Students must know how to analyses the lesson and participate in their class or them to have knowledge. They need to have reference book like textbook, dictionary as well as the e-book but one of the problems that students face while studying is the ability to absorb the information in their minds, especially when to have a good academic performance Study Habits involves activities that require mental alertness, concentration, reflection and analysis. It also requires the ability to select and organize ideas or concepts to be studied.
When the topic of study habits mentioned, the next question that is raised by those involved in the education of our young people is whether our student’s today o possess study habits. This is because it cannot be denied that generally, today’s students do not seem to appreciate studying their lessons the way the idea is traditionally understood to mean a regular and consistent way of studying and fulfilling of school related tasks both at home and in school.
(See, 1999) With regard to this problem, the researchers want to find out the effectiveness of the study habits developed among the freshmen students here in PUC.
Background of the Study All educational organizations aim to develop its learner’s academic competence and facilitate to achieve the finest learning. It is always an achievement for schools to be able to deliver quality education. In the same manner, a teacher’s effectiveness can also be measured by how much a students a school has. Policies, curriculum, books and even the selection procedures of teachers and students are formulated with this in view.
Total development is the greatest concern of every school.
The concept of totality implies personal development of all areas such as intellectual, social, physical, spiritual and emotional aspect. (Canada, 2007) The child is the center of the teaching-learning process and the strongest inundation of developing the child’s study habits usually starts in the elementary grade should be sensitive to the needs of pupils, their interest, likes and dislikes. They should be motivated so as to develop and be accustomed and correct study habits. A Study Habit is generally understood as a regular systematic effective way of doing related responsibilities and obligation.
See (1999) in is study described study habits as a generic term which refers to the attitude, study materials, study techniques, study environment and actual study time that will described the study habits as a very good, good, fair or poor. Et al. Gonzales 2011) Student Involvement: A Developmental Theory for Higher Education (Alexander W. Satin) A student development theory based on student involvement is presented and described, and the implications for practice and research are discussed. Even a casual reading of the extensive literature on student development in higher education can create confusion and perplexity.
One finds not only that the problems being studied are highly diverse but also that investigators who claim to be studying the same problem frequently do not look at the same variables or employ the same methodologies. And even when they are investigating the same variables, different investigators may use completely different terms to describe and discuss these variables. My own interest in articulating a theory of student development is partly practical?I would like to bring some order into the chaos of the literature?and partly self-protective. I and increasingly bewildered by the muddle of findings that have emerged from my own research in student development, research that I have been engaged in for more than 20 years. The theory of student involvement that I describe in this article appeals to me for several reasons.
First, it is simple: I have not needed to draw a maze consisting of dozens of boxes interconnected by two-headed arrows to explain the basic elements of the theory to others.
Second, the theory can explain most of the empirical knowledge about environmental influences on student development that researchers have gained over the years.
Third, it is capable of embracing principles from such widely divergent sources as psychoanalysis and classical learning theory.
Finally, this theory of student involvement can be used both by researchers to guide their investigation of student development and by college administrators and faculty to help them design more effective learning environments.
The Cognitive Learning Theory Definition: Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them.
Information processing is a commonly used description of the mental process, comparing the human mind to a computer. Pure cognitive theory largely rejects behaviorism on the basis that behaviorism reduces complex human behavior to impel cause and effect. However, the trend in past decades has been towards merging the two into a comprehensive cognitive. This allows therapists to use techniques from both schools of thought to help clients achieve their goals. Social cognitive theory is a subset of cognitive theory. Primarily focused on the ways in advertising campaigns and peer pressure situations. It is also useful in the treatment of psychological disorders including phobias.
The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory can be divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory (ACTS), and the Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CAB). When we say the word “learning”, we usually mean “to think using the brain”. This basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLC).
The theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual. Cognitive Learning Theory implies that the different processes concerning learning can be explained by analyzing the mental processes first. It posits that with effective cognitive processes, learning is easier and new information can be stored in the memory for a long time. On the other hand, ineffective cognitive processes result to learning difficulties that can be seen anytime during the lifetime of an individual.
In the Social Cognitive Theory, we are considering 3 variables: environmental factors (extrinsic) personal factors (intrinsic) behavioral factors These 3 variables in Social Cognitive Theory are said to be interrelated with each other, causing learning to occur. An individual’s personal experience can converge tit the behavioral determinants and the environmental factors. Social Cognitive Theory Illustration (Pajamas, 2002) In the person-environment interaction, human beliefs, ideas and cognitive competencies are modified by external factors such as a supportive parent, stressful environment or a hot climate.
In the person-behavior interaction, the cognitive processes of a person affect his behavior; likewise, performance of such behavior can modify the way he thinks. Lastly, the environment-behavior interaction, external factors can alter the way you display the behavior. Also, your behavior can affect and edify your environment. This model clearly implies that for effective and positive learning to occur an individual should have positive personal characteristics, exhibit appropriate behavior and stay in a supportive environment.
In addition, Social Cognitive Theory states that new experiences are to be evaluated by the learner by means of analyzing his past experiences with the same determinants. Learning, therefore, is a result of a thorough evaluation of the present experience versus the past. Figure 1 Input Process Output Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. The input consist of the hurry (Student involvement and cognitive learning theory), used in the study. The demographic profile of the freshmen students were concerned such as: age, gender, religion, types of residency and types of school graduated for the process.
The proponents gave questionnaires to float to the selected freshmen. They used statistical treatment and analyzed the data that gathered. For the output, the researchers are going to conduct a seminar entitled: Benefits of acquiring good study habits so that our respondents will gain knowledge and be benefited from this study. Statement of the Problem The Effectiveness of the Study Habits to the Freshmen students of PUC Academic year 2012-2013
This study focused on the effectiveness of study habits in the Academic Performance of the Freshmen Students of PUC. The scope of this research is based on six different courses for the total of 498 freshmen students in the school year Assumption The Researchers conducted this study entitled: “The Effectiveness of the Stud Habits to the Freshmen students of PUC Academic year 2012-2013”, and come up on the following assumption:
1. The demographic profile such as age, gender, religion, types of residency, and types of school graduated affect the student’s study habit.
2. The factors affecting one’s study habit are study environment, time management and different skills such as listening, speaking, reading, writing or note- taking.
This study would show the different kind of study habits that affects the academic performance of the students. This research will be beneficial for all freshmen students for them to realize the importance of having a good study habits and for them to value the education that they have. It will not only give information about Education, but it will also give them sort of knowledge and benefits of acquiring good study habits to achieve their high performance in school. For the students For them to have a future reference in making up their own thesis For the Professors They need to observe first in order for them to know whether they are having difficulties in it comes to studying. For them to know what strategy are they going to SE in order to eject that knowledge in the students. For the Parents. This study can serve as a guide for them in order to take their child in the right track of learning.
Definition of Terms:
Assignment- refers to conceptually task given by the subject teacher before the last period of the student in the learning center in the library or at home.
Education- it is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes that makes man do better and it is the right of an individual to attain progress in life.
Effectiveness- means the capability of producing an effect. Any result of another action or circumstance.
Habit- retains to an act, movement or pattern of behavior that through practice and training has become an easy manner of behaving without hesitancy or concentration. It is the way of living that has become learned. Habit in their totality makes up the characteristics of the individual as he/she appears to other people.
Material tools- order to achieve their goals. PUP Q. C. – it is the University along Commonwealth Eave. And wherein the study conducted.
Academic Performance- it refers to academic grades of the students for the whole semesters as used in the study by getting all the final grades of all Freshmen Students.
Study Habits- pertains operationally to habits into which the students accustom themselves, this are methods of approaches with the units of learning by ignoring abstraction, paying attention to specific material being studied and concentrating in the learning process.
The related literature provided the proponents a substantial background on this study. On the other hand, the review of foreign and local studies provided the proponents with other findings, which could help in the analysis of the study. Foreign Literature 5 Bad Study Habits and Effective Solutions (Grace Fleming)
Have you ever wondered how you can bomb a test after studying for hours? A poor test result after many hours of faithful studying is a real confidence buster! If this happens to you, it’s possible that your current study habits are failing you! But you can turn it around. The process of learning is still a little mysterious, but studies do show that the most effective process for studying involves highly active behavior over a period of time. In other words, to study effectively, you must read, draw, compare, memorize, and test yourself over time. The following study habits are least helpful when used alone. Taking linear notes Linear notes are lecture notes that students take when they attempt to write down every word of a lecture. Linear notes occur when a student tries to write every word a lecturer says in sequence, like writing a rambling essay with no paragraphs. You may be wondering:
1. How can it be bad to capture every word of a lecture? It’s not bad to capture every word of a lecture, but it is bad to think you’re studying effectively if you don’t mess with your linear notes in some way. You must revisit your linear notes and make relationships from one section to another. You should draw arrows from one elated word or concept to another, and make a lot of notes and examples in the margins.
Solution: To reinforce information and to make it sink in, you must also recreate all your class notes in another form. You have to revisit the information and put it all into a chart or shrinking outline. Right before every new lecture, you should review your notes from days past and predict the next days material. You should reflect and make relationships between key concepts before you sit down for a new lecture. You should prepare for your exams by creating a fill-in-the-blank test from your notes.
2. Are you guilty of highlighter abuse? Reckless highlighting is the root cause for many bad test grades! Bright colors on a page make a big visual impact, so it seems like a lot of good studying is oing on when you read and highlight. Highlighting does make important information stand out on a page, but that doesn’t do you much good if you don’t do something active with that information. Reading highlighted words again and again is not active enough.
Solution: Use the information you highlight to create a practice exam. Put highlighted words onto flashcards and practice until you know every term and concept. Identify key concepts and use them to create practice essay questions. You should also develop a color-coded highlighting strategy. Highlight new words in one color and new concepts in another, for example. You could also highlight separate topics according to a color code for more impact.
3. Rewriting notes Students rewrite notes under the assumption that repetition is good for memorization. Repetition is valuable as a first step, but it’s not that effective all alone. You should rewrite your notes in the shrinking outline method, but follow up with self-testing methods.
Solution: Switch class notes with a classmate and create a practice exam from his/her notes. Exchange practice exams to test each other. Repeat this process a few times until you are comfortable with the material.
4. Rereading the chapter Students are often encouraged to re-read a chapter on the night before an exam to reinforce what they’ve learned. Rereading is a good tactic as a last step. Just like the other study habits mentioned above, rereading is only one part of a puzzle.
Solution: Make sure to use active steps like charts, shrinking outlines, and practice tests and follow up with rereading your chapter 5. Memorizing definitions Students spend a lot of time using flashcards to memorize definitions. This is a good study method, as long as it’s a first step in the process of learning. As students’ progress through the grade levels, they are expected to progress in cognitive skills. Once you’ve exited middle school, you can’t expect to do well on an exam by memorizing the definitions to terms. You must learn to memorize a definition and then define the significance of the new vocabulary terms you encounter. If you’re in high school or college, you should be prepared to explain how terms are relevant in the subject, compare them to similar concepts, and explain why they matter at all.
Here’s a real life example:
In middle school you might learn to memorize the definition of propaganda. In high school you might encounter this as a term, but you’ll need to memorize the definition and learn to recognize propaganda materials from World War II and other times. In college you should be able to define propaganda, come up with examples from the past and from today, and explain how propaganda has affected different societies at different times.
Solution: Once you have memorized the definitions of your terms, give yourself a short essay practice test. Make sure you are able to define a term and or someone of similar significance. The act of testing and retesting yourself somehow makes the information stick. (10 Highly Effective Study Habits Noon M. Growl, Sys. D. ) Students grapple with many issues in their lives, and because of all of the competing things for your attention, it’s hard to concentrate on studying. And yet if you’re in school, you have to do at least a little studying in order to progress from year to year.
The key to effective studying isn’t cramming or studying longer, but studying smarter. You can begin studying smarter with these ten proven and effective study habits.
1 . How you approach studying matters Too many people look at studying as a necessary task, not an enjoyment or opportunity to learn. That’s fine, but researchers have found that how you approach something matters almost as much as what you do. Being in the right mindset is important in order to study smarter. Sometimes you can’t “force” yourself to be in the right mindset, and it is during such times you should simply avoid studying. If you’re distracted by a relationship issue, an upcoming game, or finishing an important project, then studying is Just going to be an exercise in frustration. Come back to it when you’re not focused or obsessed! By something else going on in your life.
Way to help improve your study mindset: Aim to think positively when you study, and remind yourself of your skills and abilities. Avoid catastrophic thinking. Instead of thinking, “I’m a mess, I’ll never have enough time to study for this exam,” look at it like, “l may be a little late to study as much as I’d like, but since I’m doing it now, I’ll get most of it done. Avoid absolute thinking. Instead of thinking “l always mess things up,” the more objective view is, “l didn’t do so well that time, what can I do to improve? ” Avoid comparing ourselves with others, because you usually Just end up feeling bad about yourself.
2. Where you study is important A lot of people make the mistake of studying in a place that really isn’t conducive to concentrating. A place with a lot of distractions makes for a poor study area. If you try and study in your dorm room, for instance, you may find the computer, TV, or a roommate more interesting than the reading material you’re trying to digest. The library, a nook in a student lounge or study hall, or a quiet coffee house is good places to check out. Make sure to choose the quiet areas in these places, not the loud, central gathering areas. Investigate multiple places on-campus and off-campus; don’t Just pick the first one your find as “good enough” for your needs and habits. Finding an ideal study place is important, because it’s one you can reliably count on for the next few years.
3. Bring everything you need, nothing you don’t Unfortunately, when you find an ideal place to study, sometimes people bring things they don’t need. For instance, while it may seem ideal to type notes into a computer to refer back to later, computers are a powerful distraction for many people because Web, and answering emails are all wonderful distractions that have nothing to do with studying. So ask yourself whether you really need a computer to take notes, or whether you can make do with the old-fashioned paper and pen or pencil. Don’t forget the things you need to study for the class, exam or paper you’re focusing on for the study session. Nothing is more time-consuming and wasteful than having to run back and forth regularly because you forget an important book, paper, or some other resource you need to be successful. If you study best with your favorite music playing, make sure your pod is with you.
4. Outline and rewrite your notes Most people find that keeping to a standard outline format helps them boil information down to its most basic components. People find that connecting similar concepts together makes it easier to remember when the exam comes around. The important thing to remember in writing outlines is that an outline only words as a learning tool when it is in your own words and structure. Every person is unique in how they put similar information together (called “chucking” by cognitive psychologists). So while you’re welcomed to copy other people’s notes or outlines, make sure you translate those notes and outlines into your own words and concepts.
Failing to do this is what often causes many students to stumble in remembering important items. It may also be helpful to use as many senses as possible when studying, because information is retained more readily in people when other senses are involved. That’s why writing notes works in the first place – it puts information into words and terms you understand. Mouthing the words out loud while you copy the notes before an important exam can be one method for involving yet another sense.
5. Use memory games (mnemonic devices) Memory games, or mnemonic devices, are methods for remembering pieces of information using a simple association of common words. Most often people string gather words to form a nonsense sentence that is easy to remember. The first letter of each word can then be used to stand for something else – the piece of information you’re trying to remember. The most common mnemonic device example is “Every Good Boy Deserves Fun. ” Putting the first letters of every word together – GIBED – gives a music student the five notes for treble clef.
The key to such memory devices is the new phrase or sentence you come up with has to be more memorable and easier to remember than the terms or information you’re trying to learn. These don’t work or everyone, so if they don’t work for you, don’t use them. Mnemonic devices are helpful because you use more of your brain to remember visual and active images than you do to remember Just a list of items. Using more of your brain means better memory.
6. Practice by yourself or with friends The old age adage, practice makes perfect, is true. You can practice by yourself by testing yourself with either practice exams, past quizzes, or flash cards (depending what kind of course it is and what’s available).