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Verbal And Non-verbal Types Of Communication Paper

Words: 1934, Paragraphs: 13, Pages: 7

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Ronald Reagan

Socially, people communicate and interact with the desire to comprehend each other or, simply to a commonly shared idea. This can be achieved using conversational skills such as, starting and maintaining a topic, taking turns within a conversation and then finishing. Social skills are also a type of communication that are used to interact with others, both verbal and non-verbal, through gestures, body language, and our personal appearance. How people identify with individuals can lead to a greater circle of relationships and, at times, friendships. Social skills can be identified by certain types of behaviour whereby an individual can be judged on how socially skilled they are when interacting with other people. To build on an individual’s social skills there are ways to maintain a ‘status’ (U214, 2012b, P. 17) while communicating. There are occasions while communicating with others, thought should be given how to adapt the style of speaking or writing to suit the context of the situation.

How people communicate socially has changed greatly over the last ten years. The increased use ‘digital text’ (U214, 2012b, P. 309) has helped to speed up and make communication faster and far more responsive to personal interaction on a global scale as it is composed of digitised content (text, graphics, audio, and video) that may be transmitted over web or PC networks. From the engagement with technology comes a way of quickly forming words and phrases that simplify the English language when used within a social context. Words are urbanised and use language that has evolved often through texting and social networking sites and is typically truncated, correct capitalisation is non-existent. Certain words are now also used within a slightly different context; ‘wall’, ‘wireless’, ‘tablet’ and ‘like’, while these words have traditional meanings they are now used to provide completely new definitions, often when used in relation to computing or social media.

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Working professionals who are engaged in specific, highly detailed roles may also have a way of communication that is technical and with the growth of digitally enhanced methods of ‘register’ (U214, 2012b, P. 143), this is how professionals adopt and utilise a set of conventions for language use within their own fields of expertise. Linguist John Swales founded the concept of the ‘discourse community’ (U214, 2012b, P. 143) whereby a community of practice requires a group of people negotiating work and striving toward a common goal using shared or common resources. This form of communication, which is primarily used by professionals but also within groups or societies, allows users to formulate ideas and cascade them throughout the community to achieve goals set within their own areas of expertise. The spread of communicative language is helped by the growth of digital technology as these communities are able to share ideas using platforms such as conference calls where individuals can use audio/visuals to interact with each other on a global scale that is instant.

The use of formal and informal language can provide different purposes from the tone, the choice of words and the way the words are put together and can often vary between the two formats. Formal language is considered less personal than informal language, but while these two ways of communication can also be applied to cultural and professional contexts, the informal social context can be varied by its relative spontaneity. As mentioned in a previous assignment, a radio broadcast could be seen as an example of informal and formal communication. Speakers would use linguistic conventions such as interruption and overlapping speech patterns that would not necessarily be allowed within the formal context. For a broadcast to be conducted within a formal setting, the speakers would be expected to follow a pre-set series of linguistic conventions that often result in conversations being ‘goal oriented’ (U214, 2012a, P. 139).

Within a formal working environment, a message could be passed from a superior to a subordinate, for example from a manager to an employee. Such data might embrace feedback, job instructions, and procedures. Transmission of messages from a lower level to a higher level within an organisation, for example, employees can initiate communication with supervisors. Messages that may be transmitted using upward communication regarding employee complaints, requests for clarification, problem reporting and the perceptions of subordinates on organisational procedures, policies, and tasks (U214, 2012b, P. 162). Also, there might be communication involving the exchange of messages between functional positions at a particular level within an institution. It facilitates data sharing and coordination to ensure efficiency. It might also be a type of verbal presentation or document devised to share information which conforms to established professional rules, standards and processes however, it crucially avoids using slang terminology.

There are key differences between formal and informal social communication can vary where there are instances of ‘institutional talk’ (U214, 2012b, P. 139) within a company or organisation. Formal communication is usually perceived as official as it has followed a chain of command. It could also be recorded or written to maintain a database with the ability to create documentary evidence that is always available. As this information has gone through a creative process designed by the organisation it is, therefore, more reliable and carries an authority that can be easily translated throughout the chain of command. Information that is gathered informally can sometimes be considered unreliable with human interference sometimes changing how the information is gathered or maintained. It cannot always support document retrieval as retention of information storage has to be carried out and managed for its data protection. Lastly, informal communication is usually oral or communicated rapidly due to the way people are able to talk freely in groups or clusters.

Constraints may be used to limit the specific workplace context of communication. For example, within the retail sector, the present ‘goals’ are usually based around achieving sales or productivity targets. To successfully achieve this a company would have to have a clear strategy of open communication with its customer base, regardless if the customer is buying a product or a supplier making contact with a company. These constraints are usually in the format of ‘allowable contributions’ (U214, 2012b, P. 139) what participants may say or write while communicating. A shop worker would engage with a customer to either help sell a product or provide information that gives the customer an informed choice about a service provided. If this is carried out successfully this style of formal interaction would then allow the organisation to complete its own sales targets or goals.

How a company professionally sets out its corporate agenda and targets can be assisted by outside influences. Institutions often use coaching companies to provide motivational speakers to help provide a systematic way of working to achieve success. These speakers are themselves often successful in their own field of professional expertise and use motivational speech patterns to cascade their ideas. The American, Grant Cardone is one of many public speakers who address training issues that corporations encounter, from this interaction is the provision to speak on a personal level to encourage individuals on how to achieve success. From the video, it is evident that the audience is engaged with him using personal persuasion (Cordone, G. (2019) [online]). There is also a direct appeal to the audience by using ‘synthetic personalisation’ (U214, 2012b, P. 242) whereby all of the audience are treated as individuals by asking the same question.

Within the scene, there is the use of rhetorical questions to get a response from the audience to achieve three different strategies established by Aristotle (U214, 2012b, P. 233). Logos or logic provides sound reasoning of why something is positive or negative. Directly asking ‘what would you do if someone took all your money?’ while engaging with the audience at the same time. Ethos or ethics provide credibility to show an authority towards a topic. Cardone is incredibly successful in the field of real-estate and with success comes the emotive appeal to the audience so they, in turn, can learn how to be just as successful. Finally, Pathos, which is how emotions are applied to speech, clearly this is applied by approaching the target audience and stating the love of money by asking what would happen if it was taken away by force. By emotionally shocking the audience this use of Pathos is carried further by amplifying the word ‘money’ to give greater emphasis on the emotive paralanguage (U214, 2012b, P. 5) he uses.

These are all key strategies that speakers may use to appeal to their audience by persuasion with the aim to make the audience, no matter how large or small, understand and believe in what is being communicated. This can also be used with the context of culture, whereby a speaker could be a leader or politician. A speaker could also be a single person who is speaking about a thought or an emotive idea for others to understand. In the speech provided by an African-American abolitionist and women’s rights activist, Sojourner Truth, the word ‘Man’ is used three times (Marie-Claire, 2015, online). By using repetition, it directly provokes an emotional response from the reader. This way of motivating people to think differently by using words alone could be incredibly difficult but this was overcome by using an example of ‘Indian rhetorical tradition’ (U214, 2012b, P. 254). Whereby using the word ‘Man’ again as a focal point a comparison can be made using rhetoric to prompt the audience to stop and think about how concerns of equality may affect themselves in their attempt to understand her concept.

Culturally, a prominent person or leader could also use emotive persuasive language to address a large number of people with the goal of delivering a message. In 1986 the American president Ronald Reagan delivered a speech full of passionate imagery that helped to unify America while speaking about a national disaster. In the state of the nation address, Reagan reminded the country of the pioneering spirit that founded the country ‘We’re still pioneers’ (Art of Manliness, 2008, McKay). By using the relatively simple word ‘pioneer’ the American psyche is compared with the population of America and the Astronauts in their ability to achieve greatness while overcoming adversity, by drawing on a founding theme of the American dream in an effort to show empathy with the American people.

The end of the speech is also delivered with an element of religious spirituality that would have provided an emotional impact to the population by stating that the astronauts had ‘touched the face of God’ (Art of Manliness, 2008, McKay). The message of conveying a sense of dying to achieve greatness would have been difficult for anybody else to deliver but this well timed speech was measured in its pace and diction that provided a heartfelt message to the people through the relevant use of lexis while holding the office of President.

How people continue to speak and communicate with each other during the next ten years will no doubt change and evolve with technology expanding and constantly developing. Face to face or direct communication either socially or professionally is still important as connecting with others is crucial to the linguistic development of communication. However, the way people converse and utilise written forms of communication in the future look set to evolve even further as digital and social media is changing the way that interactions are carried out. Possibly losing some of the social skills that have been dependent on so many people as writing is more summarised and abbreviations are more prevalent. But as communication is the ability to understand each other and exchange information, people will have to adapt and evolve to meet these constantly changing needs to communicate successfully.

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