Archival Research Paper - Philippine Typhoons

Degree of Loss and Destruction: A Look into the Impact of Typhoons that Hit the Philippines from 2008 – 2011 December 2012 Table of Contents Title Page………………………………………………………… i Table of Contents…………………………………………………………ii Chapter 1 – Introduction Background of the Study ………………………………………. 1 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………. 2 Significance of the Study ………………………………………. 3 Scope and Limitations ………………………………………4 Chapter 2 – Conceptual Framework Objectives of the Study………………………………………….. 5 Hypotheses………………………………………….. 5 Conceptual Framework………………………………………….. 6 Chapter 3 – Review of Related Literature ………………………………. Chapter 4 – Research Method Archival Research…………………………………………… 17 Chapter 5 – Data Gathering and Procedure Research Locale…………………………………………… 18 Research Instruments…………………………………………… 18 Data Collection Procedure……………………………………19 Chapter 6 – Presentation of Data 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2008 (Table, Photographs, Newspaper and Online articles, Journals/Blogs) ………………………………… 21 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2009 (Table, Photographs, Newspaper and Online articles, Journals/Blogs) ………………………………… 29 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2010 (Table, Photographs, Newspaper and Online articles, Journals/Blogs) …………………………………37 0 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2011 (Table, Photographs, Newspaper and Online articles, Journals/Blogs) …………………………………43 Summary (Graph)…………………………………………….

49 Conclusions…………………………………………….. 50 Chapter 7 – Recommendations…………………………………………….. 52 Chapter 8 – References……………………………………………….. 53 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This chapter contains all the information regarding the Background of the Study, Statement of the Problem, Significance of the Study, and the Scope and Limitations of the study.

Background of the Study A typhoon is a hurricane occurring especially in the region of the Philippines or the China Sea.

It could destroy lots of areas wherein many Filipinos suffer- people starve, becomes homeless, and lose their loved ones. Philippines is often visited by a lot of typhoons is because of the mere fact that it is the first massive land next to the Pacific Ocean. Trade winds gather near the equator and combines with several equatorial winds. These winds are sometimes merged by warm bodies of ocean water which makes them stronger and more indestructible.

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Recently, a typhoon named Pablo visited the Philippines. A typhoon is a hurricane that when occurs in a certain area, urban or rural, can make a disaster.

Pablo made a devastating impact on the Philippines. It made a very big effect in the Mindanao particularly on Compostella Valley, Cateel, and New Bataan. The river transformed into a body of water full of mud. The place was full of broken tree parts, structure debris and bodies of dead people. Also, outside the Philippines, a hurricane named Sandy visited New York City this year. Hurricane Sandy left New York with homeless families, destroyed places and flooded streets. Due to these tragic events, our group has decided to conduct this study. Filipinos were emotional because of those calamities happened from the past.

They felt so down seeing their properties and areas damaged by these typhoons and felt so hopeless knowing that everything seems to be devastated or gone and they could no longer live the life like before these incidents happened. Although a lot of things are going through their minds, they still have to face the fact that life must go on. Despite all of these calamities happening, they’re still very fortunate to have a lot of people from all around the country giving help and donations to them. Also with the aid of the government organization and other countries, they have survived and started again to live on their own.

Statement of the Problem 1. To what extent or impact did the typhoons bring to the Philippines from the year 2008 up to 2012 in terms of: a. Loss of lives (death tolls) b. Damage to properties, infrastructures, and the places affected (amount) c. Destruction of nature Significance of the Study The group has conducted this research to have benefits in these certain sectors: GOVERNMENT AGENCIES/INSTITUTIONS – This research will aid in future researches as well as in making plans, programs and projects to help victims of storms and to be well prepared if the Philippines will experience future storms.

ACADEME – This research will help schools in making their students better prepared for storms in teaching them and informing them the impact made by storms based on the data collected. It can also help the schools when they will make try to help the victims of storms. The school will know what should be their proper action to help the victims. COMMUNITY – This research will let the community be aware on the effects storms have in the Philippines. The community will know what the proper course of action will be to be safe from the storms.

PSYCHOLOGISTS/SOCIAL WORKERS – This research will give knowledge to them of what to expect from the victims of the storm. So that they will be able to help properly and deal with the victims who just came from these tragic events. Scope and Limitations The study was conducted here in Davao City. The researchers used the Archival technique to look for different source documents from archives, the internet, and other reference materials related to further support the study.

It focuses on the different impacts of the typhoons that have struck the Philippines starting from the year 2008 to 2012 especially its effects to the people, the properties and surroundings, and the whole nation itself. It seeks to only answer the questions given from the Statement of the Problem and not from others which are not directly related to the study. The Archival research method was decided by the researchers to be used in this study therefore no other methods shall be used. The resources were also carefully chosen which suited the theme of the investigation.

CHAPTER 2: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter includes the Objectives of the Study, Hypotheses, and Conceptual Framework. The Conceptual Framework presents the concepts that are placed within a logical and sequential design which clarifies concepts and propose relationships among notions in the study. Objectives of the Study This study is intended to strengthen people’s awareness about the destruction brought by the typhoons going in and out the country from 2008 to 2012 and how the victims of these timely calamities recovered from such impact made by storms.

From these researches, people will have knowledge about how severe the damages a typhoon can bring to an affected area and its people. It would take the victims weeks or even longer to recover not just financially but in every aspect that defines their being such as how to handle the emotional distress from the sudden tragedies they experience. Hence, they will need the help of those who are fortunate enough to be spared from such catastrophes. Hypotheses Alternative Hypothesis:

From 2008 to 2011, Philippines has been highly devastated by a lot of typhoons that made big impacts on the properties and lives of Filipinos and places affected, as well as to the nature. Null hypothesis: A lot of typhoons have visited Philippines from 2008-2011, but there were little impact happened on the properties and lives of Filipinos and places affected, as well as to the nature. Conceptual Framework Dependent Variables: Death Toll Properties/Infrastructures destroyed Destruction in nature Independent Variables: All typhoons and related calamities that have hit the Philippines starting from 2008 up to 2011 Degree of Damage:

Not that Destructive and Costly (high casualties and damage (among the four)) Destructive and Costly (higher casualties and damage (among the four)) Very Destructive and Costly (highest casualties and damage (among the four)) Way/source of recovery from calamities: Government Fundings for losses/damages incurred Assistance from other countries and international groups Donations from all over the country Psycho-social effects The diagram presented The diagram presented above includes the independent variables which are the different typhoons and related calamities that have struck the country in a span of four years.

This then leads to the dependent variables being measured which includes death tolls, infrastructures/properties destroyed, and the destruction they have brought to nature. With these, we can now identify the level of damage incurred to the country, as seen on the next box. And finally, the last box contains ways on how the affected citizens have recovered after these tragic events happened, based on the level of damage. CHAPTER 3: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the literature and related studies which have direct bearing on this study. It also discusses the deadly storms in the Philippines as well as its impacts.

Our study will be helpful to our society by means of increasing their knowledge about typhoons and their impacts to their livelihood. Typhoon According to Webster (2007), a typhoon is a violent tropical cyclone originating in the western Pacific. Typhoons feature heavy rains and winds that maintain speeds equal to or greater than 74 miles (119 kilometers) per hour. Similar storms that occur in other parts of the world are called tropical cyclones or hurricanes. The word typhoon comes from the Chinese term tai-fung, meaning great wind. A typhoon is also a natural disaster.

The heavy rains and strong winds of a typhoon can cause great loss of life and billions of dollars in property damage. As a typhoon approaches lands, its winds produce a rush of seawater called a storm surge that can devastate coastal areas. Philippine Topography, Weather and Climate Philippines is located in Southeast Asia and goes by many names such as “The Pearl of the Orient Seas”. It is composed of 7107 islands. These islands are scattered all throughout the country’s geographical location which is why you can never really tell the exact shape of the Philippines even in a map.

It is surrounded by warm bodies of ocean water that’s why it is always visited by typhoons. But mostly, in the east part of the Philippines is always visited because it is facing in the Pacific Ocean. The Philippines is hot year-round but sea breezes can add freshness during the winter (November to February). The typhoon season lasts from around July to October, although in recent years it seems to have been starting and finishing later – in 2010 for example there was severe flooding in North Luzon as late as November. Rainfall patterns vary across the country. In Manila, Palawan and Coron, for example, most rain occurs in the yphoon season. Other areas (including much of the Bicol region) have no distinct dry season, with the most rain from December to February. The Visayas have only a short dry season from November to January, while in Leyte and Bohol, rainfall levels don’t change much throughout the year. Travelers should therefore check the local climate before making plans. Most tourists visit from January to May (and particularly the first half of that period) when most of the country is undergoing its best climatic conditions. Surfers, on the other hand, are attracted to the islands during the typhoon season as it brings the biggest waves. Columbus, 2012) Philippine Storm Warning Signals (PSWS) The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) releases tropical cyclone warnings in the form of Public Storm Warning Signals (PSWS). An area having a storm signal may be under: (DOST, 2007) * PSWS #1 – Tropical cyclone winds of 30-60 km/h are expected within the next 36 hours. Unless this warning signal is upgraded during the entire existence of the tropical cyclone, only very light or no damage at all may be sustained by the exposed communities. Rice crop, however, may suffer significant damage when it is in its flowering stage. PSWS #2 – Tropical cyclone winds of 60-100 km/h are expected within the next 24 hours. In general, the winds may bring light to moderate damage to the exposed communities. * PSWS #3 – Tropical cyclone winds of 100-185 km/h are expected within the next 18 hours. In general, moderate to heavy damage may be experienced, particularly in the agricultural and industrial sectors. * PSWS #4 – Tropical cyclone winds of greater than 185 km/h are expected within 12 hours. In the overall, damage to affected communities can be very heavy. Philippine Ecosystem

Philippines’ ecosystems provide the essentials of life to millions of people – from seafood and game animals, to fodder, fuel wood, timber, and pharmaceuticals products. They play a major role in economies and are an important social safety net for the rural poor. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, environmentalists believe that the rate of endemism for the Philippines is likely to rise. However, conservationists fear that, without immediate intervention, the Philippines hotspot is on the brink of an extinction crisis.

In fact, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has identified the Philippines as “one of the most endangered of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. ”  “Widespread destruction and conversion of natural habitats, overexploitation, and pollution have led to rapid biodiversity loss,” said a World Bank report. (Tacio, 2009) Recent Philippine Typhoons In 2009, the Phillippines was visited by a typhoon named Ondoy. Ondoy was considered a weak typhoon but it brought record rainfall and flooding in September. A state of calamity was declared in Metro Manila as well as 25 provinces.

Marikina and Rizal province were the hardest hit areas. According to PAGASA, Ondoy dumped 455 millimeters of rain in Quezon City alone within 24 hours. As per the National Disaster Coordinating Council’s last report, Ondoy left 337 people dead, 308 injured, and 37 missing. Estimated cost of damages amount to almost Php 10. 5 billion in infrastructure and agriculture. (Typhoon Watch 2009) In 2010, Typhoon Basyang at 80 mph is the most destructive typhoon in the Philippines. It affected the provinces of Quezon and Bataan and also hit the islands of Calaguas and Balesin. It incurred 8. million USD in damages and claimed the lives of 37 casualties, most of whom are fishermen. Manila and Northern Luzon were not spared as well. Major power lines were knocked down leaving 40 million citizens in the dark. This damage to power has caused fury among citizens over PAGASA’s failure to predict the storm’s path. (WikiPilipinas. org, 2010) In 2011, Sendong entered the Philippines leaving cities devastated. (Sendong – International Code/Name: Washi). If we’re keeping tab of the most destructive typhoon of the year, then 2011 saved the “best” for last. On 15 December 2011 (11:00 a. m. , PAGASA issued its first severe weather bulletin for Sendong, announcing that this Tropical Depression east of Mindanao has entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR), with estimated maximum winds of 55 kph near the center. By 5:00 p. m. , Public Storm Warning Signal No. 1 was raised in 11 provinces in Visayas and Mindanao, raised to Signal No. 2 by 11:00 p. m. While Sendong did not exceed Signal No. 2, the heavy rains it brought caused massive flooding, loss of life and property, in various places Mindanao including Cagayan de Oro and Iligan. At 10:30 p. m. of 18 December 2011, PAGASA announced that Sendong has left the PAR.

As of 28 December 2011, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) readjusted the death toll caused by storm “Sendong” from 1,453 to 1,249 after basing it on existing “body counts. ” This figure does not include those who are missing or injured, or the number of houses and establishments destroyed by Sendong. (Typhoon Watch, 2011) Global Issues All the spare parts appear to be coming together to create what forecasters are calling “Frankenstorm,” a monster combination of high wind, heavy rain, extreme tides and maybe snow that could cause havoc along the East Coast just before Halloween next week.

Hurricane Sandy, having blown through Haiti and Cuba on Thursday, continues to barrel north. A wintry storm is chugging across from the West. And frigid air is streaming south from Canada. And if they meet Tuesday morning around New York or New Jersey, as forecasters predict, they could create a big wet mess that settles over the nation’s most heavily populated corridor and reaches as far inland as Ohio. With experts expecting at least $1 billion in damage, the people who will have to clean it up aren’t waiting. Utilities are lining up out-of-state work crews and canceling employees’ days off to deal with the power outages.

From county disaster chiefs to the federal government, emergency officials are warning the public to be prepared. (Borentsein, 2012)  Still fresh in the memories of American’s, especially those from New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina was the costliest hurricane in US history as well as one of the 5 most deadliest ever recorded. Knocking out levies in Louisiana Katrina caused over 80% of New Orleans to flood before moving into the northeastern United States dumping rain all across the area. By far the largest natural disaster to ever hit the US Hurricane Katrina is $80 billion (2008 USD) in damages and killed 1,836 people with 705 still missing.

One thing that stands out about the Katrina disaster is the utter failure of FEMA or any other government agency to provide support and rescue services to the areas. Lawlessness was rampant with police shooting innocent civilians and going door to door confiscating guns from American citizens in dry areas just trying to defend their homes. The remnants of Hurricane Katrina are still evident in New Orleans even as efforts to rebuild the city are still under way. (Ranker, 2012) Late in the night on October 10, violent storms swept in from the Bay of Bengal and lashed the coastal districts of south east Bangladesh.

At least 31 people were killed in Noakhali, Bhola and Chitagong, while a further 1,500 fishermen along with 200 fishing boats in the Meghna River, remain missing. The storms damaged hundreds of thatched houses, cut off villages and left many without electricity. Displaced people in the affected districts are residing on road sides, raised ground, schools and colleges, and are in need of shelter, basic food and non-food items. Livelihoods dependent on agriculture and livestock are at risk due to losses from the wind damage and tidal surge that accompanied the storm.

The IFRC has allocated 266,000 Swiss francs (284,903 US dollars) from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund to support more than 25,000 people over the next four months. The main focus will be on providing affected families with a package of food and non-food relief items including emergency shelter materials, water jerry cans and dry food. (Ahmed, 2012) Violent storms in southern China have killed at least 18 people and injured more than 150, state media report. Gale-force winds, heavy rains and hailstones battered Guangdong province at the weekend, forcing hundreds of people to evacuate their homes.

The authorities say those who died where struck by falling objects or collapsing walls. The extreme weather has caused millions of dollars of damage to buildings as well as farmland, officials said. The storms, packing winds of up to 164 km/h swept through the provincial capital, Guangzhou, and the nearby cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Zhaoqing. The storms have affected more than 3,200 people, and at least 45 houses have been destroyed, a spokesman from the province’s flood control headquarters was cited by Xinhua as saying. The civil affairs ministry put the cost of the damage at 96m yuan ($14. m). About 2,500 acres (1,000 hectares) of crops were damaged, state media reported. (BBC News, 2011) CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHOD This chapter describes the research method used by the researchers in studying the case presented. Archival Research Type Archival research is a method in which the sources of data are various types of documentations. It includes any project in which existing documents or data are the units of observation. These may include music, novels, movies, diaries, and other reports, as well as raw, aggregate, or statistical data collected by others.

Traditional archives include library records, courthouse records, and business records. Archives are usually printed or handwritten, they are called paper archives. With the advent of computers and the Internet, many archives now exist only in electronic form; they are called electronic archives. Most archives are valuable so pains are taken to keep them safe. Natural disasters and wars can destroy archives and cause the loss of priceless information. Archival data are collected for a variety of reasons. The Archival research type is the best method to be used because the study focuses on the past.

And the best possible way to look at the past is searching through the history. This history refers to archives and other source documents that were recorded, listed, written, or printed from time to time. Through these resources, the group can now carefully collect and select data from the past which would help them to carry on further with their study. CHAPTER 5: DATA GATHERING AND PROCEDURES This chapter includes the methods on how and where the data were gathered, what are the instruments used for the collection of information and the different steps that the researchers have carefully followed for the success of this study.

Research Locale The researchers conducted the study at the Ateneo de Davao University, E. Jacinto Street, Davao city. This school was established at the year 1948 and founded by the Philippine province of the Society of Jesus, the Ateneo de Davao aims to develop students through academic excellence, spiritual growth and social involvement. Source Documents were collected from the different resources available from the web and more importantly at University Library which is one of the best libraries in the country – with a wide array of resources, always accessible to all students and within the vicinity of the school campus.

Research Instruments Since the archival technique was used for the study, archives and documents from different sources were gathered to support the study. These references include: written or published documents like book and newspaper articles, theses, and statistics to name a few; photographs; news reports; videos; and information from the internet. The researchers made sure that the instruments gathered are helpful and directly related to the study. Also, all of the resources were carefully chosen from the years 2008 until 2011, for a span of four years.

Data Collection Procedure The data gathering procedure covered a period of one week, beginning on the 8th to the 16th of December 2012. The group properly observed the following steps while conducting the study: 1. The group used archival research method and chose to conduct a research topic with the agreement of all its members. 2. The group went to the school library to look for available collections of books, records, documents, and/or other print or nonprint materials as a source of data that can help them gather information for their research. . In gathering the information, the group asked for assistance of the librarian to locate the resources needed. 4. The group carefully examined the references they have gathered and made sure that it is related to their study. The examination lasted for several days. 5. The group examined their gathered data, and then developed them for better purposes in the research. Records on the topic were identified, categorized, and converted into data that are then analyzed with quantitative or qualitative methods. 6. The group made their research paper.

They became cautious of understanding and interpreting the data collected. After that, they organized them and made different ways of presenting their finding. 7. Since this is a descriptive method of research, specifically the archival type, the researchers finally made conclusions out of the information gathered to answer the problem stated. For the data presentation, the types of materials the group used to report the findings from their research were photographs, videos, newspaper and online articles, statistics, books, and the internet.

All these steps helped the group in conducting their study. CHAPTER 6: PRESENTATION OF DATA This chapter presents all of the data found and gathered by researchers for the study. The data are presented through tables, photographs, and notes from books, online and newspaper articles which were collected for the research. A. 10 Most Destructive Typhoons in 2008 (Philippines) (Sources: NDRRMC, DPWH, and Wikipedia) Typhoon name| Casualties| Damage| Cosme| 51| $100,000,000| Frank| 1371| $380,000,000| Helen| 24| $232,800,000| Igme| 23| $441,000,000| Julian| 204| $200,000,000|

Marce| 12| $100,000,000| Nina| 67| $300,000,000| Ofel| 6| $240,400,000| Pablo| Not Stated| $6,500,000| Quinta-Siony| 30| Not Stated| Total(as per data gathered)| 1788 deaths| $ 44 700 000 billion(est. Php 18 327 700 000 billion)| Photographs (from Google Images and WordPress) Uprooted trees by Bagyong “Igme” A woman crying for the loss of her In Metro Manila. husband during Typhoon Ofel. A lot of homes were destroyed Search and Rescue operation during the onslaught of Bagyong Nina during Tyhpoon Helen.

These people became homeless due Houses were greatly affected by the to the destruction caused by “Cosme”. flood brought by “Ofel”. Newspaper/Online Articles (for Typhoons “Frank”, Ofel”, and “Nina”) “Nearly two years after typhoon “Frank” ravaged Western Visayas, the national government finally released P600 million as part of the P4-billion fund intended to rehabilitate damaged areas and infrastructure. ” “The P4 billion is part of the P12-billion supplemental fund approved in December 2009 for rehabilitation of areas damaged by typhoons Pepeng and Ondoy in Luzon in 2009 and Frank for Western Visayas in 2008. “Typhoon “Frank,” which struck on June 21, 2008, triggered the worst flooding in Western Visayas and left at least 531 persons dead in the region including 226 who remain missing and presumed dead. At least 2,555 others were injured. The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) earlier said that 11 bridges in Antique and 16 bridges in Iloilo were destroyed or damaged by flood waters that submerged many areas in Panay. ” * Excerpt from Inquirer Visayas. “Gov’t releases P600M for typhoon Frank rehabilitation” by Burgos, Nestor, Jr. May 20, 2010) “At least 598 people have been killed by the typhoon as it dropped torrential rain that caused flooding and mudslides in the Philippines, which means that it could be one of the top ten deadliest tropical cyclones in the Philippines. In Iloilo province, 59 are reported killed and 40 missing. In Iloilo City, 30,000 people were forced onto rooftops when a nearby reservoir burst. In the Bicol Region, more than 200,000 people sought temporary shelter from the typhoon. Meanwhile, as the storm passed through Metro Manila and its nearby provinces, it caused widespread power outages which lasted for hours.

Typhoon Fengshen could be one of the deadliest typhoons to hit the Philippines, killing over 1,300 people here, mostly from the sinking of the Princess of the Stars ferry during the storm. The Philippine National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) on June 23, 2008, reported that: 98 people died, 115 were missing, 66 were hurt, 99,687 families were affected, 155,564 houses were damaged, 53,706 were totally wrecked, and 109,837 were partially destroyed, in 10 regions, due to typhoon “Frank” as of Monday noon (excluding the MV Princess of the Stars incident). The Philippine National Red Cross placed the death toll at 229.

Frank destroyed P 500 million crops amid its P 1. 7 billion damage to property in Iloilo. The US responded by donating P 4 million and sent USNS Stockham and US Navy P-3 maritime surveillance aircraft ship, for rescue. AFP reported 224 dead and 374 missing (598) as of Monday. The Philippines National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) reported that “Frank” damaged a total of P 3. 2 billion worth of agricultural and fish products and more than 300 schools nationwide (P 212 million). Additional damages to infrastructure were pegged at P 750 million, and fishing boats at P110 million, or a total of P 4. 27 billion pesos.

According to the latest NDCC Situation Report on Typhoon Frank (Fengshen), 557 were dead (excluding the deaths in the MV Princess of the Stars), 87 were missing and 826 wounded. Frank affected 4,784,634 persons in 6,377 barangays in 419 municipalities in 58 provinces all over the Philippines. Damages in agriculture amounted to almost PHP 7. 542 billion while infrastructural losses made it to around PHP 5. 983 billion, which, all in all, totaled to slightly more than PHP 13. 525 billion. The most affected areas were Iloilo, Capiz, Aklan and Antique in Panay Island as well as Leyte and Eastern Samar in Region VIII. ” * Taken from Wikipedia. rg. “Typhoon Fengshen 2008” “Not just rain, but quarrying in a mountain site contributed to the landslide thatkilled a man who went to fetch water at a spring in barangay Jaclupan, Talisay city on Thursday during typhoon Ofel. Talisay City Entineer Audie Bacasmas, who sent staff to inspect the site, said they found that continuous extraction of soil in sitio Tabok Sapa was a factor in the mishap. He left a wife and three children, who are seeking assistance after losing the the family’s breadwinner. His daughter-in-law Michelle Arat said continuous rains in the past days may have softened the soil near the well and triggered the landslide. * Excerpt from Inquirer. net – “Rain, quarrying behind landslides” by Gabriel C. Bonjoc. (October 27, 2012) “Eight people were dead and 15 others went missing as typhoon Nina (international codename Hagupit) left the Philippines Tuesday, the government’s disaster coordinating agency reported. The National Disaster Coordinating Council’s (NDCC) late Tuesday report said the eight fatalities died in landslides, of drowning and electrocution. A total of 14 miners remained trapped at a mine site in Itogon town in Benguet province.

One more missing person identified as Nilia Alejo, 58, of Barangay Bugnay, Valderama, Antique was also reported missing. The miners were last reported 700 feet below ground. The governor said the rescuers have not seen signs of life. Mud washed down by typhoon-induced rain had blocked the entrance of the tunnel, preventing rescuers from reaching the miners, authorities said. Rescuers pumped water out of the tunnel so the mud can be cleared out. The typhoon left the Philippines area of responsibility Tuesday and was forecast to move to Hongkong on Wednesday morning. ” * Taken from abs-cbnNEWS. om – “Typhoon Nina leaves 8 dead, 15 missing” (September 24, 2008) Online Blog An excerpt from “My Experience on Typhoon Frank” by “Bevs” from WordPress. (posted June 23, 2008) “June 21, 2008 is a memorable day not only for me but for my fell

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Archival Research Paper - Philippine Typhoons
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