in LISHMAN 2006 ) .
However, although Bowlby provided an of import part to the thought of fond regard, his research can be criticised in many ways. This is because Bowlby tends to concentrate his thoughts on one primary figure of fond regard, frequently the female parent, when it is possible for kids to organize fond regards with other people within their lives such as their male parent. Besides, developing relationships with other people alongside the attachment figure is besides of import, this is because holding to trust on the caregiving relationship of one individual can be damaging due to the fact it frequently consequences in dependence and does non let other relationships to be formed with others, which can the impede the societal and emotional development of the kid ( WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010 ) .
Harmonizing to Lishman ( 2007 ) , the fond regard theory believes that when a kid is stressed or afraid, they exhibit peculiar behavior and emotions which can be perceived as fond regard. This is because they seek protection from injury through the aid and security of an grownup who they see as stronger than themselves. This is closly linked to two types of behavioral systems: the explorative behavioral system and the fear behavioral system. The explorative behavioral system is based of the belief that when an baby or immature kid feels comfy and safe, the attachment behavior remains hibernating and hence the kid will be willing to research the people around them and their milieus. However, if a kid feels threatened or vulnerable, the fright behavioral system will go active, where the kid will no longer seek geographic expedition and alternatively they will seek protection from their attachment figure and exhibit behavior related to that fond regard.
However, the behavior that they display is non intended to arouse fondness from the attachment figure, alternatively it is to & A ; acirc ; ˆ?regain a province of equilibrium & A ; acirc ; ˆA? ( p59 ) . This means that babies and immature kids are non dependent upon the caregiving nature of the attachment figure, alternatively their purpose is to decrease their frights.
There is a categorization of fond regard forms which identifies four different types of fond regard, which attempts to enanble professionals to measure immature childrens behavior and emotions ( secure, ambivalent, avoident and disorganised ) . Secure fond regard is based of the belief that kids depend upon their health professional as a base for geographic expedition. The health professional is available to the kid and responds to the kids demands, therefore the kid behaves in a positive mode. Ambivalent attachment expressions at how kids are unwilling to research their milieus as the health professional is non consistent in their support. This can go forth the kid distressed, clingy and dependant. The 3rd class is avoident forms of fond regard, and features an unresponsive health professional, therefore the kid feels rejected and they view themelves as dependent whilst actively avoiding or disregarding the health professionals presence. And eventually, disorganized fond regard is where kids are fearful of their health professionals, and they themselves may experience confused or depressed. This type of fond regard is most frequently seen in kids who have suffered maltreatment ( HOWE 2001, cited in LISHMAN 2007 ) .
How a critical apprehension of Attachment Theory can lend to Social Work Practice.
Social workers are seen to hold three functions to play when working within an attachment position: appraisal, planning and direct work with kids, parents and carers. Assessment looks at countries within fond regard such as the demands of a kid, the rearing that they receive, their emotional and behavioral development and the relationships which they have formed. There are besides trials created specifically for mensurating fond regard, such as Ainsworth ‘s alien trial which provide an indicant of the form and quality of their fond regards.
The 2nd function, planning, looks at how be aftering for new fond regards when puting kids with new households needs to be approached carefully. This is because they need happening the most suited parenting figures where new fond regards can be made.
The 3rd function is direct work with kids, parents and carers. This is because direct contact and communicating is necessary to accomplish the best possible result when working with kids and households. For illustration, when a kid has been removed from their place and is being placed with new carers, direct work can supply support to the kid to fix them for alteration. It can besides be utile with the adoptive or surrogate household to supply guidence and support towards what to anticipate and to assist with any jobs they face ( LISHMAN 2007 )
Attachment theory has been used within societal work pattern as the footing for many kid attention policies. This is because the thought of a baby or kid being ‘attached ‘ to their household, which can act upon their development in many ways, has been used as the footing for many statute law ( LISHMAN 2007 ) . For illustration, Sure Start Children ‘s Centres have been introduced in response to the importancy of household support to enable them to construct and keep positive household relationships ( LAMING REPORT 2009, cited in BRAMMER 2010 ) . Attachment theory had besides contributed to policies such as shared parental duty, as it has emhasised the demand for emotional and societal relationships with health professionals, whilst besides proposing possible effects to a kid development and the negative impact later in life if these demands were non met efficaciously. ( LISHMAN 2007 ) .
Attachment theory besides provides guidence to enable societal workers to judge the quality of a relationship between a kid and it ‘s parents. This can enable them to derive an apprehension of at what point, if at any, intercession is necessary as it gives them the ability to measure the fond regard that is present within the relationship. The fond regard theory besides gives a more comprehensive apprehension of the loss experienced by an baby or kid when they lose their chief attachment figure. This means that people working within societal work pattern are cognizant of the common and typical behaviors of a kid who is traveling through this procedure and can therefore back up them to get the better of it. A farther manner the fond regard theory is used to profit societal work pattern is that as it is known that fond regard figures are necessary for kids to develop adequately, persons such as adoptive parents can be taught to exhibit behavior which will promote new attachmentment from the kid which is needed for personal growing ( WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD 2010 ) . However, attention demands to be taken when puting a kid with a new household as to forestall a repeating loss of fond regard figures which can do them to fault themeselves and produce feelings of ineptitude. This can intend guaranting that the kid is appropriatly prepared and ready to organize new bonds of fond regard and that the new carers of the kid receive sufficient support within their function. ( LISHMAN 2007 ) .
Attachment theory can besides be linked to the manner in which a female parent bonds with her new born babe. However, these early bonds are non entirely restricted to female parents, it is besides possible for male parents. Although, this bond is typically formed within the first few hours after birth as the female parent and babe connect both physically and emotionally. The initial bond that is made is thought to hold a important consequence on their hereafter relationship as it is the beginning of their ‘attachment ‘ . This cognition enables societal workers to back up female parents who are peculiarly vulnerable to hapless parenting, although this is merely effectual if the support continues throughout the first few months after the babe is born.. However, it is of import to observe that merely because a female parent fails to accomplish an initial bond with her babe, this does non intend that maltreatment is inevitable.
How are issues of ‘diversity ‘ relevant to human growing, behavior and development?
GREEN, V. 2003. Emotional development in Psychoanalysis, Attachment Theory and Neuroscience: Creating Connections. East Sussex: Brunner-Routledge
LISHMAN, J. 2007. Handbook for Practice and Learning in Social Work and Social Care: Knowledge and Theory. London: Jessica Kingsley
WALKER, J and K, CRAWFORD. 2010. Social Work and Human Development. Exeter: Learning Matters
WALKER, J. 2008. Analyzing for Your Social Work Degree. Exeter: Learning Matters
BRAMMER, 2010. Social Work Law. London: Longman