The Philippine Wildlife has a important figure of works and animate being species that are autochthonal in the Philippines. The country’s environing Waterss reportedly have the highest degree of biodiversity in the universe. The Philippines is considered as one of the 17 mega diverse states every bit good as planetary biodiversity hot spot. The world’s 2nd largest archipelago state after Indonesia. the Philippines includes more than 7. 100 islands covering 297. 179 km2 in the westernmost Pacific Ocean. The state is one of the few states that.

in its entireness. both a hot spot and a mega diverseness state. puting it among the top precedence hot spots for planetary preservation. But want of the woods due to illegal logging. slash-and-burn agriculture. and urbanisation is depriving the Filipino animate beings of their natural home grounds and sanctuaries. Hundreds of old ages ago. most of the Filipino islands were covered in rain wood.

Deforestation. hunting. and a deficiency of wildlife direction has led to the Philippines being described as preservation “hotspot” .

Fewer natural wildlife home ground countries remain each twelvemonth. Furthermore. the home ground that remains has frequently been degraded to the wild countries which existed in the yesteryear. The country’s wildlife is listed as endangered. critically endangered or confronting extinction. Fragile as they are. these fantastic animals need support in the preservation attempt for the environment to guarantee that they will co-exist with us worlds. Wildlife preservation attempts are aimed in several chief countries. These include the creative activity of nature sanctuaries where wildlife can populate protected and free from injury.

Get quality help now
Prof. Finch

Proficient in: Ecology

4.7 (346)

“ This writer never make an mistake for me always deliver long before due date. Am telling you man this writer is absolutely the best. ”

+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

and where scientific surveies can be conducted to better understand the menaces to assorted species and what solutions are needed to guarantee their endurance.

Research workers conducted this research about Philippine wildlife protection because we want to guarantee that nature will be around for future coevalss to bask and to acknowledge the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to worlds. Many authorities bureaus are dedicated to wildlife preservation. which help to implement policies designed for wildlife protection. There are besides legion independent non-governmental organisations who besides promote assorted wildlife protection causes. Research workers are besides concerned because wildlife preservation has become an progressively of import pattern due to negative human activities on wildlife. Why wildlife preservation is of import? Aside from the fact losing the beauty of our state. Philippines. and destructing different animals. it is of import in order to continue the diverseness of biological life upon our state.

Statement of the Problem.

This thesis seeks to research the effectivity of the Department of Environment and National Resources ( Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau ) in protecting wildlife. Philippines which is one of the world’s most biologically diverse countries has been described by some environmentalists as being on the border of a major wildlife crisis. However. this biodiversity is under menace. Islands one time covered in undisturbed forest home ground are now under cultivation to feed the demands of the spread outing population. Deforestation. hunting and a deficiency of wildlife direction has led to the Philippines being described as non merely as a preservation ‘hotspot’ – an country of concern – but the ‘hottest of the hotspots’ . This survey shall elaborate on the effectivity of wildlife preservation. its significance. and the importance of wildlife in our ecosystem. In these facets. the research worker seeks to set up an reply to the undermentioned inquiries: 1. Why is it of import to conserve and protect wildlife in the Philippines? 2. How effectual does the organisations in protecting wildlife? 3. What attempts are being taken to protect wildlife?

Hypothesis and Premises

The attempts exerted by the Department of Environment and Energy Resources- Protected Areas Wildlife Bureau are effectual in protecting and conserving the country’s wildlife.

The survey rests on the undermentioned premises:

1. Protecting wildlife is of import to keep ecological ‘balance of nature’ and for economic value. 2. Conservation of wildlife is one of the undertakings that our state works out. The preservation helps to equilibrate the ecosystem in biodiversity. The attempts that exerted in the organisations tend to ease the extinction. 3. Much of the environmental protection that exists today is the direct consequence of the requests and other activities of environmental organisations. 4. The attempts exerted by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources are sufficient to protect the wildlife.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The coverage of this survey is about the preservation and protection of Philippine wildlife that is being recently mishandled or misused by worlds due to negative activities. The survey consists of advantage that is being taken to protect or conserve the endangered wildlife in the Philippines. This survey is chiefly focused on the effectivity of attempts that are being taken to protect the Filipino wildlife. The survey does non cover the clime alteration and sustainable utilizations of resources. The survey will include the DENR’s ways to protect Philippine wildlife and how they work. It is focused on the survey of wildlife wherein they care and conserve Philippine wildlife for future coevalss.

Significance or Importance of the survey

At the decision of this survey. the research workers aim to place the attempts of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in protecting the Filipino wildlife. This survey is of import for the research workers to be more knowing about the Philippine Wildlife and to cognize the effectivity of the attempts of the DENR in protecting the wildlife. It may besides carry some jurisprudence Hatchet mans to stipulate portion of their service such as implementing more Torahs to protect the Filipino Wildlife. This research informs the general populace about the country’s wildlife and assist them recognize that it is of import to conserve our environment. In general. research workers conducted this survey for the benefit of the future coevals. because the preserved wildlife has a large part to peoples’s lives.

Definition of Footings

Biodiversity – biological diverseness in an environment as indicated by Numberss of different species of workss and animate beings Conservation– the protection. saving. direction. or Restoration of natural environments and the ecological communities that inhabit them Conservationist – a individual who advocates preservation particularly if natural resources Critically endangered species– refers to a species or races that is confronting highly high hazard of extinction in the natural state in the immediate hereafter Ecosystem– a system that includes all life beings ( biotic factors ) in an country every bit good as its physical environment ( abiotic factors ) working together as a unit

Endangered Speciess – refers to a species or races that is non critically endangered but whose endurance in the natural state is improbable if the causal factors continue runing Endemic Species – means species or races which is of course happening and found merely within specific countries in the state Exotic Species – means species or races which do non of course occur in the state Extinction – the procedure of extinguishing or cut downing a conditioned response by non reenforcing it Habitat – means a topographic point or environment where a species or races of course occurs or has of course established its population

Indigenous– born or endangered in. native to a land or part. particularly before an invasion Indigenous wildlife- means species or races of wildlife of course happening or has of course established population in the state Introduction – means conveying species into the wild that is outside its natural home ground Threatened Species – a general term to denote species or races considered as critically endangered. endangered. vulnerable or other recognized classs of wildlife whose population is at hazard of extinction Vulnerable Species – refers to a species or races that is non critically endangered nor endangered but is under menace from inauspicious factors throughout its scope and is likely to travel to the endangered class in the close future Wildlife – means wild signifiers and assortments of vegetations and zoologies. in all developmental phases. including those which are in imprisonment or are being bred or propagated

Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature and Surveies

This chapter presents assorted foreign and local stuffs associated with the topic of this research. These stuffs assistance in the comprehension and analysis of the Effectiveness of Attempts that being taken to protect the Wildlife in the Philippines.

State of the Art

The literature and surveies that were reviewed were found to hold bearing on the present survey. They served as bases for the conceptualisation the study’s research job. research design and research methodological analysis.

Local Literature

Roberto V. Oliva. a Forest Law Enforcement Specialist. stated that the Philippines is one of the 17 mega diverse states in the universe in his book entitled. PHILIPPINE FOREST AND WILDLIFE LAW ENFORCEMENT: Situationer and Core Issues. In this book. Oliva describe that the figure of species in a state is one step of biodiversity. The Philippines has 204 species of mammals. of which 54 % or 111 species are found nowhere else ; 101 species of amphibious vehicles. 78 % of which is endemic ; 258 species of reptilians with 66 % indigenousness ; and 576 species of birds with 34 % or 195 endemic species. On wild vegetations. the state has approximately 14. 000 species stand foring five per centum of the world’s vegetation. These include more than 8. 000 species of blooming workss or flowering plants. 33 species of gymnosperms. 1. 100 species of nonflowering plants. and 1. 271 species of nonvascular plants. Harmonizing to Oliva. there are many more species that remain unknown to science. Per hectare. the Philippines likely holds more diverseness of life than any other state on Earth. He explained that because of the singular diverseness in Philippine biological resources. the state is considered as one of the 18 mega diverseness states in the universe.

Unfortunately. with the loss of the country’s forest screen. the home ground of wild zoology has similarly been lost. In his piece of composing he stated that habitat devastation can be attributed to logging. both legal and illegal. excavation and energy undertakings. land usage transition. kaingin. plague and diseases. While habitat devastation is considered as the ground for wildlife loss. other factors include weak institutional and legal mechanisms. domestication and hybridisation. debut of alien species. and overuse for nutrient and trade. In line with this state of affairs. Oliva besides discussed in his book that the authorities is the responsible for tellurian and wildlife protection. The authorities implemented the REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9147. the Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act. on July 30. 2001. In the chase of this policy. this Act shall hold the undermentioned aims: ( a ) to conserve and protect wildlife species and their home grounds to advance ecological balance and heighten biological diverseness ; ( B ) to modulate the aggregation and trade of wildlife ; ( degree Celsius ) to prosecute. with due respect to the national involvement. the Filipino committedness to international conventions. protection of wildlife and their home grounds ; and ( vitamin D ) to originate or back up scientific surveies on the preservation of biological diverseness.

Harmonizing to Oliva. RA 9147 is a good jurisprudence insofar as it provides for the legal regulation for wildlife protection. However. Oliva explained further that there are issues impeding its effectual execution. It might be caused by deficiency of resources for wildlife protection. deficiency of proficient expertness in the DENR. Wildlife Enforcement Officers and LGUs in the proper designation of wildlife. Absence of institutional agreements with other states to contend the entry and issue of alien wildlife species and in conclusion deficiency of wildlife deliverance centres. In the last portion of the book. he recommended some ways to beef up wildlife protection. Among those recommendations are by puting up all the needed installations and allowing benefits for those who protect the wildlife. His book influenced the head of all the Filipino readers that the authorities is ready to supply everything to protect the wildlife in the state. We can guarantee that if all the Filipino citizens and authorities or non-government bureaus work as a one squad. we can forestall the extinction between different species and conserve wildlife for the following coevals.

Foreign Literature

Based from the book of Renee Galang entitled “A Critical Review of Wildlife Conservation in the Philippines” published in Melbourne. Australia. The country’s Marine biodiversity is every bit dramatic.

Harmonizing to his old research the Philippines is considered one of the 17 mega diverseness states which together contain 70 % to 80 % of planetary biodiversity ( Mittermeier et. Al. 1997 ; DENR PAWB et Al. 2002 ) . The Filipino biodiversity therefore has planetary significance. The recent 12th Philippine Biodiversity Symposium titled “Biodiversity preservation: Learning from the yesteryear. working for the future” in Negros Occidental. Philippines was the best chance to see the current preservation activities in the Philippines. . A sum of 170 participants from the provincial congresswomans and adult females. to foreign and local environmentalists. international and national related foundations. Universities. NGO’s and preservation biological science under-graduate and post-graduate pupils participated. The ambiance was intensely passionate for the preservation cause and the flow of information and networking was friendly. kindred to any collaborative activity of like-minded people.

The challenge confronting Filipino environmentalists to brace and/or change by reversal the current grave ecological crisis is prodigious. This is due to the recent recognition that the state is the top of the list of “mega diverse countries” . “In relation to the size of its land mass. the Philippines is one of the world’s Centres of biodiversity and endemism” ( WCSP 1997 ) . The state has 529 endemic craniates ( DENR-PAWB et. Al. 2002 ) for which many of the endemic mammals and aviafaunas are in endanger of extinction if the current crisis continues. Heaney ( 1999 ) asserted that “it is tragic that the biodiversity of the Philippines and the menace of its at hand loss have been discovered simultaneously” .

Due to this scenario. Heaney ( 1999 ) concluded that the state is confronting blunt option: either a diminution from the biologically richest topographic point on Earth to environmental desolation. or retrieve from the current coppice with catastrophe to a point of stableness. The diminution of the Philippine wood is chiefly due to the Filipino authorities failure to implement protective policies and the corruptness of former disposals. This is particularly true on the latter half of last century where the wood declined from 50 % in 1950 to less than 20 % at present. of which less than 3 % is primary wood left.

As the publication of the Philippine spotted dear it states that by the ego funded countrywide study of Roger C. Cox. 95 % of its natural distribution in 1985 and 1987 is believed to hold kick started the present intense preservation action is the Philippines. The Filipino authorities reacted by go throughing an Executive Order 192 through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources ( DENR ) to make the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau ( PAWB ) in 1987. The Bureau’s duties are: to set up and pull off the country’s Integrated Protected Area System ( IPAS ) ; to explicate policies of the saving of biological diverseness ; and to function as the direction authorization in the enforcement of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild zoologies and vegetations ( CITES ) .

PAWB has 4 divisions: Biodiversity direction. Natural diversion and extension. protected countries committee. and Wildlife resources. DENR in 1989 established the sustainable development construct as its cardinal guiding rule. The section besides formulated the Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development ( PSSD ) that incorporated the construct of the Triple Bottom Lines ( i. e. economic viability. ecological sustainability and societal duty ) as its cardinal them Related Surveies

Harmonizing to Ceferino P. MAALA a visiting professor in Hiroshima University-Japan. the Philippine is high on the list of precedence states in the universe for wildlife preservation because of its singular biological diverseness. big figure of endemic animate being and works species. unequal wildlife protection steps. and high rate of deforestation What are endangered species? Harmonizing to the definition given by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ( IUCN ) . endangered species are workss or animate beings that are being threatened with extinction due to inordinate hunting and big scale devastation of their home ground. Conservationists all over the universe are alarmed by the 1996 Report of the International Union for IUCN intertwining that the figure of critically endangered mammals in the universe has increased significantly from 169-180. Primatess from 13-19. fresh H2O polo-necks from 10-24. and birds from 168-182. Of the list for endangered mammalian species. nine are endemic to the Philippine islands.

These are the Golden crowned winging fox. Negros naked-backed fruit chiropteran. Philippine tube-nosed fruit chiropteran. Panay bushy-tailed cloud rat. Ilin hairy-tailed cloud rat. Visayan warty hog. Calamian pig cervid. Visayan spotted cervid. and tamaraw. Among the critically endangered avian species in the study is the Filipino bird of Jove. Although no endangered Marine mammals were mentioned in the study. whale sharks are fast vanishing from Philippine Waterss ( Esplanada. 2000 ) . For illustration. the Rhicodon typus ( besides known as chucking patola in Zambales. toko in Mindoro. balilan in Cebu and Bohol and butanding in Bicol and Palawan ) . which on a regular basis visits the Waterss of Donsol. Sorsogon ( located at the tip of Bicol Peninsula ) from November to May are seldom sighted in Filipino Waterss now. These soft. polka dotted whale sharks are widely hunted by local fishermen for its meat and fives. which are reported to command a high monetary value abroad.

To forestall the Richodon typus from wholly vanishing from the Filipino Waterss. the Filipino authorities in 1998 declared the giant shark endangered ; therefore. censoring poaching and exportation of its 2 Ceferino P. MAALAmeat. which is a daintiness in some Asiatic states. Other non-governmental preservation groups such as the World Wildlife Fund Philippines ( Kabang Kalikasan ng Pilipinas ) and big concern pudding stones like Nokia Philippines. Megaworld Corporation and International Container Terminal Services Incorporated have supported the government’s run to protect the giant shark. The Filipino Daily Inquirer a taking Filipino newspaper besides supports the save the giant shark run. Other endangered Filipino species are the Hawksbill polo-neck ( Eretmochelys imbricata ) . Olive Ridley polo-neck ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) . Leatherback polo-neck ( Dermochyles coriacea ) . Philippine crocodile besides known as Philippine fresh water crocodile and Mindoro crocodile ( Crocodylus mindorensis ) . Indo-Pacific crocodile or salt H2O crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus ) . Mindoro shed blooding bosom ( Gallicolumba platenae ) . Mindoro shed blooding bosom ( Ducula mindorensis ) . lesser bird of Jove bird of Minerva ( Mimizuki gurneyi ) . Filipino bird of Jove bird of Minerva ( Bubo philippensis ) . silvery kingfisher ( Alcedo argentata ) . Mindoro hornbill ( Penelopides mindorensis ) . heavenly sovereign ( Hypothymis coelestis ) and Isabela oriole ( Oriolus isabellae ) .

The Philippines – Japan Crocodile Farming Institute ( CFI ) based in Palawan Island has successfully bred the Crocodylus mindorensis in imprisonment. Merely the endangered terrestial mammals ( cloud rats. fruit chiropterans. cervids. wild hog and tamaraw ) and the Philippine bird of Jove will be described in this paper There are many organisations in the Philippines that are implementing assorted ways to protect and conserve our endangered wildlife. They are guaranting the wellness and endurance of the home grounds. workss and animate beings. conserving natural countries. protecting critical ecosystem services and supplying communities with economically sustainable options to forest devastation.

Through these organisations. they assess forestry and agricultural concerns to guarantee that they are following with different environmental criterions. which include decently caring for H2O and dirt. supervising wildlife populations. protecting migratory tracts and forbiding the hunting and trafficking of wild animate beings. Organizations help communities set up and back up touristry concerns as an option to deforestation. Therefore. the different organisations for wildlife take an attempts and takes active portion in organizing to protect the wildlife.

Chapter Three
Research Design and Methodology

This chapter discusses the research design and methodological analysis of the survey. It shows how the procedural operation of the research job of this survey. Research Design

This survey utilized the experimental research design. An experimental research is a type of co relational research in which a research worker observes ongoing behavior. Through this research design. this survey will depict the effectivity of different protective attempts of the DENR-PAWB in protecting the Filipino wildlife.

Beginnings of Datas

The survey has two beginnings of informations. viz. ; primary and secondary beginnings. The primary beginnings of informations are through from shoping the cyberspace. The secondary beginnings of informations include the information gathered from the interviews.

Instrumentality and Validation

This research used informations procured from the interviews we conducted to the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau ( PAWB ) and inside informations stated at the Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act.

Data Gathering Procedure

The research workers sought the permission to interview the two different organisations who protect the endangered wildlife in the Philippines to secure informations as respects to the effectual attempts to protect wildlife.

Chapter Four
Presentation. Analysis. and
Presentation of Datas

This chapter presents the analysis and reading of the informations gathered in this survey. Here are some information gathered from the inquiries that the researches made and answered by the respondents.

1. The primary ground of holding wildlife in the state is for ecological balance and it is besides to keep the nutrient web. Food web diagrams the interaction of multiple nutrient ironss within a certain ecosystem. demoing the common dependence of species and the natural balance of home grounds that sustain carnal and works life. 2. Because of harmful human activities. urbanisation and clime alteration. some of the species in the state becomes threatened. Another ground is because of the Invasive Alien Species. These alien species are workss. animate beings or micro-organisms that have been introduced outside their natural distribution country. When IAS enters new home grounds. the deficiency of marauders and their ability to vie with native species over the bing nutrient supply can let them to rule the local ecosystem. Local species can really go a nutrient beginning of the IAS. and drive the former to extinction. 3. The of import ground of protecting the wildlife is to salvage its little population and to salvage them from extinction. 4. Some threatened species are can be found in some of the states in Visayas and in the part of MIMAROPA such as Negros. Panay. Leyte. Mindoro and Palawan.

5. There were merely approximately one to two animate beings that are being rescued every twenty-four hours. These animate beings are non truly endangered. Normally. animate beings like serpents. polo-necks and monkeys are being turned over by those who don’t cognize how to manage these animate beings. 6. There’s a circumstance that the savior are being harmed by the animate beings that they’re delivering. Particularly when those animate beings are non used to human activity. Accidents are inevitable in delivering wildlife animate being. 7. There are different ways on how modern engineering helps these organisations to protect the wildlife easier. The Geographic Information System ( GIS ) engineering is an effectual tool for pull offing. analysing. and mapping wildlife informations such as population size and distribution. home ground usage and penchant. alterations in home grounds. and regional biodiversity.

GIS offers an indispensable agencies of tracking threatened animate beings to assist forestall farther injury or even extinction. In the other manus. the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) device will usually enter and hive away location informations at a pre-determined interval or on interrupt by an environmental detector. These informations may be stored pending recovery of the device or relayed to a cardinal informations shop or internet-connected computing machine utilizing an embedded cellular ( GPRS ) . wireless. or satellite modem. The animal’s location can so be plotted against a map or chart in close real-time or. when analyzing the path subsequently. utilizing a GIS bundle or usage package.

But they don’t have adequate figure of these devices because these devices cost excessively much expensive. It can be afford if there were patrons that are willing to assist financially. 8. Medical wellness programs are provided for all the animate beings. Quarantine trials and one-year wellness appraisal are besides given for all the animate beings that they are taking attention of. 9. They merely provide a impermanent shelter. Their chief aim is to rehabilitate the rescued animate beings and they will convey them back to their natural home ground. 10. There are many regional deliverance centres all over the state. It is required to hold at least one deliverance center/sanctuary for the animate beings every part.

Harmonizing to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. the Filipino vegetation has 101 critically endangered species. 193 endangered species and 240 vulnerable species. In the other manus. the Filipino zoology has 299 occupant species. 203 migratory species. 421 endemic species. 22 autochthonal species. and 7 freshly introduced species.

Chapter Five
Summary of Findings. Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter presents the sum-up of findings. decisions and recommendations of the survey. This survey determined the effectivity of the different attempts exerted by the DENR in protecting and conserving the country’s wildlife. This sought to reply the undermentioned sub-problems. What is the entire figure of threatened species in the state as of twelvemonth 2011? What are the factors that the organisation does in conserving wildlife? I. Drumhead

In malice of those harmful activities by worlds. different organisations strive difficult to protect and take attention of the wildlife. There are bit by bit of animate beings are being rescued a twenty-four hours. Defenders of the wildlife are sometimes put in danger like being harmed by the animate beings that they are seeking to deliver. The DENR- Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau Rescue Center is established as a impermanent shelter for donated. rescued. abandoned and confiscated endemic. autochthonal and alien wildlife from Metro Manila and nearby states. All wild animate beings brought into the centre undergo the necessary wellness quarantine and rehabilitation period. Endemic and autochthonal wild animate beings found physically fit are finally released back into their natural home ground following standard protocol. Those unfit persons every bit good as exotics are displayed in the Mini-zoo to advance public consciousness. grasp and support to the preservation of the country’s wildlife resources and their home grounds.

The centre is besides a beginning of show animate beings for legitimate zoological Parkss and research specimens for academic and scientific establishments. It is besides a life research lab for veterinary and biology pupils and wildlife partisans. Nowadays. modern engineering plays a large function in our day-to-day lives to do our occupation easy. There are some devices that are being used by the DENR to track and observe the threatened animate beings. Unfortunately these devices are dearly-won that can’t afford and can’t operate continuously. In malice of that. the organisations are seeking to convey back the rescued animate beings to their home grounds and besides. they provide the full medical wellness program that the animate beings needed. The medical wellness program depends if the animate being is enduring from an unwellness or has been into a risky accident.

They provide deliverance Centres all over the state who take impermanent detention and attention of all confiscated. abandoned and donated wildlife to guarantee their public assistance and wellbeing. DENR implemented regulations and ordinances on conserving the country’s wildlife resource and their home grounds for sustainability. It is entitled “The Wildlife Act: RA No. 9147” . In general. the DENR-PAWB is the primary authorities bureau responsible for tellurian wildlife protection. They aim to conserve and protect wildlife species and their home grounds to advance ecological balance and heighten biological diverseness.

II. Decisions

From the analysis. readings and deductions of the findings of the survey. the undermentioned decisions were drawn:

1. Unless the extinction doesn’t occur. the attempts exerted by the organisations are still effectual. 2. There were many different organisations. different in aims and attempts. But still they are endeavoring for one end. to take good attention. protect and continue the natural resources that our country’s can be proud of. 3. Protecting wildlife is to embrace workss and animate beings. Protecting wildlife will besides protect the home grounds and hence aid keep ecological balance

III. Recommendations

In the visible radiation of the findings and decisions. the following are offered as recommendations for possible action:

1. The authorities should develop and heighten the Torahs refering the protection of country’s natural resources. 2. Increased support from province and cardinal authorities bureaus for the preservation of natural resources. 3. Proper planning of land and H2O use should be done to guarantee the protection of wildlife in their natural home grounds or in the manmade home grounds such as menagerie and botanical gardens.

Cite this page

Philippine Wildlife Essay. (2017, Aug 31). Retrieved from

Let’s chat?  We're online 24/7