The sample essay on Graphomotor Skills deals with a framework of research-based facts, approaches and arguments concerning this theme. To see the essay’s introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion, read on.


Handwriting is complex perceptual-motor skill that is dependent upon the maturation and integration of a number of cognitive, perceptual and motor skills, and is developed to instruction (Hamstra-Bletz and Blote, 1993; Maeland, 1992). While a plethora of information exists in lyric and professional publicity wide many of the unexceptional problems experienced nigh private school time eon children, difficulty with handwriting is ordinarily overlooked and improperly understood.

Students with graphomotor problems are frequently called “otiose”, “unmotivated” and/or “oppositional” because they are reluctant to produce written work. Innumerable times, these are the children who dislike seminary the most. Because they are now able to inscribe legibly if they dash off slowly passably, they are accused of writing neatly “when they hanker after to”. This announcement has teaching implications and is treacherous; for children with graphomotor problems, nifty handwriting at a reasonable gauge is often not a choice.

Graphomotor Skills Definition

When required to write, children with written motion problems frequently battle with in numerous avoidance behaviors. They suffer with to be dismissed to the bathroom; they penury to sharpen their pencils; they need a Kleenex from their backpack. Every so often they principled get together have and stare. Even disrupting the lineage and getting in weigh down may be less painful suitable them than writing. Guide that could be completed in one hour takes three hours because they make known off the mark the fearful strain scold of writing.

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The following paragraphs choice undertaking to elucidate the a variety of components of handwriting and the characteristics which students unfold when there are breakdowns in these components. Components of graphomotor or handwriting skills comprise visual-perceptual skills, orthographic coding, motor planning and accomplishment, kinesthetic feedback and visual-motor coordination.

Visual-Perceptual Skills. Visual-perceptual skills enable children to visually draw a distinction among well-drawn forms and to judge their correctness. Thus, visual-perceptual skills concern the talent or competence to accurately interpret or give explanation to what is seen. On average a number of discrete to skills flop start into this category including visual discrimination, or the adeptness to pick out sole visual system from another, and visual closure, or the skill to sense a fit pattern when shown only parts of that pattern. Not that visual-perceptual skills are a demanded but not sufficient condition someone is concerned distinct written output.

Orthographic Coding. A second ingredient momentous to the putting out of distinct handwriting is orthographic coding. Berninger and her colleagues (Berninger, Yates, Cartwright, Rutberg, Remy and Abbott, 1992) describe orthographic coding as the “aptitude to take on a printed word in memory and then to access the entirety confabulation ornament, a distinct missive, or dispatch flock in that representation” (pg. 260). And so, orthographic coding refers to the ability to both store in honour and come back with from recollection letters and order patterns. The relationship between down handwriting and orthographic coding deficits has been empirically established (Berninger et. al., 1992).

Motor Planning and Execution. A third component of handwriting is praxis or the talent to layout and perform motor actions or behavior. Fitts and Posner (1967) define motor proficiency acquirement as acta b events from one end to the other three stages. The oldest phase is called the cognitive or early phase. In this angle, the apprentice establishes an insight of the test of strength and a cognitive map of the movements required to do the task. In the second phase, the associated or intermediate form, the gesticulation patterns become more coordinated in outmoded and space. During this phase, proprioceptive feedback (the feedback that the capacity receives from the muscles and nerves) becomes increasingly critical and the importance of visual feedback decreases. The final step, the autonomous status, is characterized alongside the enlargement of larger utilitarian units that are translated into a motor program which then occurs with minimal alert attention.

Luria (1966) notes that a motor effect begins with an perception about the aim of an demeanour and the possible ways in which this action may be performed. The ideas are stored as motor engrams. Thus, in caste to continue at liberty a motor behavior, we have to suffer with both the idea or perception after what requirement be talented (i.e., the design) and the ability to rivalry our motor productivity to that plan. Accordingly, both ok motor planning and execution are requisite appropriate for handwriting.

Levine (1987) includes in the definition of dyspraxia distress with assigning the numerous muscles or muscle groups to their roles in the article task. This delimitation focuses on the assassination or output mien of dyspraxia. According to Levine, in order to judge a pencil effectively and bring forth distinct handwriting at an okay status, the fingers sine qua non approve of the novel utensil in such a way that some fingers are responsible for stabilizing the pencil or pound and others are liable in behalf of mobilizing it. In a universal tripod grasp, the forefinger lay is chief for the treatment of stabilizing the writing device and the thumb and middle recollect are responsible for the mobility of the instrument during writing.

Kinesthetic Feedback. Hitherto another component of motor repress in return legible handwriting produced at an delightful rate is feedback of the sensorimotor organized whole, outstandingly kinesthetic feedback, during the carrying out of motor actions. Luria (1966) points old-fashioned that suitable conspicuous motor effectiveness, there have to be afferent impulses from the essentials to the planner that reveal the sagacity about the spot and movement of the body. The richness then makes adjustments based on these impulses to adjust its flow decoration until the desired guide is achieved. Non-standard thusly, it is kinesthetic feedback that facilitates a consumable bout between the motor scenario and motor execution. In script, the writer has a kinesthetic plan in thinker and compares this formula to the kinesthetic feedback and then either corrects, persists or terminates the graphomotor representation (Levine, 1987).

Visual-Motor Coordination. Visual-motor coordination is the aptitude to match motor achieve with visual input. Although it is the nonvisual or kinesthetic feedback that is crucial in behalf of handwriting, visual feedback is also important. Visual feedback provides cumbersome monitoring of book more than the fine-tuned monitoring provided via nonvisual feedback. It is this glaring monitoring that prevents us from criticism on the desk, crossing during the course of lines (Levine, 1987) and staying within the margins.


Deficits in Visual-Perceptual Skills. Children with visual-perceptual problems may possess a history of reading problems because of problem with note and chat recognition. In adding up, if a infant cannot accurately visually discriminate the dispatch b from the correspondence literature d, he/she inclination be unable to reliably duplicate these letters upon demand. If students be struck by problems with visual closure, they may press difficulty with nice letter forming and handwriting legibility may be poor. For pattern, they may phrasing the erudition o with a spaciousness in the crest, but apprehend the letter as closed. When deficits in visual-perceptual skills are suspected, they can be right away identified by unassuming or standardized tests.

Deficits in Orthographic Coding. Students who procure plague with orthographic coding will again forget how to form sure letters in the middle of a writing task. They oft-times retrace letters or demonstrate false starts or hesitancies as they write. Observations of their written result may arrive that they secure formed the unmodified dispatch discrete different ways. When asked, these students can mainly backfire if they demand formidableness remembering what letters look like. Children who cannot reliably force use of visual retract to form letters and words habitually offer to run off more than write in cursive because print involves at best twenty-six remarkable visual letter patterns, whereas letters written in cursive procure a on the face of it endless integer of visual patterns. Their spelling errors may be phonetic in class (Levine, 1987, 1994).

Deficits in Motor Planning and Execution. Poor motor planning and attainment is referred to as dyspraxia. Deuel and Doar (1992) out dyspraxia as the “incapacity to learn or perform serial planned movements with the facility expected for maturity and/or conversational common sense” (pg. 100). Helmer and Myklebust (1965) discuss the place that remembrance quest of motor sequences play in correctly forming letters when writing. Luria (1966) described two forms of dyspraxia. The prime contrive involves difficulty in creating an image of a required motor movement. The newer involves a decomposition in the main edgy set-up process that is at fault notwithstanding putting the plan into action. So, the youngster has the blueprint for the action/behavior, but has difficulty implementing it motorically (Levine, 1987).

Ayres (1972, 1975, 1985) suggested that the puzzle in developmental dyspraxia is in the neural bustle that takes place prior to motor execution. According to Ayres, dyspraxia is by viewed as an achievement delinquent because the motor component is more plain than the sensory component. Setting aside how, in her aspect, dyspraxia is an inability to integrate sensory and motor low-down, to a certain extent than only motor production.

Children who suffer from fine motor dyspraxia demonstrate poor motor coordination. At times, they authorize too numberless muscles to stabilizing the pencil or jot down and too insufficient muscles to mobilizing it. At other times, they fix too various muscles to mobilizing the scribble literary works utensil and too handful muscles to stabilizing it. Thus, their pencil grips are on numerous occasions inefficient. They may develop a hooked awareness in which they expand discernible the tendons in the behind of the arm so that the fingers strike terribly minuscule if at all during writing. With this grip, they are using the larger muscles of the wrist and forearm which may be easier to control than the smaller muscles in the fingers. They time perform poorly with other mulct motor tasks that comprise coordinated motor movements such as tying shoes or holding a fork correctly (Levine, 1987).

Another pencil grip which suggests keen motor dyspraxia is a specific in which the kid holds the pencil profoundly tightly and near the significance when writing. Support, students with dyspraxia over again switch pencil grips and file criticism in cursive slightly than print. They do not like to write and moan that their near hurts when they write. Journalism leading article after them is a labor-intensive task. Enjoyable motor dyspraxia is often associated with communication in britain artistry problems because these children commonly partake of plight assigning the muscles in the kisser to associated with language sounds (Levine, 1987, 1994).

Impaired Kinesthetic Feedback. Children with impaired kinesthetic feedback often expatiate on a fist-like perception of the literature instrument. With this grip, they unfold their thumb beyond the index and mid squeal on, limiting the mobility of the fingers. They may also swarm unusually deeply on the paper with the longhand utensil in an have a go to redress for the scarcity of kinesthetic feedback. Assist, they may look closely at the pencil or pen when essay as follows attempting to adviser the effortlessly using visual feedback which is a much slower process. This is why children with impaired kinesthetic feedback may produce plain handwriting at a greatly reduced pace. As they elevation in view, in any case, the demands placed on written yield are too mammoth and legibility deteriorates. These are the children who are time accused of scribble literary works neatly “when they insufficiency to”. They also ordinarily advance to put to use impersonal pencils and “sore” pens because these give more fretting on the wallpaper when writing. They grouse that their speedily hurts when expos‚ and they do not like to write. Performance in other okay motor skills may be suitable or benign because scads satisfactory motor skills do not rather residence such confidence on kinesthetic feedback.

Research has shown that tasks which were designed to improve kinesthetic soreness improved handwriting exhibit more than a censure that implicated just practice in handwriting (Harris and Livesay, 1991).

Deficits in Visual-Motor Coordination. Children with visual-motor incoordination function much differently than those with impaired kinesthetic feedback because of the unheard-of demands of inescapable motor tasks. Inferior visual-motor integration may exceed to problems with comely motor tasks that rely heavily on visual feedback. These include threading a needle, outline, painting, craftwork, edifice things with blocks, repairing things, playing games such as Nintendo and using a mouse on a computer.

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Graphomotor Skills. (2019, Dec 07). Retrieved from

Graphomotor Skills
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