Greeks made contact with the _____ in the ninth century B.C.E.
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they:
did not speak Greek.
excessive pride, which was punished by the gods.
Homer’s poetry describes a world in which:
warrior aristocrats competed for status and power and reinforced social ties through hospitality and gift-giving.
The social center and organizational hub of the Greek polis was:
By the sixth century B.
C.E., Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin, the most significant of which were located where?
Anatolia and Italy.
After Hoplites were introduced in Greece:
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess.
Hoplites were organized into formations called a:
What made Greek battle formations and strategy formidable?
the training and skill of the hoplites to stay together.
In the symposium, Archaic Age Greek aristocrats:
enjoyed wine and listened to poetry.
A Greek aristocrat who seized power and ruled outside the traditional constitutional framework was called:
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat:
Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he:
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats.
The most militarized of all the poleis in Greece was:
Spartiates rejected innovation and change and were:
forbidden to engage in trade or commerce.
Ionians transmitted the Lydian invention of _________ to the Greek world.
Because of their successful colonial and trading activities, the Miletus:
became extraordinarily wealthy.
Milesian philosophers, known as the pre-Socratics:
looked to physical explanations of the workings of the universe.
The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by:
the Athenian fleet.
The Sophist claim that “Man is the measure of all things” means:
goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings.
Socrates urged his followers to :
understand the principles of proper conduct and one’s actions.
Greek sculpture evolved from the rather stiff likenesses resembling Egyptian statuary to a style labeled as:
One major result of the Persian wars was:
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence.
A result of the defeat of the Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse was:
the Athenian assembly replaced its democracy with oligarchy.
Following Sparta’s victory in the Peloponnesian War:
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them.
After the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.E.), Sparta:
was defeated by Thebes, under the leadership of Epaminondas.
During the economic decline of Greece in the fourth century B.C.E.:
former soldiers often worked as mercenaries who disrupted the household-based culture of the Greek poleis.
Macedonian military reforms under Philip II most closely resemble earlier reforms undertaken by:
Whereas Plato conceived of politics as a means toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as:
an end in itself.
Alexander decided to make Egypt the capital of his empire:
after he was proclaimed the ‘son of Ammon” by the sun god’s oracle.
The beginning of the end of Alexander’s conquests was his inability to fully subdue:
Alexander sought to fuse his Greco-Macedonian Empire with Persia by:
arranging for hundreds of his officers to marry Persian noblewomen.
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by:
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs.
The most important cultural center in the Hellenistic world was:
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian Empire, Seleucid rulers:
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers.
After a period of instability, __________was finally able to establish rule over the homeland of Alexander’s Empire—Macedonia and Greece.
The Aetolian and Achaean Leagues differed from previous Greek attempts at political organization between poleis because:
they represented a real political unification, with some centralization of government functions.
Why did autocratic rulers in the Hellenistic world encourage manufacturing industries?
Manufacturing increased international trade revenues and therefore taxation and tariffs.
With the expansion of population in Hellenistic world:
Alexander’s successors established some 200 cities.
The _________ believed that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good.
A major influence on Epicurus and his school of Epicureanism was:
Central to the Skeptic worldview is the idea that:
one must suspend judgment concerning everything.
Aristarchus of Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because:
he believed that the earth revolves around the sun.
Herophilus of Chalcedon was an innovative _________ in the ancient Hellenistic world.
The chief characteristics of Hellenistic architecture were:
grandeur and ornamentation.
Philip of Macedonia built his power base north of Greece partially by:
multiple alliance marriages.
In invading Persia, Alexander began to follow the example of Cyrus the Great and:
offered amnesty to cities that surrendered and no mercy to those that did not.
With the expansion of population in the Hellenistic world and the creation of larger cities:
the average Greek male was less connected to his community and had little or no stake in society.
Greek rational thought began to separate in the Hellenistic world:
and scientific inquiry began to be its own field of study.
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy:
Etruscans, skilled metalworkers and artists, lived there.
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including:
hills that increase the defensibility of the city.
One of the things the Romans borrowed from the Greek settlers in southern Italy was:
the derived Roman alphabet.
The Latin Right of the early Romans guaranteed that:
contracts, marriages, and citizenship were valid across Latium.
The myth of the rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasizing:
the corruption of Etruscan morals and government.
During the early Roman Republic, Rome:
expanded slowly and extended the Latin right to many of the cities it conquered.
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was:
between the wealthiest (2 percent) and the rest (98 percent) of the people.
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent:
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established when:
businessmen who did not become senators wanted privileges.
Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of:
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father:
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death.
Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and:
oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians.
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 B.C.E.):
they started a series of wars for control of the western Mediterranean
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a third Punic War:
was provoked by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed.
Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism except:
withdrawal from public life.
Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and:
the law of nations.
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the:
construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities.
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during:
The Augustan system of government:
is known as the early empire or Principate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen.
In the aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar, the second triumvirate took out its revenge on everyone opposed to them; one of the more prominent victims of the second triumvirate was:
Tiberius Gracchus sought to protect small farmers and protect the pool of citizens from which the army could be drawn by reviving old laws from the republican days that limited the amount of land a person could hold; for this he was:
Prior to Julius Caesar’s appointment as “Dictator for Life,” only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without the traditional six-month term, and he was:
Those who ruled Rome from 96 to 180 C.E. were called the “Five Good Emperors” because:
they were capable administrators who governed successfully.
One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world would be:
that Roman leaders who originated from everywhere within the empire would settle far from their place of birth.
The Romans were the first people to use ___ on a massive scale in their buildings.