0. 1 Introduction The undermentioned essay will analyze ethical issues addressed through the film “Blood Diamond” . The two chief issues identified and discussed are ; child soldiers and struggle diamonds. My chief lens of ethical theories will dwell of the four western theories. this includes. egoism. utilitarianism. moralss of responsibilities and moralss of rights. Even though these theories are based on ethical tyranny. I will still seek to use a pluralistic position. Additionally. some of these theories will be expanded and other theories that do non be given so much towards ethical tyranny will be added. The undermentioned subdivision will concentrate more on how these issues occurred and seek to give some possible reply to the jobs. In order to make so descriptive ethical theories will be tools in the scrutiny. Finally the decision will be presented by a combination of a movie reappraisal and a short sum-up of the findings in the text.
1. 1 Children with guns The first of the two ethical issues that will be examined is the usage of childs as soldiers. In order to make so I believe I have to take a subjective function on the topic. looking from a Rebel soldier. The grounds for this is because I believe nonsubjective or western positions on this subject will in the terminal province that this is neither moral or ethical. In order to acquire a more interesting position on the affair. I will utilize an alternate attack and seek to look out of the eyes of a soldier taking the usage of child soldiers. The inquiry is ; how can the usage of childs as soldiers be justified?
The state of affairs described in the film tells us about the Revolutionary United Front ( RUF ) . which is a rebel group contending the authorities in Sierra Leone 1999. To set the state of affairs in a soldiers head. one could reason that his or hers ideas were. “I am being invaded by the West. they are stealing my diamonds. the authorities is corrupt. how can I win this battle? ” This position is based on RUF as one minded soldiers. of class they are non. but in order to do this statement the premise is so. The first ethical theory that can be linked to the response of kid soldiers is egoism. The chief construct of this theory is justified with one holding to concentrate on one ego ; to command all other things is to hard ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . It is of import to separate from selfishness. and one can reason that this action can be justified as an egocentric mentality. non a selfish point of position.
They do non contend merely for their ain winning ; they fight for what they believe is best for the state and RUF. The remainder of the universe would likely differ to the usage of childs. but how can they judge a state of affairs that for most of them is so far off that they can merely be prejudice non knowing about the state of affairs? One can even travel so far to state that both the consequentialist theories supports the actions performed by this Rebel group. they are contending for their ain desires and what they believe is the greater good. In order to make so they have to use the resources available. ergo utilizing kids as soldiers and life in utilitarianism. Consequentialist theories focus on the result. and one can province that is what has to be the focal point in order to really utilize so immature people for agencies in war.
The differences between the theories are that egoism focuses on the decision-maker while utilitarianism casts an oculus on the wider community. which RUF seems to make every bit good when contending against the authorities ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . For the staying theories on this issue. there is no 1 that can be associated with the usage of kids for these actions. Both non-consequentialist theories have clear moral counsel that will non back up the class of actions taken by the RUF. Ethical responsibilities have three chief axioms. and I believe no RUF soldier would desire the usage of kid soldiers to go a cosmopolitan jurisprudence. Maxim two analyses will state us that all the kids have non freely decided to go soldiers. and can be said to be used as agencies by the RUF to accomplish their ends. non to educate the kids in the right manner.
The 3rd axiom asks if the actions are universally accepted. there is no demand for account here. it is non accepted by the universe. Ethical motives of rights and justness has a big focal point on human self-respect and humanity ; one can reasonably province that there is neither in the usage of kids as soldiers. So we can now do a short sum-up to state that with a pluralistic ( possibly a spot more relativistic ) position on the two consequentialist ethical theories the usage of childs to bear weaponries can be justified. We will discourse this issue further in the following subdivision of the essay. but first the issue of blood diamonds will be addressed.
1. 2 “Bling-Bang” Conflict diamonds or blood diamonds as the rubric of the film confirms is an of import ethical issue enlightened by manager Edward Zwick. Before traveling into treatment around moralss sing this subject. a short definition of struggle diamonds is appropriate: “Conflict Diamonds – besides known as blood diamonds – are diamonds that are used to fuel struggle and human rights maltreatments. They have founded barbarous conflicts… that have resulted in the decease and supplanting of 1000000s of people. ” ( Global Witness 2011 ) . In Sierra Leone 1999 the diamonds are traded for largely arms by the RUF. the purchasers are large diamond companies utilizing cleansing methods around the universe in order to “wash” the rocks. As the film shows us. the diamond industry is powerful and unethical.
Working from a position of pluralism which is an ethical in-between manner between tyranny and relativism. one which I believe should and is being used the most. the actions of the diamonds corporations are extremely immoral and unethical. Pluralism is based on the impression that morality is a societal phenomenon harmonizing to Kaler ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . If one would reason that morality is a societal phenomenon. the morality of taking usage of Rebel groups as RUF and their utmost methods of operations can in no manner be justified.
Helping condemnable and atrocious actions like these should ne’er be done. The chilling portion is that this is nil new. corporations do believe of people as agencies merely which is opposite of what the 2nd axiom of ethical responsibilities suggest ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . A quotation mark from the film which describes this state of affairs. and implies that the companies fool consumers into believing that every diamond comes without blood is said by Danny Archer when speaking to an American journalist. “In America it’s bling bling. but out here it’s bling knock. ” ( Imdb. com 2011 ) . What Mr. Archer here says is really on the topographic point on how unethical the operations of diamond companies deceive the universe. And they do so wittingly. after all the presentation of the film shows a G8 conference where diamond CEO’s are precent and applauded for go toing the battle against blood diamonds.
When they at the terminal so still purchase blood diamonds. their actions can be nil else than both immoral and unethical. For every ethical theory that include morality. honor. or even the greater good. these people do non look to care. and it is difficult to happen any manner to warrant their agencies except for fiscal profitss. which is sad. unethical and immoral. Their actions can be found as unethical by three of the four ethical theories mentioned ; the lone 1 that once more can come to make peace of head for the CEO’s is the line of egoism. Again the fiscal desires of diamond companies seems to be all they care about. and if they believe that everything else is non their job. so egoism will accept the actions of these people. There is a but here. and as the last paragraph stated. they wittingly deceive and wittingly cognize what the history of their rocks are.
They make that history affair to them every bit shortly as they attend the diamond meeting. And when they make that blood covering those diamonds matter. stepping out of line of the egocentric theory is something they do. and as ethical theories are regulations and principals that determines right and incorrect. these actions can clearly be stated as incorrect ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . I will non pass much clip on covering the three staying theories on this subject because I do non see room for much deformation when mensurating the determinations up to the staying three theories. Put merely. utilitarianism is non supported because their actions are non for the greater good.
There is no “greater good” in purchasing struggle diamonds unwittingly for consumers ; neither is at that place for working a barbarous civil war for economical intents. There are to important impacts on world’s society for this to be disregarded. Over to the non-consequentialist theories they are as described antecedently in the essay based much on morality. self-respect and humanity. and there are room for small of these constructs in the actions of Van de Kaap. Van de Kaap is the character of the diamond CEO in this film. And as mentioned earlier back uping such atrocious military actions defies what the 2nd axiom of ethical responsibilities suggests. Now that the four chief ethical theories have been discussed with this issue the undermentioned subdivision of this essay will seek significance in the actions performed by RUF and diamond corporations.
2. 1 Finding the grounds Normative theories tend to concentrate more on the jobs after actions and determinations have been made. this subdivision will utilize tools from descriptive ethical theory. which are used as tools on how the determinations are made and why ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . There are two chief classs to turn to. single factors and situational factors. I believe that single factors do non play an of import function compared to situational factors. I do admit Ford and Richardson’s ( 1994 ) statement that socialization affairs. but I do non recognize this as an single factor ; this goes over to the situational factor.
One can reason that grownups have single factors when showing different childhood environments. and this is true. but to find how a individual will move when Born is non possible. The lone factor recognised with persons to truly count is mental unwellness. and so I mean birth illness non sickness developed during the life. The other factors all depends on environment. As a scene in the film show. Mr. Archer is found in a conversation with a local adult male taking attention of kids and is asked the inquiry if he believes people by and large good or bad and responds ; “No. I’d say their merely people. ” ( Imdb. com 2011 ) .
This is true. there are none born immorality or good. it is our actions that show us what we become. So the tool that will be used to construe the actions of RUF and Van de Kaap are largely situational factors. Premises are stating us that 10 000 kids were contending for the RUF ( Murphy 2003 ) . As we can except most single factors. one can get down by faulting environment for actions performed by human existences. Get downing this will be with researching the relevant situational factors. The state of affairs described in the film is a rebel group contending the authorities in which they believe are corrupt and see no other solution than to take the battle in their ain custodies. As the film provides us merely with one manner the kids end up as soldiers. there are other grounds for kids to bear the RUF uniform.
Murphy ( 2003 ) negotiations of four theoretical accounts of kid soldiers. the first 1 is called “coerced youth” which is the theoretical account of barbarous coercion of kids into the ground forces. merely as the one we see in the film. The staying three theoretical accounts are non traveling to be described in item here. but tell us a spot different narrative. Children life in poorness and with a unsmooth childhood. bad parenting in a helter-skelter state can easy be given to fault the authorities. The hunt for authorization and some kind of topographic point for them in society can do them fall in what they feel is the right battle. or possibly merely to acquire some significance in their lives. The society has non provided the safety that a kid needs so it seeks it. the cognitive moral phase these childs live in is named preconvention.
Their cognitive moral development is shaped by the environment. and it “refers to the different degrees of concluding that an person can use to ethical issues and jobs. ” ( Crane and Matten 2010:153 ) . The preconventional phase says that to find what is right and incorrect out from penalty or wagess from their subsidiaries. and in this instance RUF wagess unethical behavior. The mentality of kids are found in the scheme of denial ( Anand. Ashforth and Joshi 2004 ) they remove duty from themselves ; hereby their actions can be accepted by themselves and so implemented. In add-on their venue of control is likely low in a childs head. and seeking control in authorization figures. Now to the RUF. one can see grounds for why child soldiers were used. if one is to believe that a combination of snatch and kids fall ining volitionally were the start up.
The manner from there can be that kids were seen to be utile and thereby merely accommodating more kids as they felt the demand. This may really good be one of the grounds for the usage of kid soldiers. The following point will prosecute concluding for which diamonds create unethical behavior. To happen the significance of working Sierra Leone for their diamonds we can pull similarities with the concluding above. More accurately the scheme used to rationalize unethical behavior. Van de Kaap will be once more the individual of involvement in this. and in this film this individual represents the scheme denial of duty ( Anand. Ashforth and Joshi 2004 ) .
Not in the same manner as the kids described above. but in the sense that they believe that if they do non take advantage of these diamonds. person else will. By holding that attitude the other scheme. denial of hurt ( Anand. Ashforth and Joshi 2004 ) besides fits. They may admit that people are acquiring harmed. but it is non their duty since person else would take their topographic point if they were non at that place.
The wages is what gives the administration significance. people tend to make what they are rewarded for. and in that procedure it is easy to bury the moralss sing their actions ( Crane and Matten 2010 ) . We can besides fault the world’s ignorance of the issue. Crane and Matten ( 2010 ) writes that “Quite merely. ethical misdemeanors that go unpunished are likely to be repeated. ” And this is the world’s duty. in the film we find a journalist to take this occupation. contending against a universe that seems unmindful to the issue. So what possible solution can be proposed to it all?
2. 2 Possible solutions The first proposed solution to be addressed will be blood diamonds. Already the Kimberly procedure has been formed in 2003. This is a response on struggle diamonds and mentioned in the beginning of the film ( Global Witness 2010 ) . The imitative is a non-government. non-corporate and hence independent imitative which sertify struggle diamonds. It is said to be an sole nine as lone members can merchandise with members and hence something states long to take a portion in.
Global Witness province on their home page “… efforts at industry self-regulation have been deplorably deficient ; intending that it still isn’t possible to vouch to consumers that the diamonds they purchase are free from the contamination of struggle and human rights maltreatment. ” And this tells us that it is difficult. but at least person is seting in an attempt. So when the ordinance is difficult. we should take attention of some roots of the job. Diamonds is a good defined as a privation. it is non a demand. One can therefore fault the consumers on doing it possible for companies to gain so much of diamond trade. and by making so I want to set some of this duty back in their custodies. The consumer has to do certain that what they are purchasing does non back up struggles in other states.
If a system would be demanded by the people. one could reason that the power which lies with the people is strong plenty to do the corporations act. The 2nd solution is in some manner already shown in the film. a rehabilitation “centre” in the jungle for childs. It is of import to make this properly and non disregard the childs one time they have become soldiers. In add-on I believe that by contending poorness is a manner of contending kids turning to slayers. To execute these two undertakings that here is proposed is something that the western universe should be obligated to make when thought of all the hurting it have caused for Africa in the past centuries. One possibility would be for the G8 to take usage of discourse moralss and organize a panel with parties from Rebel groups. ex-child soldiers. local authorities and nonsubjective heads. That concludes this subdivision of the essay ; the following 1 will be a short sum-up and reappraisal of the film.
3. 1 Short reappraisal of film and text The concluding subdivision of this essay will be a short film reappraisal combined with some decisions from this essay. The manager Edward Zwick has in my eyes done a antic occupation. the film is stuffed with existent life issues. and two are presented in this text by kid soldiers and blood diamonds. Zwick presents ethical issues in an action packed thriller filled with good playing and effects. I view this film as a perfect combination of Hollywood and the existent universe. there are a few cliches. but that has to be expected ; the remainder is a head opening truth that surely was a end for the production when the release day of the month was set 18th of December. right before the year’s biggest diamond sale period.
The three chief characters each present separate ethical morality. the “soldier of fortune” gives us an egocentric mentality. but gets softer as the film closes to the terminal. The manner the film presents both the apprehension for the desire in egoism every bit good as demoing that it is possible to alter and besides show compassion a moral turn. The 2nd character is a fisherman showing a more feminist ethical theory. demoing much love for household and attention for people. even a adult male that is likely to steal from him. The last character is a female journalist contending for equity and justness. And Maddy Bowen can easy be linked to several ethical theories. but closest to theories of justness.
Her battle for equity and acquiring the West to open their eyes gives another moral angel to the state of affairs in Sierra Leone. All in all Zwick with good aid from his histrions presents the issues of kid soldiers and blood diamonds in a really good manner. one can see that the diamond corporations of the universe did non like it. they fought the film for a long clip and ended up with a 15 $ US million PR run ( PRWatch 2006 ) that resulted in a web site called diamondfacts. org.
This is interpreted as a mark that he is forcing on the right buttons and may be something that forces alteration. I do non believe I would alter anything with his film. in order to make the mark market a combination of fiction and facts are needed. This essay has proved that the usage of kid soldiers every bit good as trading struggle diamonds is unethical and has asked the universe to move as a solution ; there is power within the people that should be used to coerce alterations to these issues.