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Lung capacity is the volume of the most air you can exhale after Lully breathing in. Based on that I will experiment with two kind of subjects in order to measure their lung capacity and get conclusions about the results. II. Research Question How does exercise affect the lung capacity of people? Ill.
Variables Variables I Control of the variables I Independent variable I Level of exercise I I will control my independent variable by working with people who do exercise and people who don’t do exercise at all.
I Dependent variable Volume of air in a balloon as measured by the displaced from a bucket In order to control my depend variable I use a ray to measure the amount of water displaced from the bucket, and from there measure their lung capacity.
L Controlled variables I Temperature I For each controlled variable I I I Pressure I Just don’t consider their effect I I Smoker persons I Because I perform the whole I I The altitude of La Pas city I Experiment under the same conditions. And ask some questions to the volunteers first. I IV. Materials The materials used for the procedure are: 1. 14 balloons 2. 1 tray 3. Bucket 4. Graduated cylinder 5. Water V. Procedure 1. I chose specific volunteers who could help me with the experiment, some of hose athletics and the other persons who don’t do exercise.
2. Ask them to take in the deepest breath they can. 3. Once they had took their deepest breath the Inflate a balloon with the single deep breath. 4. In ordered make easier the process of measure I tie the balloon off. 5. I put a large and deep oven tray in the floor. 6. After that filled an empty bucket with water with water to a height close to the edge but not enough to overflow for later be able to introduce the balloon 7.
Then I situated the bucket in the center of the tray. 8. Once I placed the bucket in the center of the tray, I dunk the balloon into the water being careful in the process in order to not spill extra water into the tray. 9. As I was introducing the balloon the water started pouring out of the bucket and fall into the oven tray. 10. When the balloon is fully submerged I took the bucket with the balloon away from the tray. 11. Finally I poured the water from the oven tray into a graduated cylinder and wrote down the results. VI. Safety Precautions In order to take precautions in the lab I used a lab coat to prevent getting wet.
Also, because we don’t want anything to break I handle the bucket, oven tray and graduated cylinder with caution. Is not extra to remember that even though the substance being analyzed is water, do not taste or drink any because it may be contaminated with undesired chemicals from prior laboratories. Also since I’m working with humans I include the B experimentation with animals policy: Any planned and actual experimentation involving animals must be subject to approval Following a discussion between teacher and student(s) based on the B animal experimentation policy. Experiments involving animals must be eased on observing and measuring aspects of natural animal behavior. Any experimentation should not result in any pain or undue stress on any animal (vertebrate or invertebrate) or compromise its health in any way. Therefore experiments that administer drugs or medicines or manipulate the environment or diet beyond that easily tolerated by the animal are unacceptable. Experiments resulting in the death of any animal are unacceptable. Any experimentation involving humans must be with their written permission and must follow the above guidelines. Experiments involving body fluids must not be performed due o the risk of the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. Internal assessment moderators or extended essay examiners who see evidence of breaches of the above policy in the sample work sent for moderation or in extended essays are required to complete a problem report form (PRE) to be submitted to B Cardiff.
VII. Raw Data elaborated two tables based on the subjects who do exercise constantly and the subjects who don’t, I present those tables in table 1 (athletic people) and table 2 (people who doesn’t do exercise constantly) TABLE 1: This table represents the lung capacity of people who do exercise instantly, their lung capacity was measured with the balloon who after that was introduce into the bucket and water was represented en ml in the table below.
As it can be observed, the blue column (represented by the average of athlete people) shows a clearly advantage above the red column (represented by the average of other subjects), that’s why it can be determined that the athlete’s total mug capacity in each sample performed was always higher than other person’s average. X. Conclusion As the results clearly show, we can see that athlete people have much more lung capacity that people who doses ‘t do exercise often, this is due because there is a correlation between lung capacity and athletes.
Athletes are able to better manage their air intake thanks to the lung capacity. The heavy breathing that comes from practicing and competing aids in the process as well. Also A vital capacity of an athlete is higher than a non-athlete because they are trained to o hard work so their lung get’s bigger overtime and makes it easier for them to take long breaths when they are running or doing any other exercise. While non athlete’s doses ‘t have their lungs trained and so their lung capacity don ‘t increase because they doesn’t have that need.
XSL. Evaluation It’s important to take into consideration that there exists many external factors that may alter the original results, such as not being precise enough when performing the lab, in many cases the position in which you are lying or standing might affect your total lung capacity. However, controlled this the more I could y working with the people in the same position and with the same factors such as smokers and not smokers, and trying to reduce the error the most.
When repeating each performance make sure you do it in the same circumstances in order to avoid variability between data and at the same time achieve concordance between data. Weaknesses and limitations I Suggested Improvements I Variability of data I The data may vary considering the position, subject age or temperature at which the balloon is blown. However since I realize the experiment with the same conditions the data doesn’t vary a lot. In order to educe this errors all the process I recommend to do realize the experiment in the same room with the same temperature and with subjects of the same age in order to reduce the error.
I Systematic errors I Systematic errors may affect the results such as the instrument at which the level of water is measured or the materials of the balloon. In this case the instrument doses ‘t affect a lot the results however, the main error could happen at the moment when the water was trespassed from the tray since I spill some I I suggest take careful measures and avoid seeing the measure of the amount of water collected in different angles, and in this way avoid systematic errors and also be careful at the moment of displaced the water from the tray.