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Psychology of Coaching Midterm

Coakley defines cooperation as
a. a situation in which the goals of the participants are mutually independent
b. a social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group
c. a situation in which rewards are distributed unequally among the participants
d. a situation in which rewards are distributed equally among the participants
e. none of the above
b. a social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group

Coakley defines competition as
a. a situation in which rewards are distributed equally among the participants
b. a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance
c. a situation in which the goals of the participant are mutually interdependent
d. b and c
e. none of the above
b. a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance

According to Coakley, which of the following is (are) characteristic of unstructured youth sport?
a. Personal involvement in the action is maximized.
b. It provides opportunities to reaffirm friendships.
c. Teams are relatively even.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

The team sports of basketball and football are examples of which of the following classification of games?
a. competitive means—competitive ends
b. cooperative means—competitive ends
c. individual means—individual ends
d. cooperative means—cooperative ends
e. cooperative means—individual ends
b. cooperative means—competitive ends

The principles of reinforcement are complex because
a. different people react differently to the same reinforcement
b. people are unable to repeat the desired behavior
c. there are many potential reinforcers that must be considered
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

Behavioral coaching, behavior modification, and contingency management have in common the goal of
a. structuring practices through the systematic use of reinforcement
b. changing practices daily to increase learning
c. changing practices daily to increase performance
d. a and c
e. a and b
a. structuring practices through the systematic use of reinforcement

The additive approach to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that
a. internal and external motivation are unrelated
b. intrinsic plus extrinsic motivation equal more motivation
c. extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
b. intrinsic plus extrinsic motivation equal more motivation

Feedback can provide instructional information about
a. the specific behaviors to be performed
b. the levels of proficiency to be achieved
c. the performers’ current level of proficiency in the desired skills
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

In a recent study, which type of feedback (especially after failure) produced more task persistence, more enjoyment, and better performance?
a. praise for high ability
b. praise for high effort
c. criticism of any type of performance
d. a and c
e. b and c
b. praise for high effort

Shaping occurs when
a. rewards are given to behaviors that approximate the correct response
b. rewards are given only after success
c. rewards are given intermittently
d. rewards are withdrawn after failure
e. none of the above
a. rewards are given to behaviors that approximate the correct response

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. A continuous reinforcement is best in the early stages of learning.
b. An intermittent schedule of reinforcement is best once the skill is well learned.
c. Behaviors reinforced on a continuous schedule persist longer than those reinforced on an intermittent schedule.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b

A smile or pat on the back is known as what type of reinforcer?
a. material
b. social
c. activity
d. tangible
e. esoteric
b. social

Most coaches approach reinforcement by
a. a combination of positive reinforcement and punishment
b. relying mostly on punishment
c. relying mostly on positive reinforcement
d. relying on cognitive-behavioral techniques
e. none of the above
a. a combination of positive reinforcement and punishment

Which of the following is (are) NOT true of reinforcement?
a. If a consequence of doing something is positive, we try to repeat this behavior in the future.
b. If a consequence of doing something is negative, we tend not to try to repeat this behavior in the future.
c. The consequences of behavior are not as important as one’s personality.
d. a and b
e. a and c
c. The consequences of behavior are not as important as one’s personality.

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. The amount of positive feedback is less important than receiving some type of positive feedback.
b. Getting positive feedback produces higher levels of intrinsic motivation than getting no feedback.
c. Athletes receiving more positive feedback have higher levels of intrinsic motivation than athletes receiving less positive feedback.
d. a and b
e. b and c
d. a and b

Which of the following is seen as the most extrinsically motivated behavior?
a. introjected regulation
b. external regulation
c. identified regulation
d. integrated regulation
e. internal regulation
b. external regulation

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are now seen as varying along a continuum. Aspects of intrinsic motivation include which of these?
a. knowledge
b. accomplishment
c. stimulation
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a guideline for implementing behavior programs?
a. Consequences should be stated clearly.
b. Target behaviors must be defined in observable terms.
c. Behaviors should be recorded.
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a method for increasing intrinsic motivation?
a. Vary the content and sequence of practice drills.
b. Give rewards that are not contingent on performance.
c. Set easy performance goals.
d. a and b
e. a and c
a. Vary the content and sequence of practice drills.

The study by Lepper and Greene investigating the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation of children found that
a. the type of reward was important regarding its effects on intrinsic motivation
b. the expected reward condition had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)
c. the expected reward condition had the highest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b

An individual will have a higher level of intrinsic motivation when
a. the controlling aspect is more salient than the informational aspect
b. the informational aspect is more salient than the controlling aspect
c. the controlling aspect is more salient than the external aspect
d. a and b
e. none of the above
b. the informational aspect is more salient than the controlling aspect

Rewards typically undermine intrinsic motivation when the reward is
a. for mere participation
b. not tied to the quality of one’s performance
c. controlling in nature
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Social factors affecting intrinsic motivations include
a. success and failure
b. focus of competition
c. anxiety level
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b

Team building is considered part of which stage of team development?
a. forming
b. storming
c. norming
d. performing
e. joining
a. forming

In the pendulum example of the Indiana basketball team, which of the following is (are) a stage of group development?
a. orientation
b. differentiation and conflict
c. resolution and cohesion
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) part of the norming stage?
a. role acceptance
b. increase in cooperation and solidarity
c. conflict resolution
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Formal roles, in contrast to informal roles, are a set of behaviors that are required or expected of persons in a group and
a. evolve based on interpersonal interactions among group members
b. include such roles as the “enforcer” and the “go-between” for coach-athlete communications
c. are dictated by the nature and structure of an organization
d. include such roles as team captain, coach, and athletic trainer
e. c and d
e. c and d

Role clarity refers to
a. accepting and being willing to carry out your specific role for the team
b. understanding exactly what your role is for the team
c. the formal roles of a team or organization
d. a and c
e. none of the above
b. understanding exactly what your role is for the team

Role acceptance depends on
a. autonomy
b. feedback and role recognition
c. role significance
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

A level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief that is formally or informally established as appropriate by a group is called a
a. norm
b. sanction
c. role
d. team climate
e. standard
a. norm

If a rookie tried to take charge and exert leadership in critical games despite the fact that there was a veteran leader on the team, this would be considered a violation of
a. group norms
b. group cohesion
c. group solidarity
d. group identity
e. none of the above
a. group norms

One effective method for establishing positive group norms is to
a. enlist the formal and informal leaders of a team to set positive examples
b. dictate exactly what norms are expected from each athlete without any exceptions
c. eliminate decision-making opportunities for all team members
d. all of the above
e. a and b
a. enlist the formal and informal leaders of a team to set positive examples

Team climate can be defined as
a. the coach’s portrayal of what is to be expected from each player
b. a representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members
c. a representation of how the team is collectively seen by others, especially in the media
d. a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief that is formally or informally established as appropriate by a group
e. all of the above
b. a representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members

Having athletes eat together or live together is an example of which factor that is important in developing an effective team climate?
a. social support
b. distinctiveness
c. proximity
d. fairness
e. similarity
c. proximity

Research has indicated that social support can have a positive impact on which of the following?
a. recovery from injury
b. coping with stress
c. team cohesion
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Role clarity is a multidimensional concept including all of the following except
a. evaluation of performance
b. behavioral responsibilities
c. perceived locus of causality
d. consequences of not fulfilling responsibilities
e. scope of responsibilities
c. perceived locus of causality

The common thread among the definitions of cohesion is that cohesion is made up of what two basic dimensions?
a. task and social cohesion
b. task and organizational cohesion
c. social and organizational cohesion
d. psychological and organizational cohesion
e. psychological and social cohesion
a. task and social cohesion

Which of the following is NOT an antecedent to cohesion according to Carron’s model?
a. environmental factors
b. team factors
c. organizational factors
d. leadership factors
e. personal factors
c. organizational factors

The number of athletes holding scholarships and the eligibility requirements are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
a. environmental factors
b. team factors
c. organizational factors
d. leadership factors
e. personal factors
a. environmental factors

Task and affiliation motivation are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?
a. environmental factors
b. team factors
c. organizational factors
d. leadership factors
e. personal factors
e. personal factors

According to Carron and Dennis, the most important personal factor regarding the development of social and task cohesion is
a. socioeconomic status
b. gender
c. individual satisfaction
d. age
e. race
c. individual satisfaction

Which of the following statements regarding antecedent factors affecting cohesion is (are) FALSE?
a. Smaller groups have higher cohesion than larger groups.
b. More distinctive groups have higher levels of cohesion.
c. Compatibility between a coach and players is related to cohesion.
d. none of the above
e. a and c
d. none of the above

The questionnaire used most often in the early research on cohesion in sport was called the
a. Group Environment Questionnaire
b. Sport Cohesiveness Questionnaire
c. Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument
d. Unidimensional Sport Cohesion Survey
e. none of the above
b. Sport Cohesiveness Questionnaire

Michael Jordan spoke about everyone on the team coming together (cohesion) when they “stepped between the lines.” This belief in one another is known as
a. collective efficacy
b. group similarity
c. group norm
d. group role
e. collective ability
a. collective efficacy

Using the Group Environment Questionnaire, research has revealed that group cohesion is related to which of the following?
a. reduced absenteeism
b. increased satisfaction of members
c. attributions for responsibility for performance outcomes
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

Individuals holding stronger beliefs about the cohesiveness of exercise classes are
a. more likely to attend more classes
b. more likely to drop out
c. more resistant to group disruption
d. a and b
e. a and c
e. a and c

According to the latest definition provided by Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer, cohesion is seen to be
a. unidimensional
b. static
c. instrumental
d. a and c
e. a and b
c. instrumental

Which of the following is NOT one of the principles underlying the team-building model developed by Carron and colleagues?
a. role clarity and acceptance
b. autocratic leadership style
c. distinctiveness and togetherness
d. group goals
e. conformity to group norms
b. autocratic leadership style

Which of the following statements about cohesion is (are) true?
a. Higher normative expectations are associated with higher levels of cohesion.
b. More sacrifices are made by players when cohesion is high.
c. Higher cohesion is related to a more autocratic decision-making style.
d. a and b
e. b and c
d. a and b

Which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. There is a positive relationship between both task and social cohesion and performance.
b. There is a positive relationship between only social cohesion and performance.
c. There is no relationship between task cohesion and performance.
d. There is a negative relationship between task cohesion and performance.
e. a and b
a. There is a positive relationship between both task and social cohesion and performance.

Which of the following statements is true?
a. The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for both interactive and coactive sports.
b. The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for only interactive sports.
c. The cohesion-performance relationship is negative for only interactive sports.
d. The demands of the sport do not influence the cohesion-performance relationship.
e. none of the above
a. The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for both interactive and coactive sports.

Which of the following statements best represents the relationship between cohesion and performance?
a. This relationship is circular.
b. Cohesion has a stronger effect on performance than performance has on cohesion.
c. Cohesion has no effect on performance.
d. Cohesion is negatively related to performance.
e. none of the above
a. This relationship is circular.

Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?
a. There is a positive relationship between cohesion and satisfaction.
b. There is a positive relationship between cohesion and conformity.
c. Higher team cohesion is related to higher resistance to disruption.
d. none of the above
e. a and b
d. none of the above

Which of the following tips can build team cohesion?
a. Develop pride within subunits.
b. Avoid excessive turnover.
c. Encourage participation in social cliques.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b

Which of the following statements about building cohesion is (are) true?
a. Set goals that are easy to accomplish to keep up spirit.
b. Keep meetings to a minimum to avoid complaints.
c. Encourage team identity.
d. a and b
e. a and c
e. a and c

From an athlete’s perspective, to help build team cohesion you should
a. give teammates positive reinforcement
b. resolve conflicts immediately
c. be responsible for yourself
d. a and b
e. a and c
e. a and c

Which of the following sports require the highest level of task cohesion?
a. golf and archery
b. basketball and ice hockey
c. swimming and tennis
d. baseball and wrestling
e. volleyball and bowling
b. basketball and ice hockey

In a study by Spink and Carron on building cohesiveness in a fitness class, which of the following strategies was (were) employed?
a. distinctiveness
b. group norms
c. individual sacrifices
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

Which of the following was (were) found to be a barrier to cohesion?
a. members’ struggling for power
b. little turnover in group membership
c. similar personalities among group members
d. a and b
e. b and c
a. members’ struggling for power

In setting up a team goal-setting program, which of the following guidelines should be followed?
a. Involve all team members in establishing goals.
b. Set specific and challenging goals.
c. Reward progress toward team goals.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

The dimensions of the Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument include
a. attraction to the group
b. unity of purpose
c. quality of teamwork
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

In most organized sport teams, leaders and coaches
a. emerge
b. are appointed
c. are elected by consensus
d. are elected by majority vote
e. none of the above
b. are appointed

Great leaders are born, not made.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?
a. situational
b. trait
c. behavioral
d. situational-behavioral
e. trait-behavioral
b. trait

“Great leaders are made, not born.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?
a. trait
b. behavioral
c. situational
d. situational-behavioral
e. trait-behavioral
b. behavioral

In their classic study of the coaching (leadership) behaviors of legendary basketball coach John Wooden, Tharp and Gallimore found that his most often-used coaching behavior was
a. statements of displeasure
b. praise and encouragement
c. verbal instructions on what to do and how to do it
d. combining instruction with punishment
e. modeling the correct behavior
c. verbal instructions on what to do and how to do it

Fiedler’s research has identified which two types of leadership styles?
a. relationship oriented and task oriented
b. situation oriented and task oriented
c. task oriented and initiating structure oriented
d. relationship oriented and situation oriented
e. none of the above
a. relationship oriented and task oriented

The definition of leadership usually seen in the literature is
a. the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals
b. being a positive role model
c. the process of creating change in groups and individuals
d. the process of keeping a group working together without conflicts
e. none of the above
a. the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals

When coaches obtain the necessary information from relevant players and then come to a decision, what type of decision style are they using?
a. consultative-individual
b. autocratic-consultative
c. consultative-group
d. group
e. relationship-consultative
b. autocratic-consultative

What are the two major categories of behavior from the Coaching Behavior Assessment System?
a. reactive and instructional
b. reactive and spontaneous
c. spontaneous and instructional
d. praise and punishment
e. reactive and praise
b. reactive and spontaneous

Breakdowns in communication can occur because
a. the receiver fails to listen
b. the receiver misinterprets the message
c. the messages are inconsistent
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Which of the following is (are) a guideline for sending effective messages?
a. Messages should be indirect.
b. Messages should separate fact from fiction.
c. Verbal and nonverbal messages should be congruent.
d. b and c
e. a and c
d. b and c

Nonverbal behaviors that communicate interest and attention include which of the following?
a. maintaining eye contact
b. maintaining a closed posture
c. standing no more than 6 feet from the person
d. a and b
e. a and c
a. maintaining eye contact

Nonverbal cues are transmitted via
a. physical appearance
b. posture
c. body position
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Supportive listening behaviors
a. are empathetic
b. remain open to new ideas
c. focus on future thoughts and feelings
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b

Supportive language has which of the following characteristics?
a. manipulative
b. evaluative
c. descriptive
d. a and c
e. b and c
c. descriptive

Sullivan devised seven communication exercises to promote more effective communication. Athletes said they would try to practice which communication skills?
a. not interrupt others when they are speaking
b. confront issues right away
c. give opinions less often to people with whom they feel intimidated
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b

Which of the following things should you NOT do during a confrontation?
a. Stop communicating.
b. Communicate the solution.
c. Rely on nonverbal cues to communicate.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with empathy?
a. Do not attack the character of the person.
b. Be sensitive to the feelings of the other person.
c. Make sure the other person understands your point of view.
d. a and c
e. b and c
c. Make sure the other person understands your point of view.

Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with consistency?
a. Be consistent in administering discipline.
b. Never pass an opportunity to praise.
c. Show more compassion in competition than in practices.
d. Match verbal and nonverbal communication.
e. Be consistent from athlete to athlete.
c. Show more compassion in competition than in practices.

Which of the following is (are) NOT a principle of communication when setting up team meetings?
a. Everyone will have a chance to speak.
b. People should say at least one positive thing about everybody.
c. What is discussed in the meeting is open to others outside the meeting.
d. a and c
e. b and c
c. What is discussed in the meeting is open to others outside the meeting.

The “sandwich approach” consists of which of the following elements?
a. a positive statement
b. future-oriented instructions
c. mistake-contingent general encouragement
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b

Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication?
a. the belief that silence is safer
b. embarrassment
c. the tendency to tell people what they want to hear
d. inconsistency between actions and words
e. using active listening skills
e. using active listening skills

When there is a communication breakdown, most people believe that the problem resides with
a. themselves
b. the other person
c. the situation
d. a and b
e. b and c
b. the other person

Which of the following is (are) a main reason that communication is often problematic?
a. Individuals perceive faulty communication to be someone else’s problem.
b. Individuals feel that they are the problem regarding faulty communication.
c. Individuals prefer two-way communication.
d. a and c
d. a and c

Which of the following is (are) a way to improve active listening skills?
a. Mentally prepare to listen.
b. Use supportive behaviors as you listen.
c. Employ both verbal and nonverbal listening behaviors.
d. all of the above
e. a and c
d. all of the above

Which teacher and coach category of behavior(s) can enhance communication?
a. clarity
b. confirmation
c. assertiveness
d. a and b
e. a and c
d. a and b

A recent article recommends assuming the perspective of the other person in order to enhance communication. This involves the use of
a. role-playing
b. assertiveness training
c. listening skills
d. a and c
e. d and c
a. role-playing

To enhance constructive confrontations, you should
a. describe your feelings
b. describe your thoughts about the event that concerns you
c. describe what you want done
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

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