What was the biggest threat to the Roman Empire as early as the first century B.C.E.?
The Germanic Tribes
What was the group who was responsible for the infamous sack of Rome in which much of the ancient city was destroyed?
What is the bond of loyalty between chieftain and his warriors called?
What was the first monumental literary composition in a European vernacular language?
Who was the Frankish chieftain responsible for reunifying the fallen Roman Empire under Christian leadership?
During the era of the reunification of the Roman Empire, what was the only country of European occupation claimed by the Islamic peoples?
What was the system of military and political organization known as feudalism centered around?
Descendants of dukes and counts appointed by Charles the great
What is the quintessential lyrical representation of the fighting nobility in the feudal age?
The Song of Roland
What group did the Normans trace their direct ancestry to?
How is grace bestowed within the Christian faith?
Extreme unction is another name given for what physical action?
Final absolution before death
What is the intermediate step between Heaven and Hell as defined by the medieval church?
Who was Hildegard of Bingen?
was abbess of a Benedictine convent, was a scholar of Latin and German, and wrote visionary texts and a wealth of diverse academic literature
What is Pope Innocent III’s On the Misery of the Human Condition considered?
Greatest of Medieval sermons
What are the three types of medieval drama?
Mystery, miracle, and morality
What literary type is that of Dante’s Divine Comedy?
According to Dante, what is the most foul of all sin?
Which city was the intellectual melting pot of the medieval West?
What is the Augustinian credo regarding inquiry?
Faith precedes reason
What philosopher’s writing was safeguarded throughout the Middle Ages by Arab scholars and caused great intellectual challenges in the West once released?
Who was the scholar whose Yes and No sought to balance multiple point s of view in synthesizing a most-correct answer in terms of religious dogma?
Who is considered the greatest so-called Scholastics, a Dominican theologian and teacher, and author of the major treatise Summa Theologica?
What was the first of the mendicant orders created at the Fourth Lateran Council?
What was the dominant political, religious, and cultural force of the European Middle Ages?
The Catholic Church
In which French city did the Benedictine abbey become a model for the revised and energized monastic tradition in the medieval West?
What was the purpose of a reliquary?
an ornamental housing for important religious artifacts
What new style did the medieval architects’ return to cut stone (in the ancient Roman method) for vaulting in their expanded churches introduced new style?
In which part of the medieval church was the dividing point between an earthly city and the realm of God clearly illustrated?
Where did the style of Gothic architecture begin?
The Gothic cathedral was firstly a church, but it also acted as the official administrative seat of what?
What is the principal intercessor between God and the Christian believer, traditionally?
The Virgin Mary
Where was the flying buttress architectural feature first employed at?
Notre Dame in Paris
What was the crowning example of the Gothic period in Europe?
Sainte Chapelle in Paris
What were musical developments during the Early Middle Ages almost exclusively the products of?
What is Hildegard of Bingen’s Ordo virtutum known as in Western history?
Earliest known morality play
What are the correct events in Indian history that approximate the events of the Western Middle Ages in Europe?
the end of gupta dynasty to the mongol invasion of India
What features describe Hinduism?
most ancient of today’s world religions
According to the text, how can one achieve a direct interpersonal contact with the Hindu godhead?
by gazing steadily at a visual representation
What are the members of the Hindu “trinity” as described in the text?
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
What is he poetic language of ancient India is called?
What was the architectural ideal of the early Buddhist and Hindu temples to represent?
the sacred mountains
Who was the famous Venetian merchant that visited China in the thirteenth century?
Under the rule of which emperors from 618 C.
E. to 907 C.E. did China experienced a flowering of culture that was unmatched anywhere in the world?
What has been the main route to official status in China throughout its long history?
the imperial examination system
The death of Charles IV of France in 1328 ended the Capet line of monarchs and opened up claims to the French throne by what group?
What was the war that began as squabbling over the throne of Charles IV?
The Hundred Years War
The relocation of the papacy from Rome to what city is generally recognized as the beginning of the Great Schism?
What is the act of selling church leadership positions to the highest bidder regardless of qualifications called?
What city produced the “third” pope at a 1409 ecumenical council designed to heal the Great Schism?
Where did the Black Death originate?
in Asia where it was spread by the Mongols
What specific part of the human anatomy did the Black Death affect?
In Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, where are the travelers going?
Who is considered the world’s first feminist writer?
Which city was the Renaissance born in?
Cultural and political leadership for the early Renaissance was under the auspices of which family?
What event caused a climate of intellectual skepticism in middle-class men and women of the era?
the Great Schism of the Catholic Church
What is the artistic and intellectual movement to recover, edit, and study ancient Greek and Latin manuscripts called?
Who is the father of the new movement to recover, edit, and study ancient Greek and Latin manuscripts generally regarded to be?
Who stressed the importance of Classical education and hard work in the cultivation of virtù?
Who applied his vast study of ancient literature to defend free will and the unlimited potential of the individual?
Pico della Mirandola
Who established the then-modern educational ideal in the person of l’uomo univerale (the well-rounded individual)?
Who is the Venetian writer famous for her written retort to a contemporary diatribe promoting the defects of women in The Nobility and Excellence of Women and the Defects Vices of Men?
What is the central theme in Machiavelli’s The Prince?
the need for a strong state justifies strong rule
What are the approximate years of the Renaissance?
What does the word “renaissance” literally mean?
In the commercial cities of Italy and the Netherlands, the arts became tangible expressions of increased what?
What were Renaissance artists disciples of?
Who was the first freestanding life-sized sculpture of a human since antiquity created by?
Who painted The Birth of Venus sometime after 1482?
Who was responsible for the colossal and innovative dome on the cathedral (il Duomo) in Florence, Italy?
Who was an early master of the new Renaissance technique of linear perspective, who died young but left many innovative church frescos in Florence?
Who was the quintessential artist-scientist, who tried to reconcile empirical experience with abstract principles of design?
In 1510, Pope Julius II commissioned which artist to execute a series of frescoes for the Vatican Stanza Della Segnatura, including The School of Athens?
Who was the Venetian architect celebrated for having resuscitated the Classical ideals of symmetry and centrality in numerous buildings and villas throughout Northern Italy?
Who helped to popularize the madrigal and other vernacular song forms?
Printed sheet music
What was the period of the greatest age of trans-Eurasian travel since the days of the Roman Empire?
European exploration was motivated by the fall of which city in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks, who now dominated overland trade routes to the East?
Who produced maps and charts that exceeded the accuracy of those drafted by Classical and Muslim cartographers?
By 1498, who had navigated around Southern Africa to establish Portuguese trading posts in India?
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus, an Italian, who sailed west in search of an all-water route to China was employed by which country?
What were two features that distinguish the history of the vast African continent?
the dominance of a kinship system that forms the basis of social and communal organization, and an animistic view of nature
Which African empire did not come under the influence of Muslim culture?
Kingdom of Benin
What system does the great body of African literature emerge out of?
Inseparable from the rituals for which they were made, African masks function as transformative objects that work to do what?
channel spiritual energy
The fourteenth-century travels of which scholar document a cross-cultural encounter between peoples of vastly different customs and beliefs?
By the year 1500, who controlled the flow of both gold and slaves to Europe?
What are the rich outputs of the native populations of the Northwest?
Carved and painted wooden totems and masks
What was the last of the Native American empires, who was centered in Mexico at their capital of Tenochitlán?
What was the first of the great Meso-American empires, who built civic centers with stone temples, palaces, and ball courts?
At their height in the late fifteenth century, who ruled a Peruvian empire of some sixteen million people? They left monumental architecture, textiles, and ritual objects in silver and gold.
What was the technological innovation that spurred the Protestant Reformation?
The devotio moderna movement first took root in which country?
Who was the leading Christian humanist of his day, who led the critical study of the Bible and writings of the church fathers?
Who was the voice of the Protestant Reformation?
What was the 1517 call for Church reform posted on the Wittenberg Cathedral’s door titled?
The Ninety-Five Theses
German princes either held fast in their allegiance to Rome, or banded together under the name of what?
Who was a Zurich-based radical wing of Protestantism called who rejected all seven of the Catholic sacraments, turning instead to individual acceptance of God?
Who was a Geneva-based Protestant sect named who emphasized the predestined nature of humanity from birth for salvation or damnation?
In 1526, Henry VIII declared himself head of which organization?
The founder of Protestantism favored above all others what type of music?
Who was the pioneer of Northern Realism in painting the Flemish artist?
Jan van Eyck
The literary genre of the novel was first created in Japan; what is considered the first Western novel?
What was the most powerful form of literary expression to evolve in the late sixteenth century?