Ap Biology Lab Report

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Mitosis is accompanied by cytokines in which the end result is two completely operate cells called daughter cells. There are four phases of mitosis: protease, metaphors, anapest and telephone. Meiosis is a two-part cell division process in organisms that sexually reproduce. Meiosis produces gametes with one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

There are two stages of meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. At the end of the meiotic process, four daughter cells are produced.

Each of the resulting daughter cells has one half of the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Mitosis was studied first in this lab. The phases f onion root tips were observed under a microscope. The crossing-over of chromosomes in meiosis was observed by viewing photos. Hypothesis If looking under a 400 power microscope, than it is possible to observe mitosis occurring in whitefish blastula and onion root tips.

If crossing-over occurs in meiosis, than the genes do not segregate until meiosis II.

Materials and Methods All materials and methods followed based off of lab manual. Results Activity A: Observing Mitosis Enterprise Cells Plant Cell Protease Cells Animal Cell The cellular organelles doubled in number, the DNA replicated, and protein honesties occurred. The chromosomes are not visible and the DNA appears as uncoiled chromatin. Protease Animal Cell The chromatin condensed and the chromosomes became visible.

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The nucleolus disappeared, and the spindle forms and attaches to the centimeters of the chromosomes.

How To Write An Ap Biology Lab Report

Early and late protease can be seen. In late protease, the chromatin has condensed into chromosomes, the nucleolus is gone, and the nuclear envelope has been removed. Metaphors Cells The nuclear membrane fragmentation is complete and the duplicated chromosomes lined up along the cell’s equator. Anapest Cells Diploid sets of daughter chromosomes separated and were pushed and pulled toward opposite poles of the cell. This was accomplished by the popularization and differentiation of the misconstrues that helped to form the mitotic spindle.

Telephone Cells The nuclear membrane and nucleoli reformed, cytokines is almost done, and the chromosomes uncoiled to chromatin. Daughter Cells The daughter cells formed and constructed a new dividing cell wall between them. Each daughter cell received a copy of the genome of its parent’s cell. Analysis of Results, Activity A: Observing Mitosis 1. I can infer that the two cells came from the cell a long time ago because they have similar organelles. 2. Two ways that mitosis differs in the cells of animals and higher plants is in cytokines and right before protease.

In plant cells, there is a pre-protease right before protease takes place. 3. A) Nuclear envelope disappears in protease; nuclear envelope reappears in telephone B) Mitotic spindle forms in protease; mitotic spindle disappears in telephone C) Chromatin condenses into chromosomes in protease; chromosomes unwind to form chromatin in telephone D) Commentators are at opposite ends of the cell in tappets E) Nucleolus disappears in protease 4. The three sub phases of enterprise are the GIG phase, S phase, and the GO phase.

In the GIG phase, cell synthesizes proteins and produces cytoplasm organelles. In the S phase, DNA synthesis occurs, and in the GO phase, the cell beings forming the spindle. 5. Both prokaryotic cell division and eukaryotic cell division replicate their DNA and use the process of cytokines. Activity B: Estimating the Relative Lengths of Mitotic Phases Table 1: Group Count I Number of Cells I I Field I Field 2 | Field 3 | Total 1-3 | Enterprise 152 146 1 57 | 155 |

Protease 122 1 25 | 29 76 | Metaphors 116 1 11 191 36 | Anapest 1 5181 51 18 Telephone | 14 | 10 181 32 | I Total 1317 1 Table 2: Class Data I Class Totals I Decimal Fraction of Total Count I Estimated Time Spent in Phase I Enterprise | 582 | . 46 | 13968 | protease | 305 | . 241 7320 | Metaphors | 148 | . 121 3552 Anapest | 65 | . 051 1560 | Telephone | 171 | . 13 | 4104 | Total Cells Counted | 1271 | Analysis of Results, Activity B: Estimating the Relative Lengths of Mitotic Phases Pie Graph 2. Stages of Mitosis Ranked 1) Enterprise 2) Protease 3) Metaphors 4) Anapest 5) Telephone 3.

Some phases of mitosis are longer than others because each phase has a different task, and some of the tasks of the phases are harder than others. For example, enterprise takes longer than other phases because the nuclear envelope fragments and the misconstrues attach to the chromosomes. Telephone takes the least amount of time because chromosomes only go to opposite ends of the cell and a nuclear membrane forms. Activity C: Simulating Meiosis Analysis of Results, Activity C: Simulating Meiosis 1. Sixteen combinations of the two chromosomes are possible. 2. Number of chromosome combinations= .

There are gametes. 4. There are possible combinations of chromosomes for human possible combinations of chromosomes for the offspring. 5. The relationship of meiosis to variation in populations is that genes are able to move themselves and combine with different sets of genes that aren’t present in the parent. This causes a higher chance of survival. 6. Three ways that meiosis differs from mitosis are that meiosis occurs in reproductive cells, while mitosis occurs in somatic cells. In meiosis, a mitotic mother cell is always diploid, while in mitosis a mother cell can be haploid or diploid.

In meiosis, two divisions of the mother cell causes four meiotic cells, while in mitosis, a single division of the mother cell causes two daughter cells. Activity D: Crossing-Over and Map Units Analysis Results, Activity D: Crossing-Over and Map Units Table 3 I No. Boom ASCII (4:4) | No. FOMCL ASCII or | Total ASCII I %MIMI ASCII (No. Of Ml/Total) I Gene-to Controvert Distance (%Ml/2) I Group Data | 45 65 | 110 | | 29. 5 (30) | 1 . Crossing-over increases genetic variation because when the chromatics exchange sections with each other, they get new combinations of alleles that heir parents had, which causes more chromatics. . I would expect to find more genetic variation in the population of species B because it’s undergoing sexual reproduction. In sexual reproduction there is more changeability because the new generation has many combinations of the genes of the two parent organisms. 3. I would conclude that there was no occurrence of recombination since the MI ASCII would be a 4:4 ratio. Discussion My results proved my hypothesis. This is so because by looking through the microscope it was possible to view the stages of mitosis in the onion root tip and he whitefish blastula.

The stages of mitosis that were visible were protease, anapest, telephone, enterprise, and metaphors. The time spent in each phase was also figured out. Enterprise was the phase that the cell spends most of its life in. Telephone was the shortest phase. We stimulated the stages of meiosis using red and yellow magnetic beads. Crossing-over in Sardinia was observed by looking at photos. Afterwards, the map units were determined. We discovered that the distance of the gene relative to the controvert in the Sardinia was fifty- nine map units.

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Ap Biology Lab Report. (2019, Dec 06). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-ap-biology-lab-report/

Ap Biology Lab Report
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