The following academic paper highlights the up-to-date issues and questions of Nullification Crisis Andrew Jackson. This sample provides just some ideas on how this topic can be analyzed and discussed.
It has been rare in American history for presidents and vice-presidents non to acquire along. but it has happened on a few occasions: Adams and Jefferson. Kennedy and Johnson. and Eisenhower and Nixon are a few illustrations ( Jackson vs. Calhoun-Part 1 1 ) . However. the most controversial relationship between president and his helper was between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. Their dissensions began really early on in Jackson’s disposal. and lasted until after the declaration of the Nullification Crisis. Nullification is the refusal of a province to acknowledge a federal jurisprudence within its boundaries and deem that jurisprudence unconstitutional. In this instance. South Carolina. led by John C. Calhoun. refused to acknowledge the protective duties in 1828. and 1832. stating that they benefited the North and injured the South.
What Happened During The Nullification Crisis
At this point in clip. the American system of authorities was reasonably new and the battle between province and federal power was in full swing. Towards the terminal of the crisis. Calhoun went so far as to endanger to splinter from the Union to demo Jackson and the remainder of America that single province authoritiess were so powerful. When the wrangle had reached its extremum. Jackson had had plenty and decided it was clip to set an terminal to the crisis. The actions and determinations made by President Andrew Jackson in respects to John C. Calhoun and the Nullification Crisis non merely enabled the Union to stay together. but proved the power of the federal authorities.
Before reexamining Jackson’s actions during the Nullification Crisis it is of import to understand where the dissensions between the two work forces originated. In 1829. merely shortly before Jackson was inaugurated. John Eaton. a friend and shortly to be secretary of war under Jackson. married the widow and non-reputable Peggy O’Neale Timberlake. Because Timberlake was now the married woman of a adult male in office. the other adult females would hold to accept her as an equal. which they were non happy about. Jackson. nevertheless. refused to believe that the adult females were justified in their behaviour. for he considered Peggy to be “chaste as a virgin” ( Barzman 56 ) . After Jackson ordered the married womans of all of his associates to see Mrs. Eaton as a societal equal. they all complied except for one ; Floride Calhoun. the married woman of John C. Calhoun. Calhoun subsequently claimed to Jackson he could non ( or would non ) change the head of his strong willed married woman. This enraged the freshly elected President and began the disruptive nature of the two men’s relationship.
The chief facet which fueled their hapless relationship was their differences in political sentiments. Although both work forces were from similar parts of the state and both were dedicated to the public assistance of their place provinces. they disagreed on one really of import country. Jackson was a patriot. who believed strongly in continuing the Union and puting federal power over that of the single provinces. Calhoun. on the other manus. was precisely the antonym. Although anterior to 1830. he had been a patriot. Calhoun was now an utmost states’ rights advocator ( Barzman 56 ) . This colossal difference in political doctrine set the scene for the most of import statement between president and vice-president and foreshadows Calhoun’s programs for South Carolina.
Calhoun had been garnering his information and explicating his thoughts for the hereafter of South Carolina for rather some clip. waiting for the perfect chance to uncover his maestro program. He wanted to declare nullification because his place province of South Carolina was economically down. fearful about the hereafter of bondage. and thought the new duties supported the North at the disbursal of the South ( The Nullification 1 ) . Jackson had an thought that Calhoun was be aftering something extremist so at the Jefferson Day Dinner on April 30. 1830. he stated that “Our Union–it must be preserved” . To this Calhoun replied. “The Union. Next to our autonomies. most dear” ( Barzman 58 ) . After publically declaring his dedication to South Carolina before the Union. Calhoun resigned the vice-presidential term and served in the South Carolina Senate.
Less than two old ages subsequently. on April 24. 1832. Calhoun sent the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification to Jackson. in which he declared. “The people of the province of South Carolina declare the responsibilities imposed by said Acts of the Apostless. and all judicial proceedings which shall be afterlife had in affirmance thereof. are and shall be void and null. We do farther declare that we will non subject to the application of force on the portion of the Federal Government” ( Hamilton 1 ) . Jackson. appalled by this direct menace to the Union and the Federal Government. was determined to set Calhoun in his topographic point and make anything he could to continue the Union.
Although Calhoun had stated in his Regulation that South Carolina would non react to any forceful Acts of the Apostless by the authorities to try to acquire Calhoun to endorse down. Jackson found a manner to outwit his opposition. Jackson had congress base on balls a measure in 1833. “which allowed him to utilize soldiers to implement the duty measures” ( Nullification Crisis 1 ) . After the Force Bill was passed. Jackson sent several war vessels and 100s of soldiers to Charleston to implement the Torahs of the authorities.
Some people argue that what Jackson did was incorrectly because based on the fundamental law. Calhoun had the right to declare Nullification for South Carolina. However. what Jackson did was besides constitutional and enabled the United States of America to stay as one. Had Jackson non passed the Force Bill instantly after South Carolina’s Ordinance was received. Calhoun’s strategy may hold succeeded and South Carolina would hold seceded from the Union. turn outing that the Federal Government truly did non hold any power over that of the single province.
After the footings of the Force Bill were set into topographic point. Calhoun began to recognize the problem he had gotten himself into and wanted to happen a dignified manner to deliver himself and his place province. At first Calhoun attempted to happen other provinces willing to back up and fall in his cause. but no other Southern provinces seemed to hold with his theory of nullification. In order to decide the issue. Calhoun went to Henry Clay. the “Great Compromiser” . for aid. Towards the terminal of 1833. Clay was able to outline a via media which “pacified South Carolina while leting the Federal authorities to stand firm” ( The Nullification 2 ) .
This dialogue bit by bit reduced the duties over a period of 10 old ages until they returned down to the degree which had existed in 1816. Jackson and Calhoun both signed the via media and the crisis ended without bloodshed. Many people argue that it was due to the negociating accomplishments of Henry Clay. non Jackson. which enabled the Union to stay in tact. However. had Jackson non passed the Force Bill ab initio. Calhoun ne’er would hold been pressured into seeking out Clay for aid.
With the decision of the Nullification Crisis its significance to the growing of the American authorities became evident. By Jackson get the better ofing Calhoun. and basically get the better ofing the statement of states’ rights advocators. he accomplished two of import things. His first achievement was that he had “proved the power of the Federal Government to implement Torahs. even when provinces disagree with them” ( Jackson vs. Calhoun – Part 2 2 ) .
This non merely gave the American people more assurance in the Federal Government. but made them get down to recognize that holding province authoritiess stronger than the Federal authorities would non be good to the state. Jackson’s 2nd achievement was that he enabled the Union to stay integral. He had postponed any bloodshed over the issue of states’ rights – but merely for 30 old ages. Had Calhoun’s wants been fulfilled. the Union may hold fallen apart and his place province of South Carolina would hold become a powerful autonomous district.
The difference in political doctrine between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun was the root of their disruptive relationship. which began early on in their executive life together. The confrontational nature of their relationship led America into the Nullification Crisis during which Calhoun put the public assistance of his place province above that of the brotherhood. seeking to splinter and demo the power of province authorities. Jackson would non hold provinces overmastering the authorities. and passed the Force Bill leting him to utilize the Federal Army and Navy to acquire South Carolina to obey the Torahs the Federal Government had made. State Government and Calhoun lost their conflict and the Federal Government proved its powers. Although he was non able to wipe out the job of states’ rights. were it non for Jackson’s intelligent determinations during the Nullification Crisis. the United States may non hold existed. as a individual brotherhood. as it does today.