South Africa is known as a fast-developing state, and World Cup is possibly the biggest event of all time in its district. However, the substructures in this Africans biggest economic system were still hapless when they won the command in 2004. Therefore, its no uncertainty a great challenge for this state. Furthermore, with the bad repute of African undertaking failure syndrome ( Rwelamila, Talukhaba & A ; Ngowi, 1999 ) and eventuality locale ( DellApa,2008 ) , many people has a deep misgiving to countrys capableness to finish this monolithic undertaking.
While Canada presents a different scene, where 1976 Montreal Summer Olympic and 1988 Calgary Winter Olympic were staged, with advanced systems in featuring locales, transit, communicating services. Besides, the authorities and authorization had accumulated much experience prior to this game. The International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) had great assurance that Canada will show a superb tourney to the universe.
Planning, readying and proving are indispensable to the success of the Games.
During the preparative stage,
The building of substructure is a cardinal parametric quantity for measuring the preliminaries.
Yardstick for measuring overall undertaking public presentation
These two undertakings were both over-budget
Table 3: Planned budget versus concluding costs of the 10 World Cup bowls
( Baloyi and Bekker, 2011 )
Harmonizing to the tabular array, except from two losing informations, the other eight bowl were all over-budget, the estimated budget was R11.7 one million millions, but the concluding cost was 35 % beyond the budget. Baloyi and Bekker ( 2011 ) found that overspending is caused by a figure of factors, the chief grounds are increase in material cost and inaccurate stuff estimations.
It is besides of import to place the beginning of investing for the game, the bowl undertaking was wholly funded by South African authorities.
Similary, the locale building cost of 2010 Winter Olympic was besides over-budget. The original estimated cost was $ 470 1000000s, but the organizer subsequently revised the budget to $ 580 1000000s to guarantee the locale could run into IOC satisfaction ( ) . However, the concluding cost given by VANOC was $ 603.3 million. The Government of Canada and the Province of British Columbia each committed $ 290 million to venue development plan, along with $ 23.3 million came from value-in-kind from patrons, BC Housing and involvement ( Brumwell, 2010 ) .
Sing the compeletion of work, both South Africa and Vancouver successfully finished before their deadlines. A sum of 10 bowls were selected as game locale for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, five of them were newly-built and other five holding undergone monolithic renovation. Building work was due to get down in late 2006, and they were supposed to complete before December 2009. However, it went through a zigzag procedure, FIFA review commission was often kicking about the slow advancement, and some were non ready for the Confederation Cup in 2009 – the warm-up event for the World Cup ( Baloyi and Bekker, 2011 ) . Some rumors even claimed that the president of FIFA, Joseph Blatter might look for alternate to host this tourney. But eventually, all 10 bowls were successfully completed on clip and passed scrutiny.
During the command procedure for the 2010 Winter Olympics, the modern, brilliant bing featuring locales has been one of Canadas great competitory advantage. With its solid foundation, the VANOC decided to upgrade four locales to necessitate criterion and meanwhile built six new sites. VANOC started venue building every bit early as 2006, and it was developed really swimmingly. By February 2009, one twelvemonth in front of the game, all locales were ready and unfastened for preparation and proving event.
Besides, the ticket gross revenues of these two events differed greatly. In April 2010, merely two months before the kickoff, there were still 50,0000 unsold tickets, available to all 64 games including South Africa s lucifers and the concluding. The hapless merchandising was go oning in both host state and abroad market, merely 42 % of allocated tickets were being bought outside South Africa, with 330,000 tickets staying. The concern of expensive airfare, transit, hotel and safety issue had deterred many protagonists. As respects domestic purchasers, the first job was pricing, as most of the flush white occupants prefer watching rugger to football, while even the cheapest tickets ( 140 rand = 12.40 ) , were still out of range for the black community. Another job is the dealing method, The IOC chose cyberspace as a chief gross revenues channel, nevertheless, merely 11 % of South African population were internet endorsers ( ) . To guarantee full bowl, the organiser gave some free tickets to big companies instead than hapless people, but there was no betterment after the tourney started, the FIFA functionaries were still disappointed with 1000s of empty seats.
In constrast, tickets for Vancouver Olympics sold really good, study suggested that VANOC managed to sell over 97 % of the numbering 1.54 1000000s tickets. With respect to abroad gross revenues, more than 75 % of all available tickets were sold. The bowls were full in Opening and Closing Ceremonies and in some popular athleticss such as ice hockey. The high attendence was due to two ground, foremost, the VOC created a fan-to-fan market place on its official web site for reselling and donating the game ticket, which provided great flexiblity for marketer and purchasers. Second, some of official spouses donated over 50,000 tickets, and these tickets were so distributed to the destitute communities ( ) .
Operational hazard and unexpected challenge
Table 4: Hazard Table of South Africa World Cup
Table 5: Hazard Table of Vancouver Olympic Games
The 19th FIFA World Cup was the fifth clip held in the South hemisphere. Players have to vie in cold clime once more after 32 old ages. As the sod are to a great extent influenced by the clime, the inauspicious conditions status seemingly brought a large challenge to the organiser. Therefore, FIFA and LOC decided to present the man-made grass to some of bowls. Basically it was a blend of unreal grass ( 3 % ) and nature grass ( 97 % ) , the unreal grass fibers were implanted below the surface and intermingle with the nature grass which can beef up the field ( ) . Thus the intercrossed grass will hold a smooth surface with a hardy root, it will non be affected by upwind status or ferocious undertaking any more. As man-made grass was first employed in World Cup, the populace were filled with expectancy and uncertainty. After playing a lucifer on this revolunary surface, the Algerian manager Rabah Saadane felt the man-made pitch had a negative impact on his squads public presentation. Nevertheless, most of participants mentioned that it was a challenge but they enjoyed playing on this field ( ) .
Safety has been a long-standing issue for South Africa, which is stemmed from racial tenseness, pieces proliferation, high unemployment rate and big income spread etc. Any offenses happened during the World Cup would deface the host state. Awared of these hazards, both LOC and the authorities spent much attempt in battling offense and guaranting the security of visitants. Before the start of tourney, the South African authorities announced that their disbursal in security had reached $ 1 billion, and the SA constabularies service added 41,000 constabularies officer to cover with larceny, vandalism and terroism ( Sylvester and Harju, 2010 ) . The authorities besides invested R45 million to a fast-track condemnable justness system to treat any World Cup-related offense. The suspects were arrested by constabulary and taken to a delicated tribunal where they would confront farther probe ( Sylvester and Harju, 2010 ) In add-on, Joint Operation Centers have been set up at each locale location, and it consisted of constabulary, trefoil and fireman in order to get by with any possible crisis ( Pellegrino, Bam and Dutiro, 2010 ) . It turned out that these moves were really effectual. The reported offense dropped 70 per centum during the World Cup, the tourney passed off peacefully without any studies of violent offense ( Sylvester and Harju, 2010 ) . The South African authorities won international congratulations for its security step.
On the contrary, this Vancouver Olympic was doomed to be unsuccessful from first twenty-four hours when Georgian Luger Nodar Kumaritashvili was killed during a preparation tally. Although the paramedics arrived on the scene within seconds after the accident and the athelete was airlifted to a injury centre in Whistler ( Bryant, 2010 ) . However, few hours subsequently, the Georgian deputation confirmed the tragic intelligence. In fact, Luge is seen as the most unsafe athleticss in the Olympics, and it took topographic point in one of the universes fastest path this clip. Furthermore, prior to the awful calamity, there were several little accidents in the same topographic point, and one Rumanian jock lapsed into unconsciousness for a few proceedingss ( Bryant, 2010 ) . But unluckily, these issues had non brought to organizers attending. VANOC did non modify the race path and rise the protective wall on the side of the luge, which resulted in the fatal accident. This calamity had casted a somberness over the game and it was merely a beginning of catastrophe.
A series of accidents followed afterwards, the sudden prostration of ice-resurfacing equipment led to the delay of speedskating events, and one Slovenian jock injured during the cross-country race. More earnestly, VANOC didnt reckon for the unseasonably mild conditions. This caused a job at Cypress Mountain, as snow could run in the locale of freestyle skiing and snowboarding competitions. Therefore the organizer had to desperately transport dozenss of snow from environing mountains and even cancelled some competitions ( Broom, 2010 ) . To get by with the refund, the functionaries once more did a hapless occupation, as they merely refund to the original purchaser, and wholly ignored those who bought ticket from jobber. The loss in ticket gross was about $ 1.5 million, merely a bantam portion of VANOC ‘s $ 260 million in ticket gross, but harm in public-relation was much more serious. ( Broom, 2010 )
Hosting a big international athleticss event promises non merely the exhilaration of the event and media exposure for the host state but besides the outlook of a positive return on the considerable investing associated with hosting this type of event.
Harmonizing to the statistics provided by LOC, the entire gross generated by 2010 World Cup exceeds R38 one million millions, which was 45 % more than the mark. Furthermore, the month-long World Cup contributed R93 one million millions to South Africas GDP growing ( Sylvester and Harju, 2010 ) . In the long term, the monolithic substructure betterments will be benefited by local occupants, and it would move as a accelerator for societal development. Besides, the success of World Cup had changed the international perceptual experience of this state. FIFA president, Sepp Blatter awarded the host state a 9 out of 10 for its organisation. Another study indicated that 92 % of foreign visitants would urge South Africa to others as a tourer finish ( Sylvester and Harju, 2010 ) . These positive responses would surely pull more tourers and abroad investing.
The Canadian authorities had predicted that the gross of Winter Olympic approximates $ 9.6 one million millions, but finally, the entire income was about $ 1 billion ( ) . Furthermore, the overall cost of this game was over $ 6 one million millions, 6 times more than the old budget. Therefore, the Olympic Game created debt job for Canada, and this immense load demands to be shared by the local occupants. But except from the immense shortage, the Olympics had left strong bequests for the host state. One of the durable effects was in environment country. The Vancouver Olympic was praised for more than Green game, they had developed a new sustainability benchmark for the hereafter mega featuring event ( ) . In add-on, VANOC received the Excellence for Green Building award from the Globe Foundation and the World Green Building Council for constructing the greenest Olympic territory in North America ( ) .
Lesson learnt from the undertakings
From my position, although South Africa met with some jobs during the readying such as cost overproduction in locale building and hapless ticket merchandising. But they successfully manage the possible hazards and challenges during the tourney, and besides received both touchable and intangible benefits. Vancouver Olympic Games, by contrast, the organizer win in presenting the undertaking on clip and within its budget, but the tourney was labelled as a failed undertaking due to the awful hazard direction and immense shortages. By comparing these two undertakings, there were several critical lessons to larn.
First, exposure to put on the line could do terrible result, hence hazard direction is necessary for undertaking. It requires non merely proper designation of each hazard but besides seasonably and effectual action to undertake them. From the illustration of Winter Olympics, VANOC did non take every potency hazard into consideration. They underestimated the chance and impact of unusual conditions and mechanical snafu, which led to detain and even cancellation of the game. Furthermore, the Olympic organiser did non respond quickly when a hazard had been spotted. Before the Olympics, VANOC and path interior decorator had been informed by the International Luge Federation sing the unsafe luge race path in Whisler Sliding Centre, but the organiser did non do any alteration on the path. After the path was opened for proving and preparation, some incidents occurred and caused hurt. However, there was still no mark of alteration which led to the decease of Georgian jock.
Second, cost overproduction sometimes seems ineluctable in a big, long time-span undertaking. Statistical information shows, over the past half century, cost overproduction arises in all the Olympic Game after subtracting the rising prices rate. There are multiple internal and external factors occur during the undertaking. Internal factors such as inaccurate measure take-off, alteration orders by client ( Baloyi and Bekker, 2011 ) . External factors such as fiscal crisis, domestic currency depreciation, rise in natural stuff monetary value. Therefore, for future undertaking directors, they have to keep a good relationship with patrons to procure support. They besides need to fix a elaborate cost-benefit analysis for patrons to convert them of investings. Furthermore, in the early phase, the undertaking squad estimates the budget with small information. The demand is to put more clip in the early briefing phases of design to clearly specify a undertaking ‘s range and complexness.
Last, the undertaking director should analyze the existent status of every part, instead than trusting on empiricist philosophy. Particularly for an international undertaking, it is of import to guarantee the same communicating engineering is available across the sites. The organisers of South Africa World Cup wrongly believed that on-line ticket merchandising is favorable in every state, but in fact, the cyberspace use in this state was comparatively low compared to the old host states such as Germany and Japan. This resulted in a hapless ticket merchandising and low mean attending.