Psychology Final ReviewBehavioral Modification- a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones (good behavior is reinforced) Classical Conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about a response (dog responds to bell thinks of food) Operant Conditioning- a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative responses (different from classical because is voluntary unlike classical when dog hears bells, he starts to salivate) Cohort- a group of people born at around the same time in the same place Correlational Research- research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exist Critical Period- a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally Dependent Variable- the variable the researchers measure Experimental Research- research designed to discover casual relationships between various factors (cause and effect) Humanistic Approach- the theory contending that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior (Rogers and Maslow, hierarchy of needs) Independent Variable- thing being manipulated in experiment Information Processing Approach- the model that seeks to identify the ways individuals take in, use and store information Maturation- the predetermined unfolding of genetic information Naturalistic Observation- naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation Psychoanalytical Theory- the theory proposed by Freud suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior Psychodynamic Perspective- the approach that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness and control (Freud and Erikson) Sensitive Period- a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences. Social-Cognitive Learning Theory- learning by observing the behavior of another person called a model Dizygotic twins- twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at the same time (fraternal twins) DNA- he substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how each will function Embryonic Stage – the period from 2 to 8 weeks Fetal Stage- the stage 8 weeks- till birth Genotype- the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism Germinal Stage- the first and shortest stage of prenatal period, first two weeks following conception Monozygotic twins- identical twins Phenotype- an observable trait, trait that is actually seen Zygote- the new cell formed by the process of fertilization APGAR scale- A- appearance P- pulse G- grimace A- activity R- respiration Post-mature Infants- Infants still unborn 2 weeks after the mother’s due date Reflexes- unlearned , organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli Cerebral Cortex- the upper layer of the brain Myelin- a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses Neuron- the basic nerve cell of the nervous system Plasticity- the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience Principle of the independence systems- the principle that different body systems grow at different rates SID’s- the unexplained death of a seemingly healthy baby Synapse Synaptic Pruning- the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation Accommodation- changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events Assimilation- the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking Babbling- making speech-like but meaningless sounds Information Processing Approaches- the model that seeks to identify the way individuals take in, use and store information Object Permanence- the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen Overextension- the overly broad use of words (all cars are trucks) Scheme- an organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning Sensorimotor Stage (of cognitive development) – Piagets initial stage of cognitive development has 6 substages Ainsworth Strange Situation- a sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between a child and mother Ambilivalant Attachment- a style of attachment in which children display a combination o f positive and negative reactions to their mothers, they show great distress when mother leaves, but upon her return they may imultaneously seek close contact but also hit and kick her Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt- (aged 18 months to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if they allowed the freedom to explore or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted or overprotected Avoidant Attachment Theory- a style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to the mother Empathy- an emotional response corresponds to the feelings of another person Psychological Development (Erikson theory)- the theory that considers how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others – and their own – behavior Personality- the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differinate one individual from another Social Referencing- the intentional search for information about others’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events Stranger Anxiety- the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person Trust vs Mistrust Stage- the period where infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caregivers Goodness-of-Fit- the notion that development is dependent on the degree of match between children’s temperament and the nature demands of the environment in which they are raised (high-activity high irritability children need direction) Handedness- the preference of using one hand over the other (will see by 7 months) Lateralization- the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other Obesity- body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for a person of a given age or height Autobiographical Memory- memory of particular events form one’s own life (usually after age 3) Centration- the processing of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects (dominate preschoolers learning) Conservation- the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects Egocentric Thought- thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others Fast Mapping- instances in which new words are with their meaning after only brief encounter (‘s understood as more than one) Intuitive Thought- thinking that reflects preschoolers use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world Operations-organized, formal, logical mental processes Pragmatics- aspect of language that refers to communicating effectively and appropriately with others Preoperational Stage- (ages 2 to 7) in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges. nd the use of concepts increases Scaffolding- the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth Syntax- the way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences Transformation- the process in which one state is changed into another Zone of Proximal Development- according to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent Abstract Modeling- the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles Androgynous- a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes (female both sensitive and strong) Associative Play- 2 or more children interact with one another by borrowing or sharing toys, but do not do the same thing Cooperative Play- children genuinely interact with each other, taking turns Parallel Play- play with similar toys in similar manner but do not interact Cycle of Violence Hypothesis- the neglect and abuse children suffer predispose them to do the sameRace Dissonance- the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people Resilience- the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage Aggression- intentional harm or injury to another person Initiative vs Guilt Stage- (ages 3 to 6) experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action Speech Impairment- speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication Stuttering- substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech Learning Disabilities- difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or math Acceleration- special programs that allow gifted students to move ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels.
Concrete operational stage- the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active, and appropriate, use of logic. Crystallizing intelligence- the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem solving situations. Cultural assimilation model- the model that fostered the view of American society as the proverbial melting pot. Decentering- the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account. Enrichment- an approach through which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic.
Intelligence quotient (or IQ score)- a measure of intelligence that takes Into account a student’s mental and chronological age. Mental retardation (intellectual disability)- a significantly subaverage level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in 2 or more skill areas. Metalinguistic awareness- an understanding of one’s own use of language. Industry VS Inferiority stage- the period from age 6 to 12 characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. Status- the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group or society.
Encoding- initial recording of information Storage- information saved for further use Retrieval- recovery of stored information Autominazation- is degree to which an activity requires attention Neuron-basic cells of the nervous system Dendrites- at one end, using a cluster of fibers can communicate Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers Synapses- neurotransmitters travel across these small gaps| neurotransmitter Communication with other neurons- Reflex that disappears after six months is startle self-awareness An 18 month old who stares in the mirror- Erikson argued that each of his 8 stages represent crisis CHROMOSOME The rod shaped parts of DNA that come in 23 pair
Habituation – Newborns shows interest in a toy for a short period of time the get bored Which one is manipulated and measured? Independent and dependent Which Erikson stage at 18 months- autonomy vs shame and doubt Stranger anxiety- around or after 6 months, peaks at 14 months, less anxiety with woman and/with children Social referencing- fairly sophisticated social ability using social cues like facial expression and the meaning of those social cues in the context of a specific situation Cephalocaudal principle- growth follows the pattern that begins with head and upper body and proceeds down Eyesight is not measured on APGAR scale Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration Brain damaged- cerebral cortex Automization- degree to which activity requires attention
Critical period – specific time during development when a particular event has it greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is need for development to proceed normally 0besity – body weight more than 20% higher than the average weight for a person of a given age and heightConservation – is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objectsEgocentric Thought – has two forms – lack of awareness that others see things from a different physical perspective (behavior acts as a trigger to others reactions and responses) – failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings and points of view that differ from theirsFast Mapping – new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter (this is a wog – there are 2 ______ children know the rules about plurals) – by age 6, the average child has a vocabulary of around 14,000 words – vocabulary acquired at a rate of one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day Pre-Operational Stage – according to Piaget, the stage from approximately age 2 to 7 in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges and the use of concepts increases Private Speech – speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves – serves to try out ideas, acts as a sounding board – facilitates childrens thinking and helps them control their behavior – serves as an important social functionAbstract modeling – the process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles. Authoritarian Parents – parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law. They value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children and do not tolerate expression of disagreementAuthoritative Parents – parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way. Collectivistic Orientation – a philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence. Constructive Play – play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something.
Cooperative Play – play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests. Cycle of Violence Hypothesis – the theory that the abuses and neglect that children suffer predispose them to adults to abuse and neglect their own children. Empathy – an emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person. Functional Play – play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3 year olds.. Initiative VS Guilt Stage – according to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3-6 experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action. | | | | Onlooker Play – action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves.
Parallel Play – children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other. Permissive Parents – parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children.. Psychosocial Development – according to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of other’s behavior. Race Dissonance – the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people Resilience – the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage.
Self-Concept – a person’s identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual. Uninvolved Parents – parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity. Learning Disabilities – difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. Stuttering – substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech; the most common speech impairment.
Concrete Operational Stage – the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active, and appropriate, use of logic. Cultural Assimilation Model – the model that fostered the view of American society as the proverbial melting pot.. Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability) – a significantly subaverage level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in 2 or more skill areas. Bulimia – an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food followed by purges of food through vomiting or the use of laxatives. Secondary sex characteristics – the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve the sex organs.
Secular trend – a pattern of change occurring over several generations Formal operational period – the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly Metacognition – the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes and their ability to monitor their cognition Identity-versus-identity-confusion-stage – the period which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves. Sex Cleavage – sex segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girls interact primarily with girls Coping – the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress Defensive Coping – coping that involve unconscious strategies that distort or deny the nature of a situation Hardiness – a personal characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress related illness Psychosomatic disorders – medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties.
Senescence- the natural physical decline brought about by aging Post formal thought – thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms Stereotype threat – obstacles to performance that come from awareness of stereotypes held by society about academic abilities Extrinsic motivation – the motivation that drives people to obtain tangible rewards such as money and prestige Intimacy-versus-isolation-stage – according to Erikson, a period of post adolescence into the early 30’s that focuses on developing relationships with others Intrinsic motivation – motivation that causes people to work for their own enjoyment not the rewards work may bring Marriage gradient – the tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status and women to marry men that are slightly older, larger and higher in status Social clock the culturally determined psychological time piece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers Type A behavior pattern – behavior characterized by competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility Crystallized intelligence – the accumulation of information skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem solving situations Selective optimization – the process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas Generativity versus stagnation – according to Erikson, the stage during middle age adulthood in which people consider their contributions to family and society Life events model – the approach to personality development that is based on the timing of a particular events in an adults life rather than age per se Midlife crisis – a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite Sandwich generation – couples who in middle adulthood must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents