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CSM Western Civilization Exam 1

After the 1340’s, the economy of Europe was marked by
silver shortages

essentially a painting executed on fresh plaster
a fresco painting

Dante’s “Divine Comedy” depicts the poet’s mythical journey through
hell, purgatory, and heaven

What drove the increasing European interest in African gold?
increasing demand for expensive luxury foods in Europe

the leader who united the Mongol tribes and began the conquest of China
Temujin, who took the title Genghis Khan

Mongol governance was directed toward
securing tribute from subject territories

how did time become standardized in the 14th century?
due to the invention and proliferation of the mechanical clocks

what was the most important consequence for Europeans of the Mongol conquests?
the commercial links it established between Europe and the Far East along the Silk Road

Why did Moscow in the 13th century become an important center?
because it became a tribute-collecting center for the Mongol Khanate

The Medieval painter Giotto is remembered especially because he
brought a deep humanity and naturalism to his religious images

the commerce that occurred as a result of the “Pax Mongolica” was facilitated by the introduction of
double-entry bookkeeping and early forms of credit transfers

why did the Seven Years Famine occur?
because Europe had reached the limit of its ability to supple food for its population and the climate cooled by approximately tow degrees centigrade

the medieval doctrine which taught that the Eucharist because the body and blood of Christ during Mass
transubstantiation

what percentage of Europe’s population was probably eliminated during the Black Death?
50%

by the mid-thirteenth century, the pope called some Crusades in order to
support the political needs of the papacy

why was the Stone of Destiny taken to Westminister Abbey by Edward I?
to demonstrate England’s power over Scotland

how is bubonic plague spread
by flea bites

in the 14th century, Edward III argued that he was the legitimate heir of France based on a closer relationship of Philip IV of France then that of the new Valois king because
his mother was Philip IV’s daughter

during the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the 14th century, the papacy was
moved to Avignon, France

as a result of the depopulation in Europe caused by the Black Death
Europe’s massively depleted ecological resources recovered

aside from starvation, the most devastating effect of the Great Famine was the
compromised immune systems of those who survived

the English Peasants Revolt, like other popular uprisings of the 14th century, had its fundamental origins in
the economic, social, and political consequences of the Black Death

The Black Death appears to have originated in
China

the works of Boccaccio, Chaucer, and de Pisan all demonstrate
the spread of vernacular literacy

how did large landholders sometimes respond to the shortage of agricultural workers as a result of the Black Death?
by forcing tenants to do more unpaid labor, imposing new taxes, and requiring new forms of servitude

the central theme of Christine de Pisan’s “The City of Ladies”
the book is a defense of women against the misogynistic claims of men

humanists believed that excellent scholarship and poetry could only be written in
classical latin and classical greek

underlying the social unrest of the 13th and 14th centuries lay
a growing sense of self-confidence

what was the foal of the humanist education system?
to produce virtuous citizens and able public officials

those who claimed aristocratic status in the 14th century did so by
living lavish and extremely expensive lifestyles

for the Ottomans, their conquest of Constantinople brought
vast new wealth, which greatly increased the population of the city

how do historians today generally refer to the term Renaissance?
a period in intellectual and cultural history, marked by a new interest in the study of classical learning

humanists such as Leon Battista Alberti praised the nuclear family and argued that women should be
consigned purely to domestic roles

the early humanist Petrarch criticized late medieval scholasticism because he felt it
concentrated more on abstract speculation then on virtuous living

the Great Schism ended in 1417 when the
Council of Constance elected a new pope

what did the emerging national monarchies in late medieval Europe result in?
greater militarization and more warfare

the only surviving proponent of Orthodox Christianity after the fall of the Byzantine Empire was the
Russian Orthodox Church

the English Lollards were the lay followers and successors of which late medieval theologian
John Wycliffe

where the majority of the great painters were from in the 15th century
Florence

Joan of Arc was a problematic leader of the France forces during the latter part of the 100 Years War because
she was a peasant woman

although Jan Huss adopted the ideas of John Wycliffe, he did diverge from Wycliffe in his view of the
importance of Eucharistic piety

the Holy Roman Empire and the Italian Peninsula did not unit as national monarchies in part because
continual armed conflict and shifting alliances prevented the emergence of strong, centralizing rulers in those territories

why was the printing press a tool of European monarchs?
it enabled the widespread circulation of propaganda

why is Raphael’s “School of Athens” of interest?
because in part many of Raphael’s contemporaries are used as models for various philosophers

why did Machiavelli admire Cesare Borgia?
because of his ruthlessness and shrewdness

what was Leonardo da Vinci’s basic approach to painting?
to imitate nature as closely as possible

unlike most other Italian intellectuals of his age, Niccolo Machiavelli was
a truly original thinker about politics

Thomas More’s “Utopia” was a
devastating critique of contemporary culture

the most important factor in the rise of Spain as a major European power
the unification of the kingdom of Aragon and Castile

the last Muslim territory to fall in Spain
Grenada in 1492

what did Renaissance architecture emphasized the important of?
geometrical proportions

Albrecht Durer was the first northern European artist to master
Italian Renaissance techniques of proportion and perspective

for Michelangelo, the most central features of Renaissance humanism was
the drive to understand an embodied, masculine mind

what was one important difference between the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance that followed?
the northern interest in traditional Christian wisdom over classical virtues

sculpture during the Renaissance broke with the recent past in that statuary
now became freestanding “in the round”

were a mix of fact and fiction
texts like Marco Polo’s “Description of the World”

the most lucrative export of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America
Silver

what spurred Ferdinand and Isabella’s decision to sponsor Columbus’ voyage?
a desire to counter successful Portuguese exploratory and commercial ventures

in the long history of slavery in Western Civilization, the basic patterns of slavery were not racialized (in other words, directly related to ethnicity or skin color) until
Lisbon became a significant market for enslaved Africans in the middle of the 15th century

the massive influx of silver from the New World Spanish colonies resulted in
massive inflation

in their voyages along the west coast of Africa, the Portuguese were initially in search of
gold

in economic terms, New World colonization and plunder had the greatest positive effect on the
Spanish

beginning in the 1440’s design changes in Portuguese caravels allowed them to
sail two masts and faster, triangular sails

European art of the 13th century reflected a renewed interest in
nature

English victory over the French in 1356 during the 100 Years War mainly as a result of the longbow
Crecy

French kind who was persuaded by Joan of Arc to allow her to command the French army during the siege of Orleans during the 100 Years War
Charles the Dauphin/VII

known as the “Father of Humanism”
Petrarch

the native language of a country
Vernacular

English Renaissance writer who wrote the “Canterbury Tales”
Chaucer

the Renaissance idea that it was the duty of intellectuals to serve the state
Civic humanism

English king from 1272-1307 who presided over the creation of new legal and bureaucratic institutions, violently subjecting Wales and attempting to colonize Scotland
Edward I

English reformer who translated the Bible into English
John Wycliffe

battle in the 100 Years War where Henry V of England won a crushing victory over the French in 1415
Agincourt

lead the French army against the English at Orleans during the 100 Years War and later burned at the stake as a witch by the English
Joan of Arc

established a school for sailors in Portugal
Prince Henry the Navigator

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico
Hernando Cortes

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in Peru
Francisco Pizarro

written by Niccolo Machiavelli
“The Prince”

Renaissance painter who painted “Disputa” and the “School of Athens”
Rahael

personified the ideal of the ultimate Renaissance Man
Leonardo da Vinci

painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo

explorer who was the first to realize Columbus had discovered a New World
Amerigo Vespucci

rulers and wealthy bankers of Florence during the Renaissance and were the patrons of many Renaissance artists
The Medici’s

wrote “The Book of the Courtier”, an early book of etiquette
Baldassare Castiglione

Ottoman Turk leader who conquered Constantinople in 1453
Sultan Mehmet II

protestant reformer in Bohemia in the early 1400s and was executed for heresy by the Catholic Church
John Huss

the name of the movement during the Renaissance that aimed to replace the scholastic emphasis on logic and philosophy with the study of ancient languages, literature, history and ethics
humanism

Renaissance painter who exceled in depicted graceful motion and the sensuous pleasures of nature
Botticelli

Northern Renaissance painter who painted portraits of Sir Thomas Moore and Erasmus
Hans Holbein the Younger

Name the 4 main reactions of the Great Plague
1. An increase in violence and murder due to a sense of life’s cheapness
2. The formation of groups like the flagellants, who physically maimed themselves to save the world
3. morbidity and preoccupation with death in everyday life
4. economic depression

Name the 3 main results of the 100 Years War
1. Reinvigorated and strengthened the French monarchy
2. Caused economic and political turmoil in England
3. Temporarily strengthened the nobility in England

Name the 3 kinds of publications done by Erasmus
1. clever satires meant to show people the errors of their way
2. serious moral treaties meant to offer guidance toward proper Christian behavior
3. scholarly editions of basic Christian texts

Name 4 Renaissance painting techniques
1. the use of light and dark shading
2. the application of oil-based pigment
3. precise anatomical renderings of the human body
4. the use of liner perspective to depict 3-dimensions

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