Essays on Thermodynamics

How To Find Specific Heat Capacity Of Water
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The folllowing sample essay on How To Find Specific Heat Capacity Of Water discusses it in detail, offering basic facts and pros and cons associated with it. To read the essay's introduction, body and conclusion, scroll down.Introduction The Specific Heat Capacity of any substance can be defined as the amount of energy needed to raise 1kg of the substance by 1i? c. It’s found by using the following formula: C = Q / (M x ? ?) Where (C) represents…...
Boiling Point Determination Lab Report
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The sample essay on Boiling Point Determination Lab Report deals with a framework of research-based facts, approaches and arguments concerning this theme. To see the essay's introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion, read on.Should be based on observations made during the experiment. Evaluation of laboratory exercise type: On a separate page, each student should write a brief comment regarding 1) which lab method you prefer (inquiry-method, i. E. Problem-solving oriented, or traditional lab. Like this one. 2) group size (individual labs…...
Air Cond Compressor
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This essay sample on Air Cond Compressor provides all necessary basic info on this matter, including the most common "for and against" arguments. Below are the introduction, body and conclusion parts of this essay.If you e an accident at the other side of the workshop you can use the emergency stop button to turn off all electrical power to machines. 4. Always wear an apron as it will protect your clothes and hold loose clothing such as ties in place.…...
ChemistryEvaporationHeatMechanical EngineeringPressureThermodynamics
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Heat Transfer Lab
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This sample essay on Heat Transfer Lab reveals arguments and important aspects of this topic. Read this essay's introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion below.This occurs frequently in industrial processes, especially food preservation and sterilization, where the enrapture Of the food or Of the heating or cooling medium constantly changes (Afraid). The work reported here involves the investigation of unsteady state heat transfer in two cylindrical rods and the conformity of experimental results to different methods of theoretical analysis. Aluminum…...
Environmental Lapse Rate Definition
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This sample paper on Environmental Lapse Rate Definition offers a framework of relevant facts based on the recent research in the field. Read the introductory part, body and conclusion of the paper below.The temperature measured at the ground is 15. Assuming that the air parcel moves adiabatically through the atmosphere, what will be its temperature at each pressure level up to and including 500 hap? Assume ground level is equivalent to 1000 hap) (4 marks). Height (hap)Temperature 500 -35 600…...
Enthalpy Of Decomposition
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This essay sample essay on Enthalpy Of Decomposition offers an extensive list of facts and arguments related to it. The essay's introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion are provided below.Determination of the Enthalpy for Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Objective: To construct a coffee cup calorimeter, measure its calorimeter constant, and determine the enthalpy of decomposition and formation of hydrogen peroxide. Background: This experiment is a classic thermodynamics lab. In it, we attempt to measure the enthalpy (? H) of a…...
Surface Area Investigation
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The sample paper on Surface Area Investigation familiarizes the reader with the topic-related facts, theories and approaches. Scroll down to read the entire paper.There are many factors that determine how quickly or slowly heat is lost. Some of the factors are as follows: amount of water, shape, temperature and surface area to volume ratio. The aim of this investigation is to examine how variations in surface and volume ratios in organisms lead to variations in heat loss.In theory a larger…...
Distillation Experiment Conclusion
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The following academic paper highlights the up-to-date issues and questions of Distillation Experiment Conclusion. This sample provides just some ideas on how this topic can be analyzed and discussed. Additionally the boiling point temperature was upturned at the point when the solution in the boiling flask first began to boil. This temperature was gathered in hopes to compare with the known and documented boiling points of methanol and water in chemistry encyclopedias. However, this temperature was found useless as the…...
ChemistryEvaporationMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamicsWater
Behavioral Adaptations
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The following sample essay on Behavioral Adaptations discusses it in detail, offering basic facts and pros and cons associated with it. To read the essay's introduction, body and conclusion, scroll down.Thermoregulation is necessary for ectotherms to survive. One important mechanism for thermoregulation seen in turtles is the ability to migrate between land and water habitats. This mechanism was studied using I-button data loggers placed inside marshmallow peeps to record temperatures In two different microhabitats; one In a stream and the…...
Gas Diffusion
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The sample paper on Gas Diffusion familiarizes the reader with the topic-related facts, theories, and approaches. Scroll down to read the entire paper.A lump of sugar added to a cup f black coffee eventually dissolves and then diffuses uniformly throughout the coffee. Perfume presents a pleasant fragrance which is imparted throughout the surrounding atmosphere. These are examples of mass transfer. Mass transfer plays a very important role in many industrial processes: the removal of pollutants from plant discharge streams by…...
ChemistryEvaporationMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
Zinc And Hydrochloric Acid Lab Report
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The theory behind this experiment is the heat of a reaction (AY) plus the work (W) done by a reaction is equal to the enthalpy (AY-A) of said reaction. The purpose of this lab is to calculate the enthalpy of a reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid through the equation AY+W, which can also be written as AH=mica + PA. M is the mass of what is being measured in grams. C is the heat capacity which is “the amount…...
Chemical ReactionChemistryHeatPhysicsThermodynamics
Separating a solution with different boiling points
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The purpose of this experiment is to observe what happens when two liquids with a boiling point of 79 and 100 degrees centigrade are heated together and allowed to boil over a specific period, to use the density to determine regenerate composition of ethanol and water and also to understand the process to separating a solution with different boiling points. Distillation deals with a mixture of liquids with different boiling points. It is only very effective when there is a…...
Why Should Each Sample Be Tightly Packed Into The Capillary Tube Prior To Heating
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Melting point temperature is a physical property of pure substances. It is an intensive property, which means the amount of material tested is irrelevant. This lab will determine the melting point temperatures of two known pure substances, naphthalene and p-dishonorable, using micro-sized quantities and a capillary melting tube apparatus. The percent error will then be calculated y comparing the experimental value to the known literature value. Results: In Table 1 on the next page, it shows the literature value melting…...
Factors That Affect The Rate Of Cooling
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Introduction: The experiment will take place with three conical flasks with the same amount of water in each flask. The three flasks will be different colours, which are black, silver and a clear glass. The experiment will be carried out twice, in one case the factors affecting the rate of cooling will be experimented in the lab and in the other case the factors affecting the rate of cooling will be experimented on the data logging, produced as a graph.…...
Factors That Influence Heat Loss
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I have been asked to investigate the link between colour and heat loss. Does the silver or the black cup lose its heat faster? HYPOTHESIS I think that the silver cup will retain the heat for a longer period of time than the black cup, I think this because the black cup will absorb the heat, where as the silver cup will reflect the heat back into the cup causing the black cup to cool down faster than the silver…...
Hess’s Law Of Heat Summation
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Hess’ Law of Heat Summation Hess’ Law states that: “The enthalpy change for any reaction depends  on the products and reactants and is independent  of the pathway or the number of steps between  the reactant and product”. BASICALLY:    Hess’ Law states “the heat evolved or absorbed in     a chemical process is the same whether the process     takes place in one or in several steps”     ­­;This is also known as the “law of constant heat summation”. All it means is that no matter how many steps the chemical     reaction proceeds through, the total heat evolved or absorbed    is the added heat values of each step and will always be    a constant figure for that process. For example:     When phosphoric acid (a tri­hydrogen acid) is neutralized     with a base, the hydrogens are neutralised in 3 steps:    STEP 1:   H3P04 + NaOH ­; NaH2PO4 + H2O ­gives X amount of heat     STEP 2:   NaH2PO4 + NaOH ­; Na2HPO4 + H2O ­gives Y amount of heat    STEP 3:   Na2PO4 + NaOH ­; Na3PO4 +H2O ­gives Z amount of heat    Therefore, the total heat of reaction (   Hrxn) is equal to: Law Of Constant Heat Summation There are two (2) ways to calculate the heat of reaction  using Hess’ Law: 1­  Equation Method (Algebraic Method) 2­  Heat of Formation Method (Summation Method) Equation (Algebraic) Method Strategy:    ­add equations for reactions with known enthalpies     so that their net result is the desired reaction Sample Problem 1: Use the equations below to determine the enthalpy of reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide: H2O2(l)         H2O(l)    +    1/2 O2(g) The equations are: 1­    H2(g)   +   O2(g)       H2O2(l)    2­    H2(g)   +   1/2 O2(g)      H2O(l) Hf = ­188 kJ Hf = ­286 kJ Solution: Sample Problem 2: Use the following equations: 1­    1/2 N2(g)   +   3/2 H2(g)       NH3(g) 2­    1/2 N2(g)   +   O2(g)     NO2(g) 3­    H2(g)   +   1/2 O2(g)     H2O(g) Hf = ­46. 0 kJ Hf = +34. 0 kJ Hf = ­242. 0 kJ to calculate the enthalpy of reaction for: 4 NH3(g)   +   7 O2(g)        4 NO2(g)   +   6 H2O(g) Solution: Practice Problem: Calculate the heat of reaction for the oxidation of one mole of ethanol to ethanoic acid: C2H5OH(l)   +   O2(g)         CH3COOH(l)   +   H2O(l) Use the equations below: ­    C2H5OH(l)   +   3 O2(g)          2 CO2(g)   +   3 H2O(l) 2­    CH3COOH(l)   +   2 O2(g)         2 CO2(g)   +   2 H2O(l) Hc = ­1367 kJ Hc = ­874 kJ Enthalpy of Formation  (Summation) Method Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation: (             ) ­the amount of ____ (absorbed or released) when _________ of   a compound is formed from its _________________ in their  standard states ­most enthalpies of formation are ­ve (__________________)? therefore, most compounds are ___________ stable than the  elements they are made from…...
ChangeChemical ReactionChemistryMaterialsThermodynamicsWater
An Insulated Piston-cylinder Device Contains 5l
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Explain all your answers using the Problem-Solving Technique 1. A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0. 07 m3 of nitrogen at 130 kPa and 120oC. The nitrogen is now expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100oC. Determine the boundary work during this process. 2. A piston-cylinder device with a set of stops initially contains 0. 3 kg of steam at 1. 0 MPa and 400oC. The location of the stops corresponds to 60 percent of the initial volume.…...
ChemistryMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
Effect Of Air Conditioner On Global Warming
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Air Conditioning and Global Warming Air conditioning systems use energy to remove heat from a given location, transferring it to the exterior in the form of exhaust. Some of the energy is invariably wasted as heat, and this additional heat must also be exhausted. Thus, air conditioning results in net heat release to the environment. The warming effect is aggravated, moreover, because higher forms of energy such as electricity are used to power air conditioners. Generating and transmitting this electricity…...
ChemistryEnergyGlobal WarmingHistoryMaterialsMechanical Engineering
Eutectic Temperature Of Naphthalene Biphenyl System
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Abstract Thermal analysis of a solid-liquid phase using cooling curves at various compositions is a method used to obtain the eutectic composition and temperature of naphthalene-biphenyl. The XE was 0. 45 and the TE was 310. 3K these are slightly different from the theoretical values which are 0. 44 and 312K respectively. Results The cooling curves obtained from both groups Group A Group B The table with the mole fraction and the actual masses added. RUN| Group A| Group B|…...
ChemistryMaterialsMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
Cooling Curve Of Paraffin Wax
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A cooling curve is actually a line graph representing the change in the state of matter of a substance, either from solid to liquid or liquid to solid. In this graph, time is usually represented on the x – axis and temperature on the y – axis. The particles in the wax in the solid state slowly start to get more energy when heated and start to move more rapidly at a certain temperature and then change to liquid. When…...
20 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter of the report will go through the
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2.0 LITERATURE REVIEWThis chapter of the report will go through the detailed literature review described in the introduction. The review starts by giving details about the Diesel engines by recognizing their importance in all types of industries now a days. Followed by detailed review about the effect of ambient conditions (in QATAR) including humidity and air temperature on engine performance, as well as their relationship to engine volumetric efficiency. Moreover, detailed discussion on the working mechanism of A/C in vehicles…...
EnergyEnginesLiterature ReviewMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
The Solute Dissociates Slightly In The Solvent
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The melting point will be lower than expected. 5. Part B. 2. The solute dissociates slightly in the solvent. How will the slight dissociation affect the reported molar mass of the solute- too high, too low, or unaffected? Explain. The solute dissociating slightly will cause you to calculate a molar mass that is too small if you neglect the dissociation by assuming i=l instead of the correct value of i, which is 6. Part B. 3.Essay Example on Stress Concentration…...
Two Shaft Gas Turbine Simulator Lab Report
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It has isentropic processes occur that upon investigation describes the Carrot cycle. It can be shown that it is the most efficient cycle for converting a given amount of Herman energy into work, or conversely, creating a temperature difference by doing a given amount of work. Calculations were done for the air compressor, combustion chamber and turbines. Power, isentropic efficiency, mechanical efficiency and pressure loss were all deduced with error factors in mind. In the combustion chamber, the overall pressure…...
EnergyEnginesMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
Charles Law Lab Report Essay
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Assuming that pressure does not change, if you double the absolute temperature of a gas it causes the volume of that gas to double. Temperature and volume are proportional. The volume of a gas increases by 1/273 of its volume at CO for every degree Celsius that the temperature increases. This relationship happens because while the gas molecules are moving around in their container in different directions and peed, they will have an average amount of energy that is the…...
ChemistryMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
Air Conditioning
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HVAC Systems: Air Conditioning Dr. Harjit Singh Room 116 Howell Building harjit. [email protected] ac. uk Fridays 09. 30 – 11. 30am Unless otherwise specified For students enquiries: 1 Building Services Engineering: Building Air Conditioning Module (ME5508), Brunel University Introduction to the module • Credit: 15 • Teaching materials: – Provided for the MSc students. – Undergrads: Buy them from the stores. • Assignment: to be handed two weeks before Xmas, deadline-28 Jan 2013 • Students enquiries: – Fridays 09. 30…...
ChemistryEvaporationMechanical EngineeringPhysicsThermodynamics
Bio lab report on insulators
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Foam is 5 percent air so the air molecules slow down the heat transfer from the liquid, so it stays warmer longer than cotton insulation. This leads me to predict that foam would be the best insulator, as it would trap the heat more, which will cause deficient heat lost. Identification of Variables There are three variables I will take in consideration whilst carrying out my investigation. The independent variable will be the types of materials used for insulation, which…...
Fractional Distillation Organic Lab Report
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If such ideal conditions are not possible as is usually the case”then simple distillation can be applied as long as he liquid in question is composed of compounds that differ in volatility such that their boiling points differ by at least 40 to 50 degrees Celsius. Because the very essence of simple distillation is relies upon the idea that more volatile compounds have lower boiling points and thus when heated to this boiling point will occupy most if not all…...
Melting Point Lab
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What is Melting Point? one of the characteristic physical properties of a solid What is Melting Point used for? to characterize a known compound (if you had to choose between several known compounds) to record a physical characteristic for a new compound (important for comparison between compounds) to establish purity of a known compound (if an experiment reliably forms this known compound OR if you are taking a melting point of a known compound) What kind of compounds will melt…...
Specific Heat Capacity
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In this experiment, we are going to use a calorimeter (a solid metal block of aluminium). And we are going to expose it to different temperatures and measure the difference in temperature over time. We will also measure the changes in electric properties from the heater over time: Volts and Amperes. In order to get more precise data, we are going to repeat this experiment twice with different power and the second trial will use stronger voltage. The reason that we…...
Thermal insulators
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To investigate different materials for the most effective thermal insulator for a house. Introduction Heat transfer is the gain and loss of energy. There are three ways in which thermal energy can be transferred:  Conduction  Convection  Radiation Conduction - this is when energy travels from molecule to another. When one molecule receives energy it begins to vibrate and hits other molecules and makes them vibrate. And will spread throughout the object. Convection - this will only occur in gases and…...
Heat Transfer
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Consider the cylindrical receiver in a solar thermal power plant shown below. The receiver is made of opaque material and has a diameter D = 8m and length L = 14m. At a particular time, the heliostats direct a concentrated solar flux of q”S = 80 kW/m2 onto the receiver. The ambient air has a temperature T( = 300K and there is no wind. Under these conditions, the surface of the receiver has a temperature of Ts = 700K, an…...
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FAQ about Thermodynamics

How To Find Specific Heat Capacity Of Water
...Also I could increase the power supplied to the calorimeter, which would allow me to analyze the relationship at higher temperatures, and also more modern equipment. All these factors could be improved next time, hopefully giving me even accurate res...
Why Should Each Sample Be Tightly Packed Into The Capillary Tube Prior To Heating
...Discussions: Why should each sample be tightly packed into the capillary tube prior to testing? Each sample should be tightly packed into the capillary tube because air spaces affect the melting point. Why should the heating rate during the melting p...
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