In countries where people have fair skin, skin cancer is very common (Xiang et,ali 2014) Skin cancer is as a result of being exposed to high levels of UV radiations (Rogers et.al. 2010; AIHW et,al. 2008). Basking in the sun leads to the synthesis of vitamin D which is essential for good health. Past studies show that vitamin D insufficiency (described here as a concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) containing less than 50 nmol/L) in countries where people have high cases of skin cancer is not common (ABS, 2014).
Health professionals are tasked with finding ways in there can be proper sunlight exposed that will be beneficial to the body without causing skin cancer (Cancer Council Australia, 2007; You et,al, 2009). A better option is to avoid sun avoidance and increase food supplementation with certain supplements Other studies show that there are additional benefits that are linked to sun exposure which is not related to pathways of non-vitamin D.
The research was carried out in Australia.
The suitable participants were assigned the following regions based on their residence; Western Australia, Queensland, South Australia and East (Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales). In each study area, the participants were randomly allocated and using a sequence of random numbers The interventions were observed over a 12»month period, They included vitamins D3 600 and D3 2000 IU/day, placebo softgel capsule with and without providing of SSEA (enhanced sun exposure advice) guidelines During the three-month study period, participants were required to fill out questionnaires providing information about exposure to the sun over three months, medical history, dietary intakes, personal characteristics and demography, Additionally, participants were requested to maintain a week of clothing, sun exposure, diary of physical activity and wear dosimeterr A dosimeter is a device used determine the amount of received UV radiation dosage.
The discussion of the study focused on statistical and ethical concerns on every significant aspect of the research design. To start with, participants with skin type I was excluded. The type of skin was evaluated by use of a small questionnaire and categorized as very fair (I) to very dark (VI). The classification is based on the Fitzpatrick skin types that are extensively used as sun sensitivity measure in photobiology.
There is a significant variability in the MED (minimum erythemal dose) within categories of skin types and also overlap between these classifications (Ravnbak, 2010), Secondly, participants with a high risk of skin cancer were excluded These are members with low levels of 2S(OH)D who are likely to have had little current sun exposure. These potential members of the study reported having an on-going monitoring of skin cancer Thirdly, members with medical conditions where supplementation of vitamin D or sun exposure might have adverse effects were excluded.
Though vitamin D supplementation doses used in the study are relatively low, the potential participants with a history of medical conditions were excluded on account of their health or that of their children. Finally, individual undertaking vitamin D supplementation during the study period was also excluded. The vitamin D supplementation doses used in the study are relatively little compared to ones used in supplementation medication or trials. Therefore, individuals taking the multivitamin were excluded to avoid a risk of contamination and to ensure over or under dosage did not affect these participants.
In conclusion, research in Australia shows that both the public and health professionals are uncertain about risks and health benefits of sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to recruit participants to provide evidence and hence clarify these issues. The methodology of the survey was the use of questionnaires and population samples were from four different regions in Australia, Ethical consideration was observed duringthe study. For instance exclusion of individuals at a risk of cancer.
AIHW . Cancer Series no 43. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Cancer Australia; 2008. Non—melanoma skin cancer: general practice consultations, hospitalisations and mortality.