Issues In Ethical Hacking And Penetration Testing Information Technology Essay

In this fast turning concern universe the growing of Information Technology is sky-scraping. Information is a concern plus, therefore it is really of import to protect the Business Intelligence and the confidential information. It may protect its handiness, privateness and unity. Information Security is more than protecting computing machine informations security ; it is the procedure of protecting the rational belongings of an organisation which engages with Network Security.

The handiness of entree to stored information onA serverA databases has increased to a great extent.

Most of the companies store their concern and single information on their computing machine than of all time before. Many concerns are entirely stand on information stored in their information centres. Personal staff inside informations, client lists, wages, bank history inside informations, selling, gross revenues information and more significantly their research and development secret formula or selling schemes may all be stored on a database. If they lack this information, it would straight impact the concern operations.

Therefore powerful Information security systems needed to be executed to protect this information.

The biggest menace to concerns may be the people who make a life fromA hackingA or transgressing through information security systems. By utilizing their technological accomplishments, they are courageous plenty to interrupt into computing machine system and entree secured information. “ Hackers can even turn your place computing machine into a bomb ” ( Randy Jefferies, 2005 ) . Firewalls, which are intended to forestall entree to a computing machine web, can be easy bypassed by aA black chapeau viz. a hacker with the right tools and accomplishments.

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The breach can ensue a heavy loss of important information, or a virus could be planted and cancel all secured information as an interloper.

So that is why Information Security Professionals plays a huge function in this Business Industry, because of this, there is an of import place for ethical hackers, who can support and protect the organisation against cybercriminals and even they are capable of perforating their ain system for the testing intents.When the inquiry arise that, is choping really bad? Or is it possibleA that there are times when hacking can be seen as good? Before addressingA these scenarios, the term hackers and moralss demands to be defined. So this is where ethical hacker comes in.

Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing

Ethical Hacking can be defined as choping a web or a system to seek and prove exposures that a hacker could work and take advantage of the system. This implies, making it for the improvement of the house. This procedure is done to procure and support the system from cybercriminals known as black chapeaus with a lawfully authorised manner. The people who involve in ethical hacking are called as white chapeaus who are professionally trained security experts. Most of the houses employ one these White Hats to protect their information systems whilst some house ‘s hires.

The Computer offense is where the computing machine isA the topographic point of the offense and the condemnable activities can run fromA fraud, larceny, and counterfeit. Businesss who try to near the problemA have independent computing machine security professionals who attempt to breakA into the computing machine systems and penetrate as mentioned above. Both of these people, crackers andA professionals are ethical hackers, but they have different moralss. Negative observation of hacking, When is choping bad? In recent intelligence, a certain hacker who claims to beA known as Gwerdna hacked into a Mac computing machine, He even made remarks onA how easy it was for him to chop into the security and he has stated to interrupt into that library machine he merely took 10 proceedingss. ( Micheal Harvey, 2006 ) .

The term Ethical Hacking can be addressed as incursion proving. This is a method of measuring the web or computing machine system by imitating an onslaught from a malicious beginning, a White Hat Hacker but act as a Black Hat Hacker ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . These ethical hackers use these methods which can be identified and clarified as malicious package ‘s viz. Buffer Overflow, Logic Bomb, Parasite, Sniffer, Spoof, Trojan Horse, Virus, Worms.

Importance and Benefits of Ethical Hacking

As mentioned above the ground for carry oning an ethical drudge, evidently, is to maintain information assets secure. One study conducted by Rick Blum, stated that “ It ( ethical hacking ) is really of import and helps salvage you money and repute in the long tally. ” ( Rick Blum, 2009 ) .Network testing is the most of import type of ethical drudge, because it is obvious the hacker can easy interrupt the firewall and acquire into the web. So web should be extremely secured.

That ‘s a ground why it is considered as a really of import fact for organisation because of the lifting cyber offense rates and the high growing of cyber felons. Since computing machine engineering has developed, the offense rates besides increased. The rational hackers have made mass devastations and losingss for

many companies and they have damaged their database and leaked information. Had exploited the trade name image of most of the houses and damaged their trust on their patronage. Hackers have transferred 1000000s of dollars without any consciousness of the Bankss and their engagement. Even hacked into constabulary section ‘s exigency aid desks.

For illustration a group of hackers called Vandals hacked the New York City Police Departments voice- mail system and replaced the usual polite proclamations with “ You have reached the New York City Police Department. For any existent exigencies, dial 119.Anyone else – we ‘re a small busy right now eating some doughnuts and holding java. ” It continued “ You can merely keep the line. We ‘ll acquire back to you.We ‘re small slow, if you know what I mean. Thank You ” . The bogus messages continued for 12 hours before they were investigated and corrected by ethical hackers ( Donald Pimkins, 2000 )

Some clip ethical hacking will non uncover exposures of a web or a system. But there are a figure of effect benefits that can be derived from an ethical hacking procedure. The image below will give a clear thought of what are the benefits available in this procedure and how it can be prioritized.

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The size of the menace depends on the type of the concern and how its tantrums with hacker ‘s motivations. Therefore to forestall these sorts of issues and menaces in future houses employ ethical hackers.

The term moralss will be clearly structured in the undermentioned paragraphs with the support of ethical rules, ethical issues, ethical quandary and ethical theories.

Business Ethical motives

Harmonizing to the survey Business moralss can be defined as a signifier of applied moralss that examine ethical rules and moral or ethical jobs that occur in a concern environment ( Gwendolyn Cuizon, 2009 ) . Many concerns have gained a bad repute merely by being in concern. By non being stick to concern moralss policy houses may fall in problem, if a concern is damaged by an ethical catastrophe it affects the underside line which implies net income. It is agreed that IT systems are put in topographic point to back up the strategic planes of an organisation which would be in lined with concern moralss. So that is why organisations see moralss as, a conveying competitory border to their concern.

In my point of position in concern, the perspective position of stakeholders are different, they see there ‘s what ‘s illegal, what ‘s legal but unethical, ethical but against company policy, non against policy but non in the client ‘s best involvements, and eventually what ‘s non truly opposite to the client ‘s best involvements but is n’t truly traveling to profit them furthermore. Which can be understood by the below image.

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Ethical Principles and Ethical Issues

Ethical rules can be defined as the foundation of ethical behaviour. An ethical rule arrives from the societal Context, from spiritual beliefs, and from ethical theory. These ethical rules can applied to computing machine engineerings that have an impact on people ‘s day-to-day lives where they interacts in authorities, in instruction, at work, at drama land and exercise ) ( Penny Duquenoy, 2010 )

Some general ethical rules can be listed as

Respecting others

See others as equal

Keep promises

Respect the belongings of others

Act candidly

The rules can be addressed as below which relevant to Information Systems professionals and related engineerings officers.

The Royal Academy of Engineering, in coaction with Engineering Council ( UK ) and a figure of the taking professional technology establishments, has developed a Statement of Ethical Principles to which it believes all professional applied scientists and Information Professionals should follow.

aˆ? Accuracy and Rigor

aˆ? Honesty and Integrity

aˆ? Respect for Life, Law and the Public Good

aˆ? Responsible Leadership: Listening and Informing ( Engineering Ethical motives, 2007 )

Ethical issues can be addressed as whatever threatens or interrupt an ethical rule is an ethical issue. For illustration – ethical rule – “ Respect the belongings of others ”

Ethical Issue – “ Hack person ‘s computing machine without their permission and steal information and destroy it by directing a virus or a worm ” So by understanding this illustration an ethical issue can be clearly understood. And to measure these sorts of ethical issues in different positions ethical theories should be applied.

Ethical Theories

As discussed above an ethical issue can be identified and evaluated by utilizing ethical theories.These theories can be used as tools for doing ethical determinations, and they may besides helpful in supplying a footing for critical thought. An issue can be taken in different positions and formed sentiments with helpful of ethical theories.

There are two chief ethical theories,




The Kants theory can be defined summarized without traveling in deep. Kant says that “ how we behave ethically comes from within us, and the things that we decide are “ good ” or “ bad ” are based on whether we could conceive of everyone making them. “ ( Immanuel Kant )

So for illustration, it would be logically conflicting to state that interrupting a promise is good – because if everyone broke their promises there would be a loss of trust in promises, and the whole nature of a promise would be lost. Therefore, he says, that certain things can non be “ universalized ” which means they would non work if everyone did them, and those things are incorrect.

Examples are: killing others, lying, stealing, interrupting promises. Furthermore, in Kant ‘s point of position, things that we view as wrong are “ basically incorrect ” – that is, they are ever incorrect and there is ne’er any ground state of affairs where they would be right. This conflicts straight with the theory of consequentialism, which will be addressed following.


Consequentialism theory can be defined as, a theory which deals with effects of actions instead than the actions themselves.So, and for illustration, it could be argued that stealing could sometimes be the right action to take provided the result is for the “ good ” . Theory says that a good result is that which brings “ the greatest benefit to the greatest figure of people ” . Therefore larceny, for illustration, is a morally acceptable act if it brings greater benefit to the greatest figure.

For illustration, if a male monarch has a warehouse full of nutrient when most of the people in the state are hungering. In this case stealing the nutrient to administer it to the starvation people would be the right thing to make. So by this act a great figure of people get benefited. So in this instance harmonizing to consequentialism theory stealing is non bad while it to the full contradicts with Kantians theory.

Ethical Dilemmas

Ethical quandary can be addressed as moral quandary. An ethical quandary is a state of affairs where in moral rule or ethical duties conflict in such a manner as to do any possible declaration to the quandary morally unbearable. In other words, an ethical quandary is any state of affairs in which steering moral rules can non find which class of action is right or incorrect. Can simplified as you will hold issue and you will hold a solution which will take you to an unethical manner. ( Lee Flamand, 2007 ) .

Ethical, Legal, Professional, Social and Cultural Issues in Ethical Hacking

When we discuss about ethical hacking there are many issues which can be listed, which will originate in many fortunes. For measuring these issues and come up with a good solution or sentiments the above discussed, structured ethical rules and ethical theories can be taken off. This will evidently give a clear image to the reader. In this survey for farther more analysis two of import incidents will be assessed by me utilizing the both ethical theories.

A Dutch hacker who copied patient files from a University of Washington medical centre ( and was non caught ) said in an online interview that he did it to publicise the system ‘s exposure non to utilize the information. He disclosed parts of the files to a journalist after the medical centre said that no patient files had been copied. ( Sara Baase, A Gift of Fire, 2003. )

If we critically measure the above scenario, it is obvious that the hacker has committed a cyber offense and he should be punished harmonizing to the Kantianism theory which tells “ some actions are ever incorrect ” . Even though the Dutch hacker did n’t misused the copied files he has break into the web and penetrated it. So it ‘s ethically incorrect when we see in the position of Kant ‘s theory. But if we evaluate this utilizing Consequentialism theory it will wholly belie with Kantianism theory. Though the hacker was non acquire caught he has came to an online interview to denote that there is exposure in University of Washington ‘s medical Centre ‘s web which can be easy attacked. So this good behaviour of the hacker shows that he has came to this determination refering about the improvement of the patients. which direct the theory “ an action is good If the effects bring greatest benefit to figure of people “ .If he has published all the copied files through the cyberspace the both parties will be acquire affected, the patients and the University. The files may incorporate confidential information of patients and which they ne’er want to expose. So although this act can be identified as ethically right whilst its lawfully incorrect. Therefore by this action the Medical Centre gets a opportunity to procure and support their systems from future onslaughts.

But a harmonizing to the statement “ A solution to an ethical issue can raise another issue ”

Anonymous. May be this act is ethically right harmonizing to the theory of Consequentialism. But what if the hacker found some medical information about his friend? Which information is a kept secret? What if he tells him? What if the friends get to cognize that his confidential medical information has got leaked through the cyberspace? These sorts of issues can originate which will sometimes take into an ethical quandary.

If we move to the following instance which is,

A 17 twelvemonth old hacker know as YTcracker, who penetrated several authorities and military web sites ( including those properties to the Bureau of Land Management ‘s National Training Center, NASA ‘s Goddard Space Flight Center and the Defense Contracts Audit Agency ) said he routinely sends messages to authorities web site decision makers take a firm standing that they address exposures and follow Unix or other more unafraid systems can be penetrated, but the messages mostly go neglected. YTcracker said in his disfigurement of web site he targeted systems the authorities would look at and take earnestly and procure it. ( Federal Computer Week, 1999 )

Though this instance is Similar to the above discussed one, it provides a different thought. The hacker who has penetrated all these sites called YTcracker has merely one purpose that is to alarm and advise the authorities organisations to protect their valuable information ‘s, Which can be easy breached and gained entree. If critically measure this instance harmonizing to the Kantianism theory. The act of YTcracker is ethically incorrect as it threatens the ethical rules go beyond the theory.

But harmonizing to the point of Consequentialism theory the act is ethical. Because the hacker has n’t done any harm to the authorities organisations utilizing their web sites. He has merely warned and notified them to do them more secured. So greater sum of people gets benefited, because there are most sensitive information ‘s are available in authorities sites such as National Security, Military and NASA. So if the hacker leaks the information from their databases what will go on there are would be a immense job for the US authorities.

But both of these incidents are illegal harmonizing to the Computer Misuse Act 1990 even they are ethical harmonizing to the theories. Because the hackers have offended unauthorised entree to computing machine stuff ( Misuse Act 1990 )

Ethical Concerns and Professional Issues

When implementing an ethical drudge in an organisation there are ethical issues which engages with information systems professionals can be addressed as,

Ethical Hackers have to interrupt the organisations security policy and processs.

Violating the codification of behavior.

Privacy of the employer and employees

Secret Business scheme, Marketing Strategy and merchandise formula escape

If we further analyze above ethical issues a inquiry may originate, Does ethical hacking is ethical? Before address the issues, we are tend to happen a solution for the above inquiry so if, we evaluate the inquiry by seting into Kantianism theory somehow its interrupting the regulations and ordinance, braking the houses security policies and processs, perforating the codification of behavior. So this act of ethical hacking can can non be ethical. Even though the professional hackers do it legally it can be unethical, Harmonizing to Kant ‘s point of position.

Sing with position point of consequentialism theory this procedure can be identified as ethically right, because it ‘s all done for the improvement of the organisation. So there is no manner of knocking it. Firms do these to seek the exposures and support the full web there should be a testing process. So this can be taken as that. In this point of position we can make up one’s mind it ‘s all ethically correct, even though they break their ain codification of behavior.

As information systems professionals point of position ethical hacking can be identified as a complete muss. Because they have to lodge to a codification of behavior. Then merely they are professionals. But when they are being forced to go against these footings when they involve in incursion trials there are in problem as professionals. Therefore as professionals who are expected to follow with local Torahs, sometimes they may hold to measure and measure ethical and legal issues against their forces values.

There can be privacy invasion takes topographic point when they do a ethical drudge. Most of the houses hire an ethical since they do n’t use one. So when he perforate their systems and web he can acquire whatever the information he needs from the organisations databases and webs. All confidential employee and spouse paperss and information can be seen. The ethical hacker is able to see all the weak points of the firewall. If the ethical hacker is non a professional he may assail the organisation subsequently when he needs. Or he will be a large menace. So these issues may originate. And even the secret selling and concern scheme of a taking company leaks the hacker can sell it for the rivals. So this would be a menace for some houses to carry on and incursions test utilizing an

Legal Issues and Laws

When sing about legal facets, the issues which was discussed in the above paragraphs can be brought up since it involves legal issues. Even though those incidents were ethical, it ‘s wholly illegal, because it breaks the Computer Misuse Act 1990. This Act will be clearly discussed below,

The Computer Misuse Act 1990

TheA Computer Misuse Act 1990A is an Act of theA UK Parliament. The Bill finally became the Computer Misuse Act in August 1990.The Act introduced three new condemnable offenses:

Unauthorized entree to computing machine stuff

Unauthorized entree to computing machine stuff with the purpose to perpetrate or ease committee of farther offenses

Unauthorized alteration of computing machine stuff. ( Statuelaw, 1990 )

What if an ethical hacker pretends to be an inside interloper? He who knows the full web and secrets of a company. So he can easy damage and destruct the full information system. When these state of affairss occur harmonizing to the abuse act legal issues can be identified.

For an illustration a disgruntled computing machine technician at Reuters in Hong Kong detonated logic bombs at five investment-bank clients, doing 36 hours of downtime in webs supplying market information crucial for trading. The Bankss switched instantly to alternative services and reported no important effects on their work ; nevertheless, Reuters was profoundly embarrassed by the incident ( Financial Times Limited, November 1996 ) so looking into these factors the organisation should be to the full cognizant of these sorts of menace which can be aroused.

Sometimes Internal political relations may coerce the ethical hacker to do immense losingss for the house. When they employ for and public company. There are so many people in a manager board. So what if the ethical hacker gets an order from higher direction to works a logic bomb or make a parasite for of import information of the house and put the incrimination on another individual. For the ethical hacker this occupation is non that much hard. Even they may inquire him to steal other companies ‘ confidential paperss. This might do legal issues which will wholly damage the house ‘s repute. These sorts of issues can originate without the consciousness of the direction.

Social and Cultural Concerns

It is agreed that in concern moralss there are tonss of issues as deeply addressed in above paragraphs and societal and cultural issues can besides identified as one of them. Social issues are about to impact on the society. IT depends on the society ‘s reaction and behaviour. Harmonizing to the ethical rules houses should negociate with the society. If an Information System of a Hospital or a School got hacked, there would be immense issues in the society. As their sensitive information contain on those Information Systems. Similarly this instance may happen in a house. So when an ethical hacker gets involved in this procedure he has to maintain the trust on them if non the incrimination can be put on him by the society. So both parties get affected. The trade name image can be acquire spoilt in the society when their information ‘s get leaked out. They will lose the trust and religion on their employer.

And when the ethical hacking procedure gets leaked out there are opportunities of impacting the company ‘s civilization. If there is a civilization there are certain values to be respected. And if this values acquire exploited by the incursion examiners issues may originate. And when they design these IS system they should esteem the values without harming it. For e.g. Pornography.


From the clearly structured survey, it is understood ethical hacking consideration is important to keeping a verifiable degree of information security. Even though there are tonss of issues in certain facets of Ethical hacking ; it is a critical constituent of our overall security plan which keeps the internal, contracted security.

Ethical hacking is a necessity in order to protect company assets and remain near to the world of unethical hacking. It ethical hacking is really of import and helps salvage you money and repute in the long tally. Ethical Hacking is the best manner to measure the web from an foreigner ‘s position.

To cut down the addressed issues above organisations can hold their ain ethical hacking squad or hacker to forestall outside information escape and to acquire rid of the fright of that.

I think ethical hacking is a must hold for any serious organisation today in this fast moving concern universe. It should be a critical portion of any proactive organisation in today ‘s planetary competitory market.

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Issues In Ethical Hacking And Penetration Testing Information Technology Essay
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