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Mastery Exam 1

Which of the following drugs is categorized as a depressant?

According to ________ theory, behavior is said to be influenced by its consequences
Operant Conditioning

“What term refers to how people use information from the past in the present?”

According to the humanists, a key motive in human personality development was

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are unconscious attempts to reduce our feelings of

According to research, humans have a biological need for interpersonal interactions. This is called the
Need-to-belong theory

With its concern on the adaptive functions provided by the various psychological characteristics, evolutionary psychology is most like what early psychological school of thought?

A key disadvantage to self-report measures is that
Respondents are not always honest in their answers

In addition to general intelligence, Charles Spearman believed that intelligence scores also reflected ______
Specific intelligence abilities, or s factors

The monocular cue of ________ is being used when an artist places trees in front of riders to create a sense of depth when the picture is viewed.

During the day, Barb suffers from frequent, unwanted thoughts that she has left her front door unlocked and recurrent images that all her belongings have been taken. These thoughts and images are what psychologists refer to as a/an

Dr. Alexander has developed a new drug that works as a stimulant. It is likely that this drug will ________________
Increase activity in the CNS

The emotional bond that a newborn baby shares with his or her caregiver(s) is called ___

A key theme that has emerged from the memory research literature is that
Active reconstruction of events alters our memory of the important and unimportant events of our lives

According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, a person’s language shapes
Their thought process

The idea of rewarding people with stars or stickers that can be later used for a tangible reward is based on ________________
Operant conditioning principles

Which of the following measures central tendency?

One symptom of schizophrenia is called a word ________, in which a person’s verbalizations are so jumbled that they are virtually impossible to understand.

Generally speaking, _______ refers to any mental activity or processing of information, including learning, remembering, perceiving, believing, and deciding

________ is a phenomenon in which researchers’ hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study.
Experimenter Expectancy Effect

Which part of the brain is very small but extremely powerful and controls the pituitary gland?

The gradual strengthening of the connections between neurons by repetitive stimulation over time is referred to as long-term ______

A base rate refers to
How common a characteristic or behavior is

In Asch’s famous study of conformity, ________ percent of the true subjects went along with the group at least once.

These ________ practitioners teach clients that negative thoughts such as “I’m worthless” are merely thoughts, not facts, while encouraging them to accept and tolerate the full range of their feelings, and act in keeping with their goals and values.
Acceptance and commitment therapy

Davis has such an intense, irrational fear of clowns that he cannot take his daughters to see the circus when it is in town. Davis would be most correctly diagnosed as suffering from

Hanging out with friends with the same hobbies can best be explained by the ________ principle of relationship formation.

Research has consistently shown that having a good ________ is of critical importance in a person’s ability to cope with stressors.
Social Support System

When looking at a glass that is neither completely full nor completely empty, a/an ________ might say “that glass is half full,” while a/an ________ might say ” no, that glass is half empty!”
Optimist; pessimist

Kohlberg’s belief that the development of moral judgment is intricately related to the development of cognitive skills built on the work of ______

The use of ________ refers to the process of finding similar structures between two problems and thus finding similarities between their solutions.

The first major force in the field of personality psychology was
The psychoanalytic theory

Why is it difficult to make generalizations based on the results of case study research
Because a case study involves only one or a few subjects, their actions may be atypical and not representative of a larger group of people or population.

What category of therapy is most concerned with improving a client’s awareness of the underlying causes of his or her difficulties?

The expressed purpose of the eugenics movement was to
improve a population’s genetic stock by implementing sterilization plans for those of low IQ to prevent them from breeding

The basic meaningful units of any language are called _______

After a particularly difficult psychology exam, you and your friends confide in one another about the test, comparing your answers and reactions to the test. This is known as Leon Festinger’s
Social Comparative Theory

According to the ________, seeing a crocodile in the swamp would lead simultaneously to both the emotion fear and running away at the same time. However, the ________ would suggest that people are afraid because they run away.
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion; James-Lange theory of emotion

________ neurotransmitters make it more likely that a neuron will send its message to other neurons, whereas ________ neurotransmitters make it less likely that a neuron will send its message.
Excitatory, Inhibitory

Shelby is concerned that she is spending too much of her day worrying about things that are out of her control. She often experiences disturbances in sleep and often feels tense, even in situations where there is nothing that is directly threatening her safety. If you were a clinical psychologist, you would be trying to determine if Shelby meets the criteria for
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An experiment is said to be ________ when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the experimental or control group

Fifteen minutes after Zigfried left the brightly lit hallway and entered the dark passageway, dark adaptation was
complete in his cones, but still taking place in his rods

Hormones are chemicals that are secreted and go directly into _______
The bloodstream

According to the biological perspective, obsessive-compulsive disorder is _______
linked to an imbalance in the neurotransmitter serotonin

Which of these is an acronym that could help you remember the Big Five traits?

When an individual’s attitudes do not match up with his/her behaviors, ________ is likely to occur.
Cognitive Dissonance

Marques loves to go to parties, and while there he can have a conversation with just about anyone, whether he knows them or not. Which of the following Five Factors” would Marques probably rate highly on based on this information?

The single most controversial psychological disorder is
Dissociative Identity Disorder

Neurotransmitters are found in the
Synaptic vesicles

The ability to identify the origins of a memory is known as
Source Monitoring

________ can occur when individuals who are part of a group focus on preserving group solidarity at the expense of considering all possible alternatives or even failing to use rational thought in the process.

Charmaine is interested in going to graduate school to gain expertise into the way in which people experience physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes over the course of their lives. The type of program that Charmaine should be applying to is ________ psychology.

How many stages of sleep are there in human beings?

In which of the lobes of the cerebrum is the somatosensory cortex located?

Freud’s theory of personality is most interested in understanding the interaction among the three structures of personality within the ________ mind.

A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.

During the ________ stage of development, a child will not have developed object permanence.

The fact that humans have three cone receptors, specialized for red, green and blue spectrum light waves, is consistent with which theory of color vision?
Trichromatic theory

Approximately what percentage of IQ scores falls between 70 and 130?

Young Albert is initially not afraid of white rats, but if white rats and loud noises are presented in sequence Albert may learn to fear rats. In this example, white rats would be the

Which theory of personality is most concerned with understanding people’s unconscious motivations?

Clever devices–the stereoscope, a virtual reality headset, the 3D glasses used to view the film “Coraline”–create the illusion of three-dimensions by taking advantage of the fact that the left eye and the right eye see objects from slightly different locations. This binocular depth cue is:
Retinal Disparity

Stressing that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure is associated with the approach to psychology known as _________.

Research indicates that some people’s schizophrenia may result from abnormalities in the brain’s receptor sites for what neurotransmitter?

You watch LeShon wave his 4 th of July sparkler as he runs. As you watch the light, you notice a circle of light rather than just a single point of light. This effect demonstrates the functioning of your
Iconic memory

Of the following functions, which is NOT controlled by the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex?
Processing visual images

Johnny just passed a note to Kelsey in math class. The note says that his friend Jake has a crush on her. What idea suggests that Kelsey will now find Jake more attractive?

What is the main difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder?
Phobic disorder is linked to specific triggers while generalized anxiety disorder is not linked to a specific trigger

If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
Identical Twins

A ________ reinforcer, such as money or praise, gets its value through an association with a ________ reinforcer.
Secondary; primary

When an individual, who is part of a larger group, chooses to put forth less effort than other group members, ________ occurs.
Social loafing

“All or none” is the principle stating that ________.
a neuron either fires or does not fire

The major issue of ________ explores how development is influenced by both genetics and life experiences

Which of the following best exemplifies the concept of perceptual constancy?
As a shadow passes over your newspaper, you know that the page is not getting darker

Because dogs do not need to be conditioned to salivate to food, salivation to food is a/an:
Unconditioned response

The system of memory that can hold approximately 7 “chunks” of information for approximately 15 seconds is called
Short-term memory

Which of the following is one of the ways in which religion helps people reduce or cope with stress?
Religion can provide a strong social support system

Omar and Patrick sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Omar is paid $1.00 for every 5 calls he makes, while Patrick is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells. Omar is paid on a ________ schedule while Patrick is paid on a ________ schedule.
fixed ratio; variable ratio

Our ability to see action in movies, rather than a series of static pictures, is the result of
Phi phenomenon

What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
Confirmation bias

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest degree of relation between two variables?

Your friend asks you to borrow $50 from you. You tell him no. Then he asks for a mere $10, which you gladly give him. While you feel good to have helped him out, you may have just experienced the
door-in-the-face technique

What anxiety disorder became a psychological disorder shortly after veterans, returning from Vietnam, began to experience intense anxiety and flashbacks from stimuli that reminded them of the war zones where they were deployed?
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Which of the following is one of the two types of statistics that researchers use to analyze the data that they collect?
Inferential statistics

Which research method is most suitable for studying factors that influence behavioral change over time?

The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage system is
Long-term memory

A statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures is called
Factor analysis

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